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fibroblast macrophage

Mark Owyong, Gizem Efe, Michael Owyong, Aamna J Abbasi, Vaishnavi Sitarama, Vicki Plaks
There is a growing list of cancer immunotherapeutics approved for use in a population with an increasing number of aged individuals. Cancer immunotherapy (CIT) mediates tumor destruction by activating anti-tumor immune responses that have been silenced through the oncogenic process. However, in an aging individual, immune deregulation is positively correlated with age. In this context, it is vital to examine the age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and specifically, those directly affecting critical players to ensure CIT efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Vu Huy Luong, Takenao Chino, Noritaka Oyama, Takashi Matsushita, Yoko Sasaki, Dai Ogura, Shin-Ichiro Niwa, Tanima Biswas, Akiyuki Hamasaki, Mikako Fujita, Yoshinari Okamoto, Masami Otsuka, Hironobu Ihn, Minoru Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling is well known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). We previously developed an artificial molecule, the histidine-pyridine-histidine ligand derivative HPH-15, which may have an antifibrotic effect. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of this drug in human skin fibroblasts and in a preclinical model of SSc. METHODS: The effects of HPH-15 on expression of extracellular matrix components and TGF-β signaling in human dermal fibroblasts were analyzed...
March 15, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roshanak Derakhshandeh, Sonia Sanadhya, Kyu Lee Han, Haiyan Chen, Olga Goloubeva, Tonya J Webb, Rania H Younis
The search for stromal biomarkers in carcinoma patients is a challenge in the field. Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), known for its various developmental, physiological and pathological effects, plays a role in pro and anti-inflammatory responses. It is expressed in many epithelial tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recently, we found that HNSCC-associated Sema4D modulates an immune-suppressive, tumor-permissible environment by inducing the expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of Sema4D as a biomarker for the peri-tumoral stromal phenotype in human HNSCC...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Cheol-Jung Lee, Su-Jin Moon, Jeong-Hee Jeong, Sangbae Lee, Mee-Hyun Lee, Sun-Mi Yoo, Hye Suk Lee, Han Chang Kang, Joo Young Lee, Weon Sun Lee, Hee-Jin Lee, Eun-Kyung Kim, Joo-Yeon Jhun, Mi-La Cho, Jun-Ki Min, Yong-Yeon Cho
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease that mainly affects the synovial joints. Although involvement of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway has been suggested as an important modulator in RA development, no clear evidence has been provided. In this study, we found that synovial fluid basic FGF (bFGF) concentration was significantly higher in RA than in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. bFGF stimulates proliferation and migration of human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) by activation of the bFGF-FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3)-ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) signaling axis...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Thenappan Thenappan, Mark L Ormiston, John J Ryan, Stephen L Archer
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure of 25 mm Hg or above. This review deals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a type of pulmonary hypertension that primarily affects the pulmonary vasculature. In PAH, the pulmonary vasculature is dynamically obstructed by vasoconstriction, structurally obstructed by adverse vascular remodeling, and pathologically non-compliant as a result of vascular fibrosis and stiffening. Many cell types are abnormal in PAH, including vascular cells (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells...
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Deivendran Rengaraj, Anh Duc Truong, Hyun S Lillehoj, Jae Yong Han, Yeong Ho Hong
Objective: Defensins are a large family of antimicrobial peptides and components of the innate immune system that invoke an immediate immune response against harmful pathogens. Defensins are classified into alpha-, beta-, and theta-defensins. Avian species only possess beta-defensins (AvBDs), and approximately 14 AvBDs (AvBD1-AvBD14) have been identified in chickens to date. Although substantial information is available on the conservation and phylogenetics, limited information is available on the expression and regulation of AvBD8 in chicken immune tissues and cells...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Angelina D Schoenenberger, Jasper Foolen, Pascal Moor, Unai Silvan, Jess G Snedeker
Healthy tendon tissue features a highly aligned extracellular matrix that becomes disorganized with disease. Recent evidence suggests that inflammation coexists with early degenerative changes in tendon, and that crosstalk between immune-cells and tendon fibroblasts (TFs) can contribute to poor tissue healing. We hypothesized that a disorganized tissue architecture may predispose tendon cells to degenerative extracellular matrix remodeling pathways, particularly within a pro-inflammatory niche. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing human TFs cultured on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) mats with either highly aligned or randomly oriented fiber structures...
