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Gabriel Ramos Ferreira Gonçalves, Olga Reinert Ramos Gandolfi, Leandro Soares Santos, Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo, Cristiane Martins Veloso, Lizzy Ayra Alcântara Veríssimo, Rafael da Costa Ilhéu Fontan
Lectins are glycoproteins that bind to carbohydrates or glycoconjugates by specific interactions. The specificity of lectins to various carbohydrates is a determinant factor in the choice of ligand for the chromatographic matrix when using chromatography as a lectin purification technique. In this work, the immobilization of three different aminated carbohydrates on the surface of macroporous polymeric cryogels was evaluated. Carbohydrates were immobilized on cryogel surfaces via the glutaraldehyde method to create spacer arms, reducing steric hindrance...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yusuke Sato, Hideki Matsui, Naoki Yamamoto, Risa Sato, Tsubasa Munakata, Michinori Kohara, Hideyoshi Harashima
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are the leading technology for delivering short interfering RNA (siRNA) in vivo. While numerous attempts to improve the efficiency of siRNA delivery have been reported, only a few studies of the mechanism of LNP-mediated toxicity and attempts to develop safe LNPs in vivo have been reported, in spite of the significance of such systems, in the light of treatment and clinical applications. We herein report on the elucidation of the mechanism of hepatotoxicity following the intravenous injection of a high dose of hepatotropic LNPs...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yilin Deng, Chen Chen, Heguo Yu, Hua Diao, Cuicui Shi, Yugang Wang, Guangming Li, Min Shi
We investigated the protective effects exerted by oridonin, the main active constituent of the Chinese medicinal herb Rabdosiarubescens, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). An ALI model was induced in mice using LPS (40 μg/0.5 ml) and D-Gal (5 mg/0.5 ml). The mice were randomly divided into the following five groups of six mice each: one control group (a), one ALI group (b), two oridonin treatment groups (c and d), and one oridonin control group (e). Oridonin (0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Xiaomei Li, Lan Luo, Ying Cai, Wenjiao Yang, Lisha Lin, Zi Li, Na Gao, Steven Purcell, Mingyi Wu, Jinhua Zhao
Edible sea cucumbers are widely used as a health food and medicine. A fucosylated glycosaminoglycan (FG) was purified from the high-value sea cucumber Stichopus herrmanni. Its physicochemical properties and structure were analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods. Chemical analysis indicated that this FG with molecular weight of ~64 kDa is composed of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and L-fucose. Structural analysis clarified that the FG contains the chondroitin-sulfate-E-like backbone and mostly 2, 4-di-O-sulfated (85%), minor 3, 4-di-O-sulfated (10%) and 4-O-sulfated (5%) fucose side chains that link to the C-3 position of GlcA...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Raghu Ramanathan, Secunda Rupert, Sakthivel Selvaraj, Jeswanth Satyanesan, Rosy Vennila, Surendran Rajagopal
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent precursor cells having self-renewal ability making them a candidate for use in regenerative medicine. Acute liver injury results in sudden loss of hepatic function leading to organ failure. Liver transplantation is often required to salvage patients with acute liver failure. Due to shortage of organs, identification of alternate method is the need of the hour. In view of this, an attempt has been made to check the regenerative ability of WJ-MSCs (wharton's jelly derived MSC) in mice models for acute liver injury...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Zhixin Peng, Xiaobao Gong, You Yang, Ligua Huang, Qingyan Zhang, Peng Zhang, Rongzhen Wan, Baoshun Zhang
Quercetin is regarded as a potential hepatoprotective agent in the treatment of acute liver injury. However, the underlying mechanism of how quercetin to protect against lipopolysaccharides/d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN) induced acute liver injury remains unclear. To investigate the mechanism, the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic responses were performed. The results showed that quercetin pretreatment improved the survival rate and substantially reduced the liver histopathological changes in mice...
