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D-galactosamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325863/pharmacological-targeting-of-plasmin-prevents-lethality-in-a-murine-model-of-macrophage-activation-syndrome
#1
Hiroshi Shimazu, Shinya Munakata, Yoshihiko Tashiro, Yousef Salama, Douaa Dhahri, Salita Eiamboonsert, Yasunori Ota, Haruo Onoda, Yuko Tsuda, Yoshio Okada, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Beate Heissig, Koichi Hattori
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by a cytokine storm and multiorgan dysfunction due to excessive immune activation. Although abnormalities of coagulation and fibrinolysis are major components of MAS, the role of the fibrinolytic system and its key player, plasmin, in the development of MAS remains to be solved. We established a murine model of fulminant MAS by repeated injections of Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) agonist and D-galactosamine (DG) in immunocompetent mice...
March 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320485/mesenchymal-stem-cells-increase-expression-of-heme-oxygenase-1-leading-to-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-treatment-of-acute-liver-failure
#2
Zhi-Heng Zhang, Wei Zhu, Hao-Zhen Ren, Xin Zhao, Shuai Wang, Hu-Cheng Ma, Xiao-Lei Shi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied for the treatment of acute liver failure (ALF) for several years. MSCs may exert their effect via complex paracrine mechanisms. Heme oxygenase (HO) 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in heme metabolism, exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunoregulatory effects in a variety of diseases. However, the relationship between MSCs and HO-1 in the treatment of ALF is still unclear. We investigated the preventive and therapeutic potential of intravenously administered BMSCs...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288879/betaine-homocysteine-s-methyltransferase-emerges-as-a-new-player-of-the-nuclear-methionine-cycle
#3
Juliana Pérez-Miguelsanz, Néstor Vallecillo, Francisco Garrido, Edel Reytor, Dolores Pérez-Sala, María A Pajares
The paradigm of a cytoplasmic methionine cycle synthesizing/eliminating metabolites that are transported into/out of the nucleus as required has been challenged by detection of significant nuclear levels of several enzymes of this pathway. Here, we show betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT), an enzyme that exerts a dual function in maintenance of methionine levels and osmoregulation, as a new component of the nuclear branch of the cycle. In most tissues, low expression of Bhmt coincides with a preferential nuclear localization of the protein...
March 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282879/hepatoprotective-effects-of-nicotiflorin-from-nymphaea-candida-against-concanavalin-a-induced-and-d-galactosamine-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#4
Jun Zhao, Shilei Zhang, Shuping You, Tao Liu, Fang Xu, Tengfei Ji, Zhengyi Gu
Nymphaea candida was used to treat hepatitis in Ugyhur medicine, and nicotiflorin (kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside) is the main characteristic component in this plant [...].
March 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282579/interleukin-23-mediates-the-pathogenesis-of-lps-galn-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#5
Suxia Bao, Qiang Zhao, Jianming Zheng, Ning Li, Chong Huang, Mingquan Chen, Qi Cheng, Mengqi Zhu, Kangkang Yu, Chenghai Liu, Guangfeng Shi
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is required for T helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and IL-17 production in hepatitis B virus infection. A previous study showed that the IL-23/IL-17 axis aggravates immune injury in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. However, the role of IL-23 in acute liver injury remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the inflammatory cytokine IL-23 in lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN)-induced acute liver injury in mice...
March 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282576/antioxidation-anti-inflammation-and-anti-apoptosis-by-paeonol-in-lps-d-galn-induced-acute-liver-failure-in-mice
#6
Xiaobao Gong, You Yang, Ligua Huang, Qingyan Zhang, Rong-Zhen Wan, Peng Zhang, Baoshun Zhang
To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects and potential mechanisms of paeonol (Pae) against acute liver failure (ALF) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (d-GalN) in mice, we examined anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities of Pae. We found that Pae pretreatment markedly reduced the activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase as well as the histopathological changes induced by LPS/d-GalN. Catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities increased and reactive oxygen species activity decreased after Pae treatment compared with LPS/d-GalN treatment...