March 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Wenquan Liu, Liyang Huang, Qimei Wei, Yu Zhang, Shengnan Zhang, Wenting Zhang, Liya Cai, Shaohui Liang
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect mammalian cells and thereby regulate host gene expression. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be an important class of RNA molecules that regulate many biological processes, including host-pathogen interactions. However, the role of host lncRNAs in the response to T. gondii infection remains largely unknown. METHODS: We applied a microarray approach to determine the differential expression profiles of both lncRNAs and mRNAs in the human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells after T...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Katsuhiro Nakagawa, Takanori Matsuki, Liang Zhao, Kanako Kuniyoshi, Hiroki Tanaka, Isao Ebina, Kenta J Yoshida, Hiroshi Nabeshima, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Takahiro Kawasaki, Tomohisa Machida, Hisamichi Naito, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Schlafen-8 (Slfn8) is a member of the Schlafen family of proteins, which harbor helicase domains and are induced by LPS and interferons. It has been reported that the Schlafen family are involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and regulation of virus replication. Slfn8 has been implicated in T-cell differentiation in the thymus. However, the roles of Slfn8 in the immune system remains unclear. In this study, we generated Slfn8 knockout mice (Slfn8-/-) and investigated the immunological role of Slfn8 using the T-cell-mediated autoimmune model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 8, 2018: International Immunology
Andrey Elchaninov, Timur Fatkhudinov, Natalia Usman, Irina Arutyunyan, Andrey Makarov, Anastasia Lokhonina, Irina Eremina, Viktor Surovtsev, Dmitry Goldshtein, Galina Bolshakova, Valeria Glinkina, Gennady Sukhikh
AIM: To investigate the influence of the umbilical cord-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) on recovery of the liver after the subtotal resection, that is, removal of 80% of the organ mass, a renowned model of the small-for-size liver remnant syndrome. METHODS: The MSCs were obtained from the intervascular tissue of umbilical cords, dissected from rat fetuses, by the explant culture technique. The vital labeling of MSCs with РКН26 was carried out on the 3rd passage...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Vasundhara Kain, Kevin A Ingle, Janusz Kabarowski, Stephen Barnes, Nita A Limdi, Sumanth D Prabhu, Ganesh V Halade
12/15 lipoxygenase (LOX) directs inflammation and lipid remodeling. However, the role of 12/15LOX in post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular remodeling is unclear. To determine the role of 12/15LOX, 8-12 week-old C57BL/6 J wild-type (WT; n = 93) and 12/15LOX-/- (n = 97) mice were subjected to permanent coronary artery ligation and monitored at day (d)1 and d5 post-operatively. Post-MI d28 survival was measured in male and female mice. No-MI surgery mice were maintained as d0 naïve controls...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
R E Morgan, P D Clegg, J A Hunt, J F Innes, S R Tew
The joint synovium consists of a heterogeneous cell population, chiefly comprised of macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). An inter-species co-culture model was developed to examine interactions between these cells. Equine FLS and the canine macrophage line DH82 were differentially labelled using fluorescent markers and results from direct co-culture compared with those from both indirect co-culture, and conditioned media experiments. The transcript expression of IL-1β, IL-6, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5 in each cell type were determined using species-specific qPCR assays...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Apamas Sukkaew, Montri Thanagith, Tipparat Thongsakulprasert, Margit Mutso, Suresh Mahalingam, Duncan R Smith, Sukathida Ubol
Low-passage clinical isolates of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were found to be a mixture of large- and small-plaque viruses, with small-plaque viruses being the predominant species. To investigate the contribution of plaque variants to the pathology of the joint, primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (HFLS) were used. Large- and small-plaque viruses were purified from two clinical isolates, CHIKV-031C and CHIKV-033C, and were designated CHIKV-031L and CHIKV-031S and CHIKV-033L and CHIKV-033S, respectively...