September 27, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Ruichun Jia, Haogang Zhang, Wenjing Zhang, Hong Zhao, Caijun Zha, Yanhong Liu
Tenuigenin (TEN), a major active component of polygala tenuifolia root, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the protective effect of TEN on acute liver injury has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the protective effect of TEN on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced acute liver injury in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. TEN was administered intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS/D-GalN treatment...
September 25, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Huijuan Wu, Jun Chen, Dan Li, Xiangyu Liu, Lei Li, Ke Wang
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism of occurrence and development of cervical cancer is obscure. In this study, we observed that miR-30e was downregulated in clinical cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer cells. Next, overexpression of miR-30e reduced the cervical cancer cell growth through MTT, colony formation, EdU, and Transwell assay in SiHa and Caski cells. Subsequently, UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine: polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 7 (GALNT7) was identified as a potential miR-30e target by bioinformatics analysis...
September 16, 2017: Translational Oncology
Ting Shi, Weifang Song, Ruiling Xu
Numerous mechanisms and factors have been implicated in liver damage; however, the involvement of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during early‑stage liver injury remains to be fully elucidated. The present study was conducted to determine the expression of autophagy and ER‑stress‑associated proteins in hepatic tissues following injury. A murine model of liver injury was induced by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D‑galactosamine (GalN), and control mice were similarly injected with normal saline...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Maria C Rodriguez, Austin B Yongye, Mihael Cudic, Karina Martinez Mayorga, Enbo Liu, Barbara M Mueller, Jon Ainsley, Tatyana Karabencheva-Christova, Christo Z Christov, Mare Cudic, Predrag Cudic
The transformation from normal to malignant phenotype in human cancers is associated with aberrant cell-surface glycosylation. Thus, targeting glycosylation changes in cancer is likely to provide not only better insight into the roles of carbohydrates in biological systems, but also facilitate the development of new molecular probes for bioanalytical and biomedical applications. In the reported study, we have synthesized lectinomimics based on odorranalectin 1; the smallest lectin-like cyclic peptide isolated from the frog Odorrana grahami skin, and assessed the ability of these peptides to bind specific carbohydrates on molecular and cellular levels...
September 11, 2017: Amino Acids
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Mohamed A O Abdelfattah, Hesham A El-Beshbishy, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
BACKGROUND: Liver diseases and diabetes are serious health disorders associated with oxidative stress and ageing. Some plant polyphenols can lower the risk of these diseases. PURPOSE: We investigated the phytochemical profiling of a root extract from Ximenia americana var. caffra using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activities in vitro were investigated. The hepatoprotective activities were studied in rat models with d-galactosamine (d-GaIN)-induced hepatotoxicity and the antidiabetic activities in STZ-diabetic rats were also investigated...
September 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hiroki Misawa, Wakana Ohashi, Kengo Tomita, Kohshi Hattori, Yutaka Shimada, Yuichi Hattori
Prostacyclin (PGI2) serves as a protective, anti-inflammatory mediator and PGI2 mimetics may be useful as a hepatoprotective agent. We examined whether two PGI2 mimetics, ONO-1301 and beraprost, are beneficial in acute liver injury and attempted to delineate the possible mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective effect. Acute liver injury was induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) in mice. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of PGI2 mimetics 1h before LPS/GalN challenge. Both ONO-1301 and beraprost significantly declined the LPS/GalN-induced increase in serum aminotransferase activity...
