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D-galactosamine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435413/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-murf2-attenuates-lps-induced-macrophage-activation-by-inhibiting-production-of-inflammatory-cytokines-and-migration
#1
Hongjun Bian, Shanshan Gao, Di Zhang, Qi Zhao, Feifei Li, Xiao Li, Shuohuan Sun, Shouyang Song, Tao Li, Qiang Zhu, Wanhua Ren, Chengyong Qin, Jianni Qi
Muscle RING-finger (MuRF) proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that are expressed in striated muscle. MuRF2 is an important member of this family, but whether it is expressed in tissues other than striated muscle has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we determined that MuRF2 is also expressed in other vital organs, including liver, lung, brain, spleen and kidney. Moreover, we show that the level of MuRF2 expression is significantly decreased in hepatic mononuclear cells of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and negatively correlated with the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in these mice...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430727/the-sda-and-cad-glycan-antigens-and-their-glycosyltransferase-%C3%AE-1-4galnact-ii-in-xenotransplantation
#2
REVIEW
Chengjiang Zhao, David K C Cooper, Yifan Dai, Hidetaka Hara, Zhiming Cai, Lisha Mou
Antibody-mediated rejection is a barrier to the clinical application of xenotransplantation, and xenoantigens play an important role in this process. Early research suggested that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) could serve as a potential xenoantigen. GalNAc is the immunodominant glycan of the Sda antigen. Recently, knockout of β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (β1,4GalNAcT-II) from the pig results in a decrease in binding of human serum antibodies to pig cells. It is believed that this is the result of the elimination of the GalNAc on the Sda antigen, which is catalyzed by the enzyme, β1,4GalNAcT-II...
February 11, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423091/catalpol-protects-mice-against-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-acute-liver-injury-through-inhibiting-inflammatory-and-oxidative-response
#3
Haogang Zhang, Ruichun Jia, Fujing Wang, Gongcai Qiu, Pengfei Qiao, Xunzheng Xu, Dequan Wu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of catalpol on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-gal)-induced acute liver injury in mice. The mouse model was established by injection of LPS and D-gal. Catalpol (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) were pretreated intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS and D-gal. The survival rate, AST, ALT, MDA, MPO activity, hepatic tissue histology, TNF-α level, and NF-κB activation were assayed. The results revealed that catalpol dose-dependently elevated the survival rate...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414639/oxyresveratrol-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-d-galactosamine-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#4
Ya-Nan Jia, Hai-Peng Lu, Ya-Lin Peng, Bao-Shun Zhang, Xiao-Bao Gong, Jun Su, You Zhou, Min-Hui Pan, Li Xu
Oxyresveratrol (Oxy) is a natural polyhydroxystilbene abundant in mulberry that has anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant activities. We evaluated the protective effect of Oxy in the context of the lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN) induced acute liver injury. Oxy restricted the development of histopathological changes, markedly reduced the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), which are indicators of impaired liver function. Oxy significantly regulated the contents of oxidative stress related enzymes and products, and inhibited expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines...
January 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411481/glycoside-hydrolase-dish-from-desulfovibrio-vulgaris-degrades-the-n-acetylgalactosamine-component-of-diverse-biofilms
#5
Lei Zhu, Venkata G Poosarla, Sooyeon Song, Thammajun L Wood, Daniel S Miller, Bei Yin, Thomas K Wood
Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2 S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow the cells to disperse. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model SRB, we sought polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that disperse its biofilm. Using a whole-genome approach, we identified eight enzymes as putative extracellular glycoside hydrolases including DisH (DVU2239, dispersal hexosaminidase), an enzyme that we demonstrated here, by utilizing various p-nitrooligosaccharide substrates, to be an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366909/hepatocyte-specific-deletion-of-il1-ri-attenuatesliver-injury-by-blocking-il-1-driven-autoinflammation
#6
Nadine Gehrke, Nadine Hövelmeyer, Ari Waisman, Beate K Straub, Julia Weinmann-Menke, Marcus A Wörns, Peter R Galle, Jörn M Schattenberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Interleukin (IL)-1-type cytokines including IL-1alpha, IL-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are among the most potent molecules of the innate immune system and exert biological activities through the ubiquitously expressed interleukin-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1RI). The role of IL-1RI in hepatocytes during acute liver failure (ALF) remains undetermined. METHODS: IL-1RI during ALF was investigated using a novel transgenic mouse model exhibiting deletion of all signaling-capable IL-1R isoforms in hepatocytes (IL-1RIHep-/-)...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362613/protective-effects-of-the-third-generation-vasodilatory-%C3%AE-eta-blocker-nebivolol-against-d-galactosamine-induced-hepatorenal-syndrome-in-rats
#7
Ahmed Atwa, Rehab Hegazy, Rania Mohsen, Neamat Yassin, Sanaa Kenawy
BACKGROUND: Renal dysfunction is very common in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The development of renal failure in the absence of clinical, anatomical or pathological causes renal of failure is termed hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). AIM: The present study was constructed to investigate the possible protective effects of nebivolol (Nebi) against D-galactosamine (Gal)-induced HRS in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were treated with Nebi for ten successive days...