March 8, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Meiling Zhou, Jierong Hou, Zhirong Zhong, Na Hao, Yan Lin, Chunhong Li
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease. Long-term, high-dose glucocorticoid therapy can be used to treat the disease, but the fact that the drug distributes systemically can give rise to severe adverse effects. Here we develop a targeted system for treating RA in which the glucocorticoid prednisolone (PD) is encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) coated with hyaluronic acid (HA), giving rise to HA-SLNs/PD. HA binds to hyaluronic receptor CD44, which is over-expressed on the surface of synovial lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts in inflamed joints in RA...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Gaoqin Liu, Peirong Lu, Lei Chen, Wenpeng Zhang, Mengjiao Wang, Dan Li, Xueguang Zhang
PURPOSE: Corneal neovascularization (CrNV) arises from many causes including corneal inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic insult, and frequently leads to impaired vision. This study seeks to determine the role of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL-10) in the development of experimental CrNV. METHODS: Corneas from BCL-10 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were burned by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to create the CrNV model and neovascular formation in the corneas was assessed 2 weeks later...
March 8, 2018: Eye
Lei Wang, Yun-Long Zhang, Qiu-Yue Lin, Yu Liu, Xu-Min Guan, Xiao-Lei Ma, Hua-Jun Cao, Ying Liu, Jie Bai, Yun-Long Xia, Jie Du, Hui-Hua Li
Aims: Chemokine-mediated monocyte infiltration into the damaged heart represents an initial step in inflammation during cardiac remodelling. Our recent study demonstrates a central role for chemokine receptor CXCR2 in monocyte recruitment and hypertension; however, the role of chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac remodelling remain unknown. Methods and results: Angiotensin II (1000 ng kg-1 min-1) was administrated to wild-type (WT) mice treated with CXCL1 neutralizing antibody or CXCR2 inhibitor SB265610, knockout (CXCR2 KO) or bone marrow (BM) reconstituted chimeric mice for 14 days...
March 5, 2018: European Heart Journal
Ioanna Keklikoglou, Ece Kadioglu, Stefan Bissinger, Benoît Langlois, Axel Bellotti, Gertraud Orend, Carola H Ries, Michele De Palma
Resistance to antiangiogenic drugs limits their applicability in cancer therapy. Here, we show that revascularization and progression of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) under extended vascular-endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) blockade are dependent on periostin (POSTN), a matricellular protein expressed by stromal cells. Genetic deletion of Postn in RIP1-Tag2 mice blunted tumor rebounds of M2-like macrophages and αSMA+ stromal cells in response to prolonged VEGFA inhibition and suppressed PNET revascularization and progression on therapy...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Benjamin E Bergstrom, Ahmed Abdelkhalek, Waleed Younis, G Kenitra Hammac, Wendy M Townsend, Mohamed N Seleem
Antibiotic resistance of bacteria common to the ocular surface is an evolving problem. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. We investigated the antibacterial activity and safety of three commercially available topical veterinary ophthalmic products (cationic steroid antibiotics, products A and B, and a neutral superoxidized water, product C) to determine their potential use as antimicrobial alternatives. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the three products were determined against 17 antibiotic resistant bacterial clinical isolates from the ocular surface...
2018: PloS One
Sinuo Chen, Renren Li, Chun Cheng, Jing-Ying Xu, Caixia Jin, Furong Gao, Juan Wang, Jieping Zhang, Jingfa Zhang, Hong Wang, Lixia Lu, Guo-Tong Xu, Haibin Tian
Macrophages play critical roles in wound healing process. They switch from "classically activated" (M1) phenotype in the early inflammatory phase to "alternatively activated" (M2) phenotype in the later healing phase. However, the dynamic process of macrophage phenotype switching in diabetic wounds burdened with bacteria is unclear. In this report, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, frequently detected in diabetic foot ulcers, was inoculated into cutaneous wounds of db/db diabetic mice to mimic bacterium-infected diabetic wound healing...
March 7, 2018: Cell Biology International
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