March 7, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272428/secreted-ectodomain-of-siglec-9-and-mcp-1-synergistically-improve-acute-liver-failure-in-rats-by-altering-macrophage-polarity
#7
Takanori Ito, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoshihiro Matsushita, Marina Hirata, Kohki Matsubara, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Hideharu Hibi, Minoru Ueda, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hidemi Goto, Akihito Yamamoto
Effective treatments for acute liver failure (ALF) are still lacking. We recently reported that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED-CM) into the D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced rat ALF model improves the liver injury. However, the specific factors in SHED-CM that are responsible for resolving ALF remain unclear. Here we found that depleting SHED-CM of two anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage inducers-monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (sSiglec-9)-abolished its ability to resolve rat ALF...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266597/the-protective-effect-of-the-anti-toll-like-receptor-9-antibody-against-acute-cytokine-storm-caused-by-immunostimulatory-dna
#8
Yusuke Murakami, Ryutaro Fukui, Yuji Motoi, Takuma Shibata, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryota Sato, Kensuke Miyake
Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) is an innate immune receptor recognizing microbial DNA. TLR9 is also activated by self-derived DNA, such as mitochondrial DNA, in a variety of inflammatory diseases. We show here that TLR9 activation in vivo is controlled by an anti-TLR9 monoclonal Ab (mAb). A newly established mAb, named NaR9, clearly detects endogenous TLR9 expressed in primary immune cells. The mAb inhibited TLR9-dependent cytokine production in vitro by bone marrow-derived macrophages and conventional dendritic cells...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252653/endogenous-ampk-acts-as-a-detrimental-factor-in-fulminant-hepatitis-via-potentiating-jnk-dependent-hepatocyte-apoptosis
#9
Kai Hu, Xianqiong Gong, Qing Ai, Ling Lin, Jie Dai, Lu Cai, Rong Jiang, Pu Ge, Li Zhang
The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is crucial for energy homeostasis. Recent studies have revealed that AMPK is involved in various energy-intensive pathological processes such as inflammation and apoptosis. The physiological functions of hepatic AMPK have been well studied, but the pathological significance of AMPK in liver disorders remains largely unknown. In the present study, the phosphorylation status and the roles of AMPK were investigated in mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced fulminant hepatitis...
March 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248534/sirtuin-activating-compounds-stacs-alleviate-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats-involvement-of-sirtuin-1-and-heme-oxygenase-1
#10
M K Kemelo, N Kutinová Canová, A Horinek, H Farghali
Sirtuin activating compounds (STACs) attenuate various type of liver insults through mechanisms which are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the ameliorative potential of quercetin (natural polyphenol) and SRT1720 (synthetic SIRT1 activator) against D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatotoxicity (an experimental model of acute liver failure). Moreover, we compared and contrasted the roles of stress responsive enzymes, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in hepatoprotection/ hepatotoxicity...
February 28, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230758/quantitative-determination-of-stilbenoids-and-dihydroisocoumarins-in-shorea-roxburghii-and-evaluation-of-their-hepatoprotective-activity
#11
Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Saowanee Chaipech, Yusuke Kunikata, Ryohei Yagi, Yutana Pongpiriyadacha, Osamu Muraoka, Toshio Morikawa
A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 13 stilbenoids including (-)-hopeaphenol (1), (+)-isohopeaphenol (2), hemsleyanol D (3), (-)-ampelopsin H (4), vaticanols A (5), E (6), and G (7), (+)-α-viniferin (8), pauciflorol A (9), hopeafuran (10), (-)-balanocarpol (11), (-)-ampelopsin A (12), and trans-resveratrol 10-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), and two dihydroisocoumarins, phayomphenols A₁ (14) and A₂ (15) in the extract of Shorea roxburghii (dipterocarpaceae) was developed. According to the established protocol, distributions of these 15 polyphenols (1-15) in the bark and wood parts of S...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225807/increased-liver-specific-proteins-in-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-drug-and-alcohol-induced-liver-injury
#12
Young-Eun Cho, Eun-Ju Im, Pyong-Gon Moon, Esteban Mezey, Byoung-Joon Song, Moon-Chang Baek
Drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury are a leading cause of liver failure and transplantation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a source of biomarkers because they contain unique proteins reflecting the identity and tissue-specific origin of the EV proteins. This study aimed to determine whether potentially hepatotoxic agents, such as acetaminophen (APAP) and binge alcohol, can increase the amounts of circulating EVs and evaluate liver-specific EV proteins as potential biomarkers for liver injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224477/genistein-alleviates-neuroinflammation-and-restores-cognitive-function-in-rat-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-underlying-mechanisms
#13
Ajaz Ahmad Ganai, Mohammad Husain
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from acute liver failure. Previously, we demonstrated hepatoprotective effects of genistein in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). In this study, we evaluated behavioural and neuroprotective effects of genistein in rat model of HE. HE was induced by intraperitonial administration of D-GalN (250 mg/kg BW) twice a week for 30 days Genistein was given as co-treatment through oral gavage daily at dose of 5 mg/kg BW...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216877/using-uhplc-and-uv-vis-fingerprint-method-to-evaluate-substitutes-for-swertia-mileensis-an-endangered-medicinal-plant