November 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Rehab A Hasan, Haroan Cheng, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)guibourtinidol, (ent)cassiaflavan, and (epi)afzelechin represented the major constituents...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sung-Su Kim, Soo-Hyun Park, Jae-Ryung Lee, Jun-Sub Jung, Hong-Won Suh
The effect of clonidine administered intrathecally (i.t.) on the mortality and the blood glucose level induced by sepsis was examined in mice. To produce sepsis, the mixture of D-galactosamine (GaLN; 0.6 g/10 ml)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 27 µg/27 µl) was treated intraperitoneally (i.p.). The i.t. pretreatment with clonidine (5 µg/5 µl) increased the blood glucose level and attenuated mortality induced by sepsis in a dose-dependent manner. The i.t. post-treatment with clonidine up to 3 h caused an elevation of the blood glucose level and protected sepsis-induced mortality, whereas clonidine post-treated at 6, 9, or 12 h did not affect...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Rui-Jun Zhou, Hua Ye, Feng Wang, Jun-Long Wang, Mei-Lin Xie
Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound widely distributed in a variety of vegetables, medicinal plants and health foods. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of apigenin against d-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse liver injury and to investigate the potential biochemical mechanisms. The results showed that after oral administration of apigenin 100-200 mg/kg for 7 days, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were decreased, and the severity of liver injury was alleviated...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuting Liu, Xiongxiong Pan, Shu Li, Yue Yu, Jianliang Chen, Jie Yin, Guoqiang Li
The aim of this study was to test whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress suppresses hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and whether ER stress plays a role in alleviating d-Galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) by regulating HGF expression. Rat HSCs line HSC-T6 were treated with the ER stress inducers tunicamycin or thapsigargin, and ER stress inhibitors sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or salubrinal, respectively. Recombinant lentivirus containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIf2α), named LV-eIf2α-shRNA-GFP was produced to block eIf2α activated by ER stress...
August 24, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
Stefano Benini, Mirco Toccafondi, Martin Rejzek, Francesco Musiani, Ben A Wagstaff, Jochen Wuerges, Michele Cianci, Robert A Field
Erwinia amylovora, a Gram-negative plant pathogen, is the causal agent of Fire Blight, a contagious necrotic disease affecting plants belonging to the Rosaceae family, including apple and pear. E. amylovora is highly virulent and capable of rapid dissemination in orchards; effective control methods are still lacking. One of its most important pathogenicity factors is the exopolysaccharide amylovoran. Amylovoran is a branched polymer made by the repetition of units mainly composed of galactose, with some residues of glucose, glucuronic acid and pyruvate...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Wang Jinglin, Ren Haozhen, Yuan Xianwen, Ma Hucheng, Shi Xiaolei, Ding Yitao
AIMS: Recently, the benefit of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a cell-based therapy for acute liver failure (ALF) has gained much attention, although the mechanism of action of MSCs in the treatment of ALF remains elusive. Pyroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death with an intense inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to explore the soluble cytokines secreted by MSCs and their therapeutic effects via inhibiting pyroptosis in ALF. METHODS: MSCs obtained from C57BL/6 mice were isolated and cultured according to an established protocol...
August 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Long Li, Chaoli Duan, Yan Zhao, Xiaofang Zhang, Hongyan Yin, Tianxi Wang, Caoxin Huang, Suhuan Liu, Shuyu Yang, Xuejun Li
Lipopolysaccharide/d-Galactosamine (LPS/d-Gal)-induced acute liver injury is characterized by significant inflammatory responses including TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and is a widely applied experimental model for inflammation research. TNF-α is critical in the progression of LPS/d-Gal-induced liver injury. However, the role of IL-6 in this model is still unknown. In the present study, we aim to elucidate the involvement of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury induced by LPS/d-Gal in mice and its underlying mechanism...
August 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Daiqiong Fang, Ding Shi, Longxian Lv, Silan Gu, Wenrui Wu, Yanfei Chen, Jing Guo, Ang Li, Xinjun Hu, Feifei Guo, Jianzhong Ye, Yating Li, Lanjian Li
The gut microbiota is altered in liver diseases, and several probiotics have been shown to reduce the degree of liver damage. We hypothesized that oral administration of specific Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy guts could attenuate liver injury. Five strains were tested in this study. Acute liver injury was induced by D-galactosamine after pretreating Sprague-Dawley rats with the Bifidobacterium strains, and liver function, liver and ileum histology, plasma cytokines, bacterial translocation and the gut microbiome were assessed...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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