December 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357415/interfering-rna-against-pkc-%C3%AE-inhibits-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-ip3r1-expression-and-improves-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-rats-with-fulminant-hepatic-failure
#8
Dong-Lei Wang, Wen-Ying Dai, Wen Wang, Ying Wen, Ying Zhou, Yi-Tong Zhao, Jian Wu, Pei Liu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We have reported that tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α) is critical for reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in rats with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The present study aims to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of decreased GFR during acute hepatic failure. METHODS: Rats with FHF induced by D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) were injected intravenously with recombinant lentivirus harboring shRNA against the protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) gene (Lenti-shRNA-PKC-α)...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348606/amp-activated-protein-kinase-agonist-n6-3-hydroxyphenyl-adenosine-protects-against-fulminant-hepatitis-by-suppressing-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#9
Jin Li, Bo Chen, Liping Zhong, Feng Gao, Haibo Zhu, Fengzhong Wang
Both AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist and inhibitor have been reported to protect against fulminant hepatitis, implying that AMPK may play a complicated role in the development of fulminant hepatitis. In this study, we exploited whether the novel AMPK agonist N6-(3-hydroxyphenyl)adenosine (named as M1) exerted protective effects on fulminant hepatitis and whether its beneficial effects were AMPK-dependent. Results showed that intraperitoneal injection of M1 improved liver function, ameliorated liver injury and finally raised the survival rate in D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-treated mice...
January 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318910/cloning-of-a-novel-lectin-from-artocarpus-lingnanensis-that-induces-apoptosis-in-human-b-lymphoma-cells
#10
Yu Luo, Xiaoqin Liu, Faquan Lin, Liejun Liao, Yong Deng, Linjie Zeng, Qiyan Zeng
We isolated a novel lectin (Artocarpus nitidus subsp. lingnanensis lectin, ALL) from Artocarpus nitidus subsp. lingnanensis and showed its mitogenic activities. In this study, we determined the amino acid sequence of ALL by cDNA sequencing. ALL cDNA (933 bp) contains a 657-bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a protein with 218 amino acids. ALL shares high sequence similarities with Jacalin and Morniga G and belongs to jacalin-related lectin family. We also examined the antitumor activity of ALL using Raji, a human B-lymphoma cell line...
January 10, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317674/spred2-deficiency-exacerbates-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice-via-increased-production-of-tnf%C3%AE
#11
Xu Yang, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Teizo Yoshimura, Toshiaki Ohara, Miwa Sato, Megumi Mino, Thar Htet San, Tong Gao, Steven L Kunkel, Akihiro Matsukawa
Acute liver injury (ALI) is characterized by hepatocyte damage and inflammation. In the present study, we examined whether the absence of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, influences ALI induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Compared to wild-type mice, Spred2-/- mice developed exacerbated liver injury represented by enhanced hepatocyte damage and inflammation. Enhanced ERK activation was observed in Spred2-/--livers, and the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 ameliorated ALI...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312606/induction-of-renal-artery-hyperresponsiveness-by-alpha1-adrenoceptor-in-hepatorenal-syndrome
#12
Xiaogang Zhang, Xinsen Xu, Yina Jiang, Jianyu He, Wenjing Wang, Wei Li, Xufeng Zhang, Yi Lv
Objective: To investigate the potential role of alpha1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) in the pathogenesis of hepatorenal syndrome. Methods: Hepatorenal syndrome was induced in male rats by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine and orally treatment with α1-AR antagonist tamsulosin. Hyperresponsiveness of the renal artery contraction was evaluated by the laser-Doppler flowmetry and multimyograph system, while renal blood flow (cortical and medullary perfusion) was simultaneously measured...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259373/mesenchymal-stem-cells-rescue-acute-hepatic-failure-by-polarizing-m2-macrophages
#13
Yan-Wei Li, Chong Zhang, Qiu-Ju Sheng, Han Bai, Yang Ding, Xiao-Guang Dou
AIM: To investigate whether M1 or M2 polarization contributes to the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in acute hepatic failure (AHF). METHODS: MSCs were transfused into rats with AHF induced by D-galactosamine (DGalN). The therapeutic effects of MSCs were evaluated based on survival rate and hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Hepatocyte regeneration capacity was evaluated by the expression of the hepatic progenitor surface marker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218090/mir-24-regulates-hepatocyte-apoptosis-via-bim-during-acute-liver-failure
#14
Zhiwen Feng, Zhi Li, Deming Zhu, Wei Ling, Lei Zheng, Liyong Pu, Lianbao Kong
Acuteliver failure (ALF) has a high mortality rate and is characterized by massive hepatocyte destruction. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in manyliver diseases, the role of miRNAs in ALF development is unknown. In this study, the murine ALF model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS). Compared with saline-treated mice, miR-24 was distinctly down-regulated post D-GalN/LPS challenge in vivo and D-galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor (D-GalN/TNF) challenge in vitro, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208901/alternative-substrate-bound-conformation-of-bacterial-solute-binding-protein-involved-in-the-import-of-mammalian-host-glycosaminoglycans
