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Joy M Burchell, Richard Beatson, Rosalind Graham, Joyce Taylor-Papadimitriou, Virginia Tajadura-Ortega
Changes in mucin-type O-linked glycosylation are seen in over 90% of breast cancers where increased sialylation is often observed and a change from branched glycans to linear glycans is often seen. There are many mechanisms involved including increased/altered expression of glycosyltransferases and relocalisation to the endoplasmic reticulum of the enzymes responsible for the addition of the first sugar, N -acetyl-d-galactosamine. It is now becoming clear that these changes can contribute to tumour growth and progression by modulating the micro-environment through glycan-sensing lectins expressed on immune cells, by modulating interactions with tumour surface receptors and by binding to selectins...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Chenqing Ning, Xiaoguang Gao, Changyuan Wang, Xiaokui Huo, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaobo Yang, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Qiang Meng, Kexin Liu
Acute liver injury (ALI) is a dramatic liver disease characterized by large areas of inflammation in the liver. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1), a biologically active component in Panax ginseng, on lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-induced ALI in mice, and meanwhile explore the molecular mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Mice were pretreated with Rg1 for three days prior to LPS (40 μg/kg)/D-GalN (700 mg/kg) administration. The results showed that Rg1 improved the survival rate and reduced the liver to body weight ratios in mice...
June 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kazuaki Takahashi, Noriyuki Suzuki, Yasumitsu Ogra
The nutritional availability of selenium (Se) is highly dependent on its chemical form because chemical form affects absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. We evaluated the effects of administration route and dose on the bioavailability of nine Se compounds found in biota, the so-called bioselenocompounds, such as selenite, selenate, selenocyanate (SeCN), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), selenomethionine (SeMet), selenohomolanthionine (SeHLan), selenocystine (SeCys2), 1β-methylseleno-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (SeSug1), and trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe)...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Honghong Zhou, Li Tang, Yongqiang Yang, Ling Lin, Jie Dai, Pu Ge, Qing Ai, Rong Jiang, Li Zhang
Dopamine (DA), a crucial neurotransmitter, not only functions in the central nervous system but also plays important roles in the modulation of inflammation. Several studies suggest that DA might suppress the inflammatory response both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the potential effects of DA in a mouse model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced acute liver injury were investigated. The results show that DA-treated LPS/D-Gal-exposed mice had reduced incidence of histologic lesions, lower plasma aminotransferases and improved the survival rates compared to LPS/D-Gal-exposed mice...
June 9, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Craig A Shoemaker, Benjamin R LaFrentz, Eric Peatman, Benjamin H Beck
Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease of farmed and wild freshwater fish. Skin mucus is an important factor in early stages of columnaris pathogenesis, albeit little studied. Our objectives were to (a) characterize the terminal glycosylation pattern (TGP) of catfish mucus, (b) determine the growth of F. columnare in formulated water (FW)-containing channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) or hybrid catfish (Ictalurus punctatus X Ictalurus furcatus) mucus and (c) examine extracellular protease activity of two F...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Ya-Chu Fan, Shi-Jun Yue, Zhong-Long Guo, Lan-Ting Xin, Chao-Yi Wang, Dong-Lin Zhao, Hua-Shi Guan, Chang-Yun Wang
Phyllodium pulchellum has been traditionally used as a medicinal herb because of its health-promoting effects, such as its hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. In the present study, the petroleum ether fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, n -butanol fraction, and aqueous fraction were successively obtained from the ethanol extract of P. pulchellum . Two fractions, ethyl acetate fraction and n -butanol fraction, were found to display hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. Further chemical investigation of the active fractions led to the isolation of its main constituents, including 11 flavonoids ( 1 ⁻ 11 ) and 8 indole alkaloids ( 12 ⁻ 19 )...
June 5, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ajay Kumar Gautam, Nidhi Srivastava, D P Nagar, Sameer S Bhagyawant
A 35 kDa rabbit erythrocyte agglutinating lectin from the seeds of Cicer arietinum was purified and designated as CAL. The lectin was inhibited by fetuin and N -acetyl-d-galactosamine at a concentration of 20 and 50 mM respectively, but not by simple mono or oligosaccharides. CAL is active between pH 5 and 10 presented thermo stability up to 50 °C and demonstrated DNA damage inhibition at 30 µg concentration. The lectin elicited maximum mitogenic activity towards mice splenocytes at 7.5 µg ml- 1 ...
