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Chung-Ming Chen, Jaulang Hwang, Hsiu-Chu Chou, Her-Shyong Shiah
Prolonged hyperoxia exposure leads to inflammation and acute lung injury. Since hyperoxia activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and proinflammatory mediators in lung fibroblasts and murine lungs, and proinflammatory cytokines upregulate Tn (N-acetyl-d-galactosamine-O-serine/threonine) expression in human gingival fibroblasts. We hypothesized connections exist between Tn expression and inflammation regulation. Thus, we immunized adult mice with Tn antigen to examine whether Tn vaccine can protect against hyperoxia-induced lung injury by inhibiting NF-κB activity and cytokine expression through the action of anti-Tn antibodies...
April 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
E Gómez, S Carrocera, D Martin, P Herrero, N Canela, M Muñoz
Male and female early bovine embryos show dimorphic transcription that impacts metabolism. Individual release of metabolites was examined in a 24h single culture medium from Day-6 male and female morulae that developed to Day-7 expanded blastocysts. Embryos were produced in vitro, fertilized with a single bull and cultured in SOFaaci+6  g/L BSA. The embryonic sex was identified (amelogenin gene amplification). Embryos (N = 10 males and N = 10 females) and N = 6 blank samples (i.e. SOFaaci+6  g/L BSA incubated with no embryos) were collected from 3 replicates...
April 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Tomáš Bobula, Radovan Buffa, Martina Hermannová, Hana Vágnerová, Iva Dolečková, Vladimír Velebný
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was regio-specifically modified to an unsaturated derivative (ΔCS) with a double bond in positions 4 and 5 of N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The structure of ΔCS was elucidated in detail by two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The introduction of a nucleophilic CC double bond into a polymer backbone had no influence on biocompatibility of CS, which was demonstrated by MTT live-dead assay and enzymatic degradation in vitro. On the other hand the chemical modification significantly enhanced the reactivity of ΔCS towards numerous oxidizing agents, which might be promising for a variety of biomedical and cosmetic applications...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Bao-Zhong Diao, Li-Hua Zhong, Bao-Ling Lu, Yu Cheng, Lei Yu, Li-Ying Zhu
Acute liver injury is a life-threatening syndrome that often caused by hepatocyte damage. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of maslinic acid (MA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-gal)-induced acute liver injury and clarified its mechanism. Mice acute liver injury model was induced by given LPS and D-gal and MA was given intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS and D-gal. Our results showed that MA protected against liver injury by attenuating liver histopathologic changes, serum AST and ALT levels...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yongxia Yin, Xiaofeng Liu, Jinping Liu, Enbo Cai, Hongyan Zhu, Haijun Li, Lianxue Zhang, Pingya Li, Yan Zhao
Beta-sitosterol (Sit) widely exists in natural plants, is classed as phytosterol and known as the "key of life". Most pharmacological studies and clinical applications are limited because of the fact that Sit is difficult to be solved. Therefore, it is viable to enhance pharmacologic activities of Sit by using its derivatives which can be obtained through the modification of Sit. In this study, 4 kinds of new Sit derivatives were obtained by the esterification reaction. Further, the hepatoprotective effects of Sit and its derivatives were investigated against acute liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) in mice and its mechanism was illustrated by western blot analysis and real-time PCR...
March 28, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yosuke Osawa, Ekumi Kojika, Yukiko Hayashi, Masamichi Kimura, Koji Nishikawa, Sachiyo Yoshio, Hiroyoshi Doi, Tatsuya Kanto, Kiminori Kimura
Hepatocyte apoptosis has been implicated in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, it is unclear whether the induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis in the simple fatty liver triggers liver fibrosis. To address this question, high-fat diet-fed mice were repeatedly administered D-galactosamine, which increases the sensitivity of hepatocytes to TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. In mice treated with a high-fat diet plus D-galactosamine, hepatocyte apoptosis and liver fibrosis were induced, whereas both apoptosis and fibrosis were inhibited in these mice following gut sterilization with antimicrobials or knockout of TNF-α...