#15
Sayoko Oiki, Reiko Kamochi, Bunzo Mikami, Kousaku Murata, Wataru Hashimoto
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), constituted by repeating uronate and amino sugar units, are major components of mammalian extracellular matrices. Some indigenous and pathogenic bacteria target GAGs for colonization to and/or infection of host mammalian cells. In Gram-negative pathogenic Streptobacillus moniliformis, the solute-binding protein (Smon0123)-dependent ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter incorporates unsaturated GAG disaccharides into the cytoplasm after depolymerization by polysaccharide lyase. Smon0123, composed of N and C domains, adopts either a substrate-free open or a substrate-bound closed form by approaching two domains at 47° in comparison with the open form...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207664/shikonin-protects-against-d-galactosamine-and-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-hepatic-injury-by-inhibiting-tlr4-signaling-pathway
#16
Meng-Xiang Lin, Yong-Xiang Yi, Pei-Pei Fang, Shan-Shan Huang, Chen-Wei Pan, Ling-Xiang Jin, Tong Zhang, Guang-Yao Zhou
Shikonin, a naphthoquinone isolated from the root of medical herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect. However, there is no related research for the treatment of shikonin on hepaic injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of shikonin on D-Galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury in mice. Male BALB/c mice were pretreated with shikonin 1 h before LPS/D-GalN treatment. The pathological changes of hepatic injury were detected by H&E staining...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204057/novel-d-galactosamine-induced-cynomolgus-monkey-model-of-acute-liver-failure
#17
Lei Feng, Lei Cai, Guo-Lin He, Jun Weng, Yang Li, Ming-Xin Pan, Ze-Sheng Jiang, Qing Peng, Yi Gao
AIM: To establish a simplified, reproducible D-galactosamine-induced cynomolgus monkey model of acute liver failure having an appropriate treatment window. METHODS: Sixteen cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) after intracranial pressure (ICP) sensor implantation. D-galactosamine at 0.3, 0.25, 0.20 + 0.05 (24 h interval), and 0.20 g/kg body weight, respectively, was injected via the small saphenous vein. Vital signs, ICP, biochemical indices, and inflammatory factors were recorded at 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after D-galactosamine administration...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193962/cell-penetrating-polymers-containing-guanidinium-trigger-apoptosis-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells-unless-conjugated-to-a-targeting-n-acetyl-galactosamine-block
#18
Zhe Tan, Yogesh K Dhande, Theresa M Reineke
A series of 3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide (GPMA)-based polymeric gene delivery vehicles were developed via aqueous reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The polymers have been evaluated for their cellular internalization ability, transfection efficiency, and cytotoxicity. Two homopolymers: P(GPMA20), P(GPMA34), were synthesized to study the effect of guanidium polymer length on delivery efficiency and toxicity. In addition, an N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (GalNAc)-based hydrophilic block was incorporated to produce diblock polymers, which provides a neutral hydrophilic block that sterically protects plasmid-polymer complexes (polyplexes) from colloidal aggregation and aids polyplex targeting to hepatocytes via binding to asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs)...
December 1, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191769/berberine-protects-acute-liver-failure-in-mice-through-inhibiting-inflammation-and-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis
#19
Lulu Xu, Xia Zheng, Yinhang Wang, Qilin Fan, Miao Zhang, Ruiyan Li, Junmei Ye, Xiaojun Wu, Wenfeng Zhao, Yubin Zhang
Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized by sudden large area of inflammation and extensive hepatocyte apoptosis. This study identified the natural product berberine as a potential agent for acute liver failure(ALF). First, in vitro, BBR pre-incubation (5, 10 and 20μM) alleviated L02 hepatocytes injury induced by D-GalN (5mM)/TNF-α (100 ng/ml). Second, in vivo, BBR pre-treatment attenuated D-Galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure, as evidenced by the reduction of mortality, the alleviation of liver pathological changes and the inhibition of alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186050/hplc-pda-ms-ms-characterization-of-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-from-turraea-fischeri-bark-extract-and-its-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-activities-in-vivo
#20
Mansour Sobeh, Mona F Mahmoud, Omar M Sabry, Rasha Adel, Malak Dmirieh, Assem M El-Shazly, Michael Wink
Turraea fischeri is an East African traditional herb, which is widely used in traditional medicine. In this study, we profiled the secondary metabolites in the methanol extract of T. fischeri bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS, and 20 compounds were tentatively identified. Several isomers of the flavonolignan cinchonain-I and bis-dihydroxyphenylpropanoid-substituted catechin hexosides dominated the extract. Robust in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties were observed in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans...
November 29, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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