June 2018: 3 Biotech
Shan-Shan Li, Min Yang, Yong-Ping Chen, Xin-Yue Tang, Sheng-Guo Zhang, Shun-Lan Ni, Nai-Bin Yang, Ming-Qin Lu
Acute liver failure is a devastating clinical syndrome with extremely terrible inflammation reaction, which is still lack of effective treatment in clinic. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 protein is inducible intracellular negative regulator of Janus kinases (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway that plays essential role in inhibiting excessive intracellular signaling cascade and preventing autoimmune reaction. In this paper, we want to explore whether dendritic cells (DCs) with overexpression of SOCS1 have a therapeutic effect on experimental acute liver failure...
May 28, 2018: Molecular Immunology
YiMin Zhang, Li Shao, Ning Zhou, JianZhou Li, Yu Chen, Juan Lu, Jie Wang, ErMei Chen, ZhongYang Xie, LanJuan Li
Background: The key gene sets involved in the progression of acute liver failure (ALF), which has a high mortality rate, remain unclear. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following ALF. Methods: ALF was induced by D-galactosamine (D-gal) in a porcine model. PBMCs were separated at time zero (baseline group), 36 h (failure group), and 60 h (dying group) after D-gal injection...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Xiaofang Zhao, Hong Zhou, Ying Cheng, Wenjing Yu, Guosong Luo, Chunyan Duan, Fuli Yao, Bin Xiao, Chunhong Feng, Xianming Xia, Mei Wei, Yong Wang, Jing Li, Rongyang Dai
Although activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is involved in the regulation of numerous biological functions, whether ATF4 has a direct role in liver injury is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ATF4 in liver injury using mouse models. The results revealed that ATF4 protein is expressed markedly higher in the mouse liver when in comparison with other tissues. Notably, tunicamycin treatment, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, induced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), but decreased ATF4 protein levels in the mouse liver...
May 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Johannes Maximilian Ludwig, Yuling Zhang, Walee Chamulitrat, Wolfgang Stremmel, Anita Pathil
AIM: Endotoxin-mediated liver inflammation is a key component of many acute and chronic liver diseases contributing to liver damage, fibrosis and eventually organ failure. Here, we investigated ursodeoxycholyl lysophosphatidylethanolamide (UDCA-LPE), a synthetic bile acid-phospholipid conjugate regarding its anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic properties. METHODS: Anti-inflammatory properties of UDCA-LPE were evaluated in a mouse model of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced acute liver injury, LPS treated RAW264...
2018: PloS One
Xiaoxue Gong, Peng Cao, Liping Liu, Yan Lin, Qing Yang, Linyu Zhou, Tianen Wu, Mansheng Luo
Oxidative stress is considered one of the major mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Tamoxifen has been reported to ameliorate LPS-induced ALF via the induction of monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd-2). Whether antioxidant effects are involved remains unknown. Mice were given tamoxifen (TAM) once a day for 3 days. Twelve hours later, d-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally to induce ALF. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered immediately after ALF induction as a positive control...
May 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
Hiroshi Tachibana, Azumi Kakino, Makoto Kazama, Meng Feng, Satomi Asai, Kazuo Umezawa, Tsukasa Nozaki, Takashi Makiuchi, Takayuki Kamada, Hideki Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiki, Xunjia Cheng, Gohta Masuda
We have previously shown that the C-terminal region of the intermediate subunit of Entamoeba histolytica galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-inhibitable lectin (C-Igl) is a useful antigen for serodiagnosis of amebiasis. An immunochromatographic kit was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles coated with C-Igl prepared in Escherichia coli. Samples for examination were added to the freeze-dried particles and then applied to the immunochromatographic device, in which a test line on the membrane was also coated with C-Igl...