April 2018: Hepatology communications
Jia-Bo Wang, He-Rong Cui, Rui-Lin Wang, Cong-En Zhang, Ming Niu, Zhao-Fang Bai, Gen-Hua Xu, Peng-Yan Li, Wen-Yan Jiang, Jing-Jing Han, Xiao Ma, Guang-Ming Cai, Rui-Sheng Li, Li-Ping Zhang, Xiao-He Xiao
Multiple components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae determine their treatment targets for multiple diseases as opposed to a particular disease. However, discovering the unexplored therapeutic potential of a TCM formula remains challenging and costly. Inspired by the drug repositioning methodology, we propose an integrated strategy to feasibly identify new therapeutic uses for a formula composed of six herbs, Liuweiwuling. First, we developed a comprehensive systems approach to enrich drug compound-liver disease networks to analyse the major predicted diseases of Liuweiwuling and discover its potential effect on liver failure...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ting-Ting Wang, Chen-Ye Zhu, Shuang Zheng, Cai-Cai Meng, Tian-Tian Wang, Dan-Hua Meng, Yi-Jun Li, Hao-Miao Zhu, Feng-Shan Wang, Ju-Zheng Sheng
Avibacterium paragallinarum is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes infectious coryza in chicken. It was reported that the capsule polysaccharides extracted from Av. paragallinarum genotype A contained chondroitin. Chondroitin synthase of Av. paragallinarum (ApCS) encoded by one gene within the presumed capsule biosynthesis gene cluster exhibited considerable homology to identified bacterial chondroitin synthases. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of ApCS. This enzyme indeed displays chondroitin synthase activity involved in the biosynthesis of the capsule...
April 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jian-Jian Hu, Hui Wang, Chen-Wei Pan, Meng-Xiang Lin
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of isovitexin, a glycosylflavonoid isolated from rice hulls of Oryza sativa, on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (D-Gal)-induced acute liver injury. The mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, LPS/D-Gal group, and LPS/D-Gal + isovitexin groups. The mice of LPS/D-Gal group were received of LPS (50 μg/kg) and D-gal (800 mg/kg) intraperitoneal. The mice of LPS/D-Gal + isovitexin groups were received isovitexin (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) 1 h before LPS/D-Gal treatment...
March 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Maria A DeCicco RePass, Najma Bhat, Jamie Heimburg Molinaro, Stephen Bunnell, Richard D Cummings, Honorine D Ward
Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of diarrheal disease worldwide, but effective treatments are lacking. Cryptosporidium employs mucin-like glycoproteins with O-glycans to attach to and infect host intestinal epithelial cells. The Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr) is an O-glycan essential for these processes, as Tn-specific lectins and a Tn-specific monoclonal antibody block attachment to and infection of host cells in vitro. The enzymes in Cryptosporidium catalyzing their synthesis, however, have not been studied...
March 23, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
Shakuntala Santosh Chopade, Suneela Sunil Dhaneshwar
AIM: To design colon-targeted codrugs of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and aminosugars as a safer option to mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Codrugs were synthesized by coupling MPA with aminosugars (D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine) using EDCI coupling. The structures were confirmed by infrared radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The release profile of codrugs was extensively studied in aqueous buffers, upper gastrointestinal homogenates, faecal matter and caecal homogenates ( in vitro ) and rat blood ( in vitro )...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Xueliang Yang, Yunru Chen, Jian Zhang, Tiantian Tang, Ying Kong, Feng Ye, Xi Zhang, Xiaojing Liu, Shumei Lin
The present study aimed to evaluate whether thymosin α1 (Tα1) increases survival rates through the improvement of immunofunction and inhibition of hepatocyte apoptosis in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). A total of 25 rats were randomly divided into the control group (CG), the model group (MG) and the treatment group (TG). The CG received an intraperitoneal injection of saline (2 ml). The ALF rat model was established by the intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (700 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (10 µg/kg)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yunpeng Zhao, Ying Feng, Jianqi Li, Yongzhao Guo, Liming Chen, Sitong Liu
Anammox aggregates have been extensively observed in high-efficiency nitrogen-removal reactors, yet the variation and inherent cause of its aggregation capacity related to reactor operation are still unknown. Here, we used microbial detection, metabolomics, extended DLVO theory and multivariate statistical analysis to address this issue. The aggregation capacity of anammox consortia varied periodically during reactor operation, which was determined by the hydrophobic force and the ratio of extracellular protein (PN) to extracellular polysaccharides (PS)...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Wei Wang, XiaoGuang Li, Jie Xu
CONTEXT: Acute hepatic failure involves in serious inflammatory responses and leads to a high mortality. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), a magnesium salt of 18-α glycyrrhizic acid (GA) stereoisomer, has been shown anti-inflammatory activity previously. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MgIG, a hepatocyte protective agent, on D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GaIN/LPS)-induced acute liver injury in rats, and meanwhile explore the molecular mechanism...
