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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209678/prophylactic-antipyretics-for-prevention-of-febrile-seizures-following-vaccination
#1
Nicholas Monfries, Ran D Goldman
Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182699/bifunctional-effects-of-o-methylated-flavones-from-scutellaria-baicalensis-georgi-on-melanocytes-inhibition-of-melanin-production-and-intracellular-melanosome-transport
#2
Michiko Kudo, Kumiko Kobayashi-Nakamura, Kentaro Tsuji-Naito
The growing interest in skin lightening has recently renewed attention on the esthetic applications of Chinese herbal medicine. Although Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is used for antipyretic and antiinflammatory purposes, its whitening effect remains unclear. This study reports three major findings: (1) S. baicalensis has a potent inhibitory effect on melanogenesis; (2) wogonin and its glycoside are the active components of S. baicalensis; and (3) O-methylated flavones from S. baicalensis, such as wogonin, inhibit intracellular melanosome transport...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182025/identity-of-%C3%A1-a%C3%A1-k%C3%A4-r%C3%A4-physalis-minima-linn-in-ayurvedic-classics-a-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Supriya S Kallianpur, Rohit A Gokarn, N Rajashekhar
Proper identification of drugs and their use in proper doses are important for successful treatment. Physalis minima Linn commonly known as country gooseberry has anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potentials. The present paper is aimed to ascertain the proper identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn.) in Ayurvedic classics by a meticulous search and hence a review of the drug Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn) was carried out in the texts of Ayurveda, modern literature, journals and online publications...
July 2016: Ancient Science of Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179185/the-use-of-diclofenac-sodium-in-urological-practice-a-structural-and-neurochemical-based-review
#4
REVIEW
Mahmut Ulubay, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Mustafa Kemal Atilla
Diclofenac sodium (DS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with antipyretic and analgesic effects. It is mainly found in the form of sodium salt. The mechanism of action of DS operates by way of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. The physiological effect of this substance derives from a decrease in prostaglandin production. DS is a benzeneacetic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory properties. As a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), DS binds to both forms of COX (COX-1 and COX-2) and inhibits the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory prostaglandins by means of chelation...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178434/fever-phobia-as-a-reason-for-pediatric-emergency-department-visits-does-the-primary-care-physician-make-a-difference
#5
Erella Elkon-Tamir, Ayelet Rimon, Dennis Scolnik, Miguel Glatstein
BACKGROUND: Fever is a source of considerable parental anxiety. Numerous studies have also confirmed similar anxiety among health care workers. This study analyzed caregiver knowledge of fever, and beliefs concerning children with a febrile illness, with an emphasis on the referring physician. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 caregivers of children 3 months to 12 years old, treated at an urban tertiary care pediatric emergency department for fever...
January 30, 2017: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173792/microscopic-identification-and-in-vitro-activity-of-agastache-rugosa-fisch-et-mey-from-xinjiang-china
#6
Haiyan Gong, Shaoyu Li, Lijuan He, Rena Kasimu
BACKGROUND: Agastache rugosa is well-known as a common traditional Chinese medicine, which have relieving summer-heat, analgesic and antipyretic effects, have long been used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several infectious diseases, anti-inflammatory, and for its antibacterial properties. Considering the lack of available data on the morphology, anatomy and in vitro activity of A. rugosa, the goal of the present study was to carry out the microscopic identification of its aerial parts and in vitro activity research as a contribution to the quality control and reasonable utilization involving A...
February 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167290/albizia-zygia-dc-j-f-macbr-leguminosae-mimosoideae-root-extract-exhibits-anti-nociceptive-and-antipyretic-activities-in-murine-models
#7
Wonder Kofi Mensah Abotsi, Stanley Benjamin Lamptey, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Eric Woode
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root extract of Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) is traditionally used in the management of pain and fever. However, little scientific data exists in literature to support its use. AIM OF STUDY: The present study evaluated the anti-nociceptive and antipyretic properties of the hydroethanolic extract of the roots of Albizia zygia in animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The analgesic effects were investigated in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (tail-immersion test) and mechanical (carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia) pain models...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166783/active-surveillance-study-of-adverse-events-following-immunisation-of-children-in-the-czech-republic
#8
Jana Danova, Aneta Kocourkova, Alexander M Celko
BACKGROUND: Despite the undisputed public health benefits of routine vaccination, adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) remain a concern. As most adverse events are mild, they may be under-reported; this may underlie the wide range of AEFI rates reported in the literature. We investigated the rates of AEFI related to routine vaccination of children 0-10 years old in the Czech Republic. METHODS: The study reviewed patients' records in a sample of 49 paediatric GP practices covering all 12 administrative regions of the Czech Republic between 2011 and 2013...
February 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166109/whether-to-proceed-with-deep-brain-stimulator-battery-change-in-a-patient-with-signs-of-potential-sepsis-and-parkinson-hyperpyrexia-syndrome-a-case-report
#9
Chyong-Jy Joyce Liu, Anica Crnkovic, John Dalfino, Leina Yoko Singh
Parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome (PHS) is a neurologic emergency associated with anti-Parkinson medication withdrawal; however, its clinical presentation mimics sepsis. We describe the case of a 69-year-old man with advanced Parkinson disease who presented for exchange of the depleted battery in his subthalamic deep brain stimulator. The patient's preoperative symptoms of fever, rigidity, altered consciousness, and autonomic instability presented a dilemma whether to proceed with battery exchange to treat PHS or postpone surgery due to potential sepsis...