May 9, 2018: Parasitology
Yao Wang, Hui Chen, Qian Chen, Fang-Zhou Jiao, Wen-Bin Zhang, Zuo-Jiong Gong
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of HDAC2 inhibitor CAY10683 on intestinal mucosal barrier in acute liver failure (ALF). In order to establish ALF-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption models, D-galactosamine/LPS and LPS were, respectively, used with rats and NCM460 cell and then administrated with CAY10683. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured to detect the permeability of cells. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were employed to detect the key mRNA and protein levels...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Wei Wang, Lingling Wu, Qing Li, Zhuo Zhang, Liba Xu, Caixia Lin, Ling Gao, Kaili Zhao, Fei Liang, Qing Zhang, Mei Zhou, Weizhe Jiang
Madecassoside (MA), a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centella asiatica, exerts various pharmacological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to explore the protective effect of MA in the treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute liver failure(ALF) in mice. We hypothesized that MA administration may decrease the degree of liver injury caused by LPS/D-GalN. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis by treating a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury with MA...
April 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Chung-Ming Chen, Jaulang Hwang, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Her-Shyong Shiah
Prolonged hyperoxia exposure leads to inflammation and acute lung injury. Since hyperoxia activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and proinflammatory mediators in lung fibroblasts and murine lungs, and proinflammatory cytokines upregulate Tn (N-acetyl-d-galactosamine-O-serine/threonine) expression in human gingival fibroblasts. We hypothesized connections exist between Tn expression and inflammation regulation. Thus, we immunized adult mice with Tn antigen to examine whether Tn vaccine can protect against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting NF-κB activity and cytokine expression through the action of anti-Tn antibodies...
June 2018: International Immunopharmacology
E Gómez, S Carrocera, D Martin, P Herrero, N Canela, M Muñoz
Male and female early bovine embryos show dimorphic transcription that impacts metabolism. Individual release of metabolites was examined in a 24h single culture medium from Day-6 male and female morulae that developed to Day-7 expanded blastocysts. Embryos were produced in vitro, fertilized with a single bull and cultured in SOFaaci+6  g/L BSA. The embryonic sex was identified (amelogenin gene amplification). Embryos (N = 10 males and N = 10 females) and N = 6 blank samples (i.e. SOFaaci+6  g/L BSA incubated with no embryos) were collected from 3 replicates...
July 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Tomáš Bobula, Radovan Buffa, Martina Hermannová, Hana Vágnerová, Iva Dolečková, Vladimír Velebný
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was regio-specifically modified to an unsaturated derivative (ΔCS) with a double bond in positions 4 and 5 of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The structure of ΔCS was elucidated in detail by two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The introduction of a nucleophilic CC double bond into a polymer backbone had no influence on biocompatibility of CS, which was demonstrated by MTT live-dead assay and enzymatic degradation in vitro. On the other hand the chemical modification significantly enhanced the reactivity of ΔCS towards numerous oxidizing agents, which might be promising for a variety of biomedical and cosmetic applications...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Bao-Zhong Diao, Li-Hua Zhong, Bao-Ling Lu, Yu Cheng, Lei Yu, Li-Ying Zhu
Acute liver injury is a life-threatening syndrome that often caused by hepatocyte damage. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of maslinic acid (MA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-gal)-induced acute liver injury and clarified its mechanism. Mice acute liver injury model was induced by given LPS and D-gal and MA was given intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS and D-gal. Our results showed that MA protected against liver injury by attenuating liver histopathologic changes, serum AST and ALT levels...
June 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yongxia Yin, Xiaofeng Liu, Jinping Liu, Enbo Cai, Hongyan Zhu, Haijun Li, Lianxue Zhang, Pingya Li, Yan Zhao
Beta-sitosterol (Sit) widely exists in natural plants, is classed as phytosterol and known as the "key of life". Most pharmacological studies and clinical applications are limited because of the fact that Sit is difficult to be solved. Therefore, it is viable to enhance pharmacologic activities of Sit by using its derivatives which can be obtained through the modification of Sit. In this study, 4 kinds of new Sit derivatives were obtained by the esterification reaction. Further, the hepatoprotective effects of Sit and its derivatives were investigated against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) in mice and its mechanism was illustrated by western blot analysis and real-time PCR...
May 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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