#14
Jie Li, Ji Zhang, Hang Jin, Yuan-Zhong Wang, Heng-Yu Huang
BACKGROUND: Millions of people are killed by viral hepatitis every year in the world, whereas many relevant medicines are too expensive to purchase. Swertia mileensis, a medicinal plant for hepatitis in the system of traditional Chinese medicine, has been vanishing gradually because of overexploitation. OBJECTIVE: To find substitutes of S. mileensis and reduce the cost of purchasing drugs for hepatitis patients, the similarity of phytochemical constituents between S...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216638/thymoquinone-an-irak1-inhibitor-with-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-anti-inflammatory-activities
#15
Muhammad Jahangir Hossen, Woo Seok Yang, Daewon Kim, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive component of black seed (Nigella sativa) volatile oil and has been shown to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanisms that underlie the anti-inflammatory effect of TQ and its target proteins using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 and human monocyte-like U937 cells, together with LPS/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute hepatitis and HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis mouse models...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213967/extracellular-vesicles-from-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improve-survival-from-lethal-hepatic-failure-in-mice
#16
Hiroaki Haga, Irene K Yan, Kenji Takahashi, Akiko Matsuda, Tushar Patel
Stem cell-based therapies have potential for treatment of liver injury by contributing to regenerative responses, through functional tissue replacement or paracrine effects. The release of extracellular vesicles (EV) from cells has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. Therapeutic effects of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and vesicles released by these cells were examined in a lethal murine model of hepatic failure induced by d-galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213269/protective-effects-of-morin-on-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-acute-liver-injury-by-inhibiting-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-activating-nrf2-ho-1-signaling-pathways
#17
Ye Tian, Zheng Li, Bingyu Shen, Qiaoling Zhang, Haihua Feng
Morin, a bioactive flavonoid extracted from the bark of Moraceae plants and many medicinal herbs, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. In this research, we explored the protective effects of morin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced acute liver injury in mice. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of morin before LPS and D-GalN treatment and the HepG2 cells were only given morin to investigate its effects. The results showed that morin markedly inhibited the production of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and hepatic TNF-α, IL-6, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) induced by LPS/D-GalN...
February 14, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213090/glycyrrhetinic-acid-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-fulminant-hepatic-failure-in-d-galactosamine-sensitized-mice-by-up-regulating-expression-of-interleukin-1-receptor-associated-kinase-m
#18
Xinru Yin, Xia Gong, Li Zhang, Rong Jiang, Ge Kuang, Bin Wang, Xinyu Chen, Jingyuan Wan
Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main active ingredient of licorice, reportedly has anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties, but its molecular mechanisms remain be elusive. In the present study, Balb/c mice were pretreated with GA (10, 30, or 100mg/kg) 1h before lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-GalN) administration. In other in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were pretreated with GA before LPS exposure. The mortality, hepatic tissue histology, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed...
February 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209544/sestrin2-protects-against-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#19
Seung Jung Kim, Kyu Min Kim, Ji Hye Yang, Sam Seok Cho, Sang Kyu Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Il Je Cho, Sung Hwan Ki
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose accounts for half of the cases of acute liver failure worldwide. We previously reported that that Sestrin2 (Sesn2) protects against d-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced acute fulminant liver failure. In this study, we demonstrated that Sesn2 protects APAP-induced liver injury in mice, using a recombinant adenovirus encoding Sesn2 (Ad-Sesn2). First, we found that treatment of mice with toxic levels of APAP significantly reduced Sesn2 expression. Tail-vein injection with Ad-Sesn2 inhibited APAP-induced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and markedly reduced hepatocyte degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration...
February 13, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197212/herbal-compound-jiedu-huayu-reduces-liver-injury-in-rats-via-regulation-of-il-2-tlr4-and-pcna-expression-levels
#20
Minggang Wang, Qinglan Shi, Rongzhen Zhang, Hua Qiu, Dewen Mao, Fuli Long
Aim of the Study. To investigate the preventative effects of Jiedu Huayu (JDHY) on D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure (ALF) and to evaluate the possible mechanisms of action. Materials and Methods. ALF was induced in Wistar rats by administrating D-GalN (900 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/kg). After treatment with JDHY granules, the levels of blood alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, and prothrombin time were determined. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry staining...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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