February 28, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Taijie Li, Cuiju Mo, Xue Qin, Shan Li, Yinkun Liu, Zhiming Liu
BACKGROUND: Recently, studies have reported that protein glycosylation plays an important role in the occurrence and development of cancer. Gastric cancer is a common cancer with high morbidity and mortality owing to most gastric cancers are discovered only at an advanced stage. Here, we aim to discover novel specific serum glycanbased biomarkers for gastric cancer. METHODS: A lectin microarray with 50 kinds of tumor-associated lectin was used to detect the glycan profiles of serum samples between early gastric cancer and healthy controls...
January 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Hongjun Bian, Shanshan Gao, Di Zhang, Qi Zhao, Feifei Li, Xiao Li, Shuohuan Sun, Shouyang Song, Tao Li, Qiang Zhu, Wanhua Ren, Chengyong Qin, Jianni Qi
Muscle RING-finger (MuRF) proteins are E3 ubiquitin ligases that are expressed in striated muscle. MuRF2 is an important member of this family, but whether it is expressed in tissues other than striated muscle has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, we determined that MuRF2 is also expressed in other vital organs, including liver, lung, brain, spleen and kidney. Moreover, we show that the level of MuRF2 expression is significantly decreased in hepatic mononuclear cells of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and negatively correlated with the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in these mice...
February 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Chengjiang Zhao, David K C Cooper, Yifan Dai, Hidetaka Hara, Zhiming Cai, Lisha Mou
Antibody-mediated rejection is a barrier to the clinical application of xenotransplantation, and xenoantigens play an important role in this process. Early research suggested that N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) could serve as a potential xenoantigen. GalNAc is the immunodominant glycan of the Sda antigen. Recently, knockout of β1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (β1,4GalNAcT-II) from the pig results in a decrease in binding of human serum antibodies to pig cells. It is believed that this is the result of the elimination of the GalNAc on the Sda antigen, which is catalyzed by the enzyme, β1,4GalNAcT-II...
February 11, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Haogang Zhang, Ruichun Jia, Fujing Wang, Gongcai Qiu, Pengfei Qiao, Xunzheng Xu, Dequan Wu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of catalpol on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-gal)-induced acute liver injury in mice. The mouse model was established by injection of LPS and D-gal. Catalpol (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg) were pretreated intraperitoneally 1 h before LPS and D-gal. The survival rate, AST, ALT, MDA, MPO activity, hepatic tissue histology, TNF-α level, and NF-κB activation were assayed. The results revealed that catalpol dose-dependently elevated the survival rate...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Ya-Nan Jia, Hai-Peng Lu, Ya-Lin Peng, Bao-Shun Zhang, Xiao-Bao Gong, Jun Su, You Zhou, Min-Hui Pan, Li Xu
Oxyresveratrol (Oxy) is a natural polyhydroxystilbene abundant in mulberry that has anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant activities. We evaluated the protective effect of Oxy in the context of the lipopolysaccharide and d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN) induced acute liver injury. Oxy restricted the development of histopathological changes, markedly reduced the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), which are indicators of impaired liver function. Oxy significantly regulated the contents of oxidative stress related enzymes and products, and inhibited expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines...
January 23, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Lei Zhu, Venkata G Poosarla, Sooyeon Song, Thammajun L Wood, Daniel S Miller, Bei Yin, Thomas K Wood
Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2 S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow the cells to disperse. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model SRB, we sought polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that disperse its biofilm. Using a whole-genome approach, we identified eight enzymes as putative extracellular glycoside hydrolases including DisH (DVU2239, dispersal hexosaminidase), an enzyme that we demonstrated here, by utilizing various p-nitrooligosaccharide substrates, to be an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
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