February 3, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152447/astaxanthin-pretreatment-attenuates-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#10
Jingyao Zhang, Simin Zhang, Jianbin Bi, Jingxian Gu, Yan Deng, Chang Liu
BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a conventional drug widely used in the clinic because of its antipyretic-analgesic effects. However, accidental or intentional APAP overdoses induce liver injury and even acute liver failure (ALF). Astaxanthin (ASX) is the strongest antioxidant in nature that shows preventive and therapeutic properties, such as ocular protection, anti-tumor, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. The aim of present study was to determine whether ASX pretreatment provides protection against APAP-induced liver failure...
January 31, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150108/cyclooxygenase-in-cancer-prevention-and-treatments-for-actinic-keratosis
#11
REVIEW
Gareth J Thomas, Colin A Morton
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a chemically diverse class of drugs that target the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway and have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. Elevated expression of COX-2 has been associated with tumor progression in skin cancer through multiple mechanisms. We present evidence for a chemoprotective effect of NSAIDs and discuss potential mechanisms of action of COX-2 in cancer. We also discuss the challenges associated with the treatment of actinic keratosis and the factors that should be taken into consideration when selecting a treatment regimen...
January 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147891/mechanistic-assessment-of-the-analgesic-anti-inflammatory-and-antipyretic-actions-of-dalbergia-saxatilis-in-animal-models
#12
Omoniyi K Yemitan, Olufunmilayo O Adeyemi
CONTEXT: Aqueous root extract of Dalbergia saxatilis, Hook, f., (Leguminosae) (DS) is reported useful for toothache, pains, and fever, but not scientifically proven. OBJECTIVE: This study determined its effectiveness in pain, inflammation, and fever, applying scientific models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Swiss mice or Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5) were pretreated with distilled water, DS (100 or 200 mg/kg), or standard drug for 30 min. The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid writhing, tail flick, tail immersion, tail clip, hot plate, and formalin pain tests; anti-inflammatory effects were determined via carrageenan and dextran rat paw oedema tests; antipyretic activity was measured by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (ECL) and turpentine in rabbits, and d-amphetamine sulphate (d-AS) pyrexia test in rats...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143430/a-multicenter-randomized-open-label-active-comparator-trial-to-determine-the-efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-ibuprofen-for-treatment-of-fever-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#13
Samia N Khalil, Barry J Hahn, Corrie E Chumpitazi, Amy D Rock, Byron A Kaelin, Charles G Macias
BACKGROUND: Oral antipyretics are commonly used to treat pediatric patients who develop fevers. However, patients presenting to the emergency department or undergoing surgery are frequently unable to tolerate oral antipyretics. Rectal formulations are available; however, this route of administration is unpredictable. The main objectives of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of single or multiple doses of intravenous ibuprofen to acetaminophen (oral or suppository) in pediatric patients with fever and to assess plasma ibuprofen concentrations...
February 1, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137805/antimicrobial-effects-of-antipyretics
#14
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
Antipyretics are some of the most commonly used drugs. Since they are often co-administered with antimicrobial therapy, it is important to understand the interactions between these two classes of drugs. Our review is the first to summarise the antimicrobial effects of antipyretic drugs and the underlying mechanisms involved.Antipyretic drugs can inhibit virus replication, inhibit or promote bacterial or fungal growth, alter the expression of virulence factors, change surface hydrophobicity of microbes, influence biofilm production, affect motility, adherence and metabolism of pathogens, interact with the transport and release of antibiotics by leukocytes, modify the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics and induce or reduce the frequency of mutations leading to antimicrobial resistance...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137296/laboratory-confirmed-miltefosine-resistant-cases-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-india
#15
Saumya Srivastava, Jyotsna Mishra, Anil Kumar Gupta, Amit Singh, Prem Shankar, Sarman Singh
BACKGROUND: Miltefosine unresponsive and relapse cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are increasingly being reported. However, there has been no laboratory confirmed reports of miltefosine resistance in VL. Here, we report two laboratory confirmed cases of VL from India. METHODS: Two patients with VL were referred to us with suspected VL. The first patient was a native of the VL endemic state of Bihar, but residing in Delhi, a VL non-endemic area. He was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and antipyretics but was unresponsive to treatment...
January 31, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134775/chrysin-protects-rat-kidney-from-paracetamol-induced-oxidative-stress-inflammation-apoptosis-and-autophagy-a-multi-biomarker-approach
#16
Fatih Mehmet Kandemir, Sefa Kucukler, Eyup Eldutar, Cuneyt Caglayan, İlhami Gülçin
Paracetamol (PC) is a safe analgesic and antipyretic drug at therapeutic doses, and it is widely used in clinics. However, at high doses, it can induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Chrysin (CR) is a natural flavonoid that has biological activities that include being an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-cancer agent. The main objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CR against PC-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. CR was given orally via feeding needle to male Sprague Dawley rats as a single daily dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg for six days...
January 26, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123347/forsythoside-a-exerts-antipyretic-effect-on-yeast-induced-pyrexia-mice-via-inhibiting-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-function
#17
Cuiling Liu, Hongchang Su, Hongye Wan, Qingxia Qin, Xuan Wu, Xiangying Kong, Na Lin
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, playing major roles in thermoregulation. Forsythoside A (FT-A) is the most abundant phenylethanoid glycosides in Fructus Forsythiae, which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. However, how FT-A affects pyrexia and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we found that FT-A exerted apparent antipyretic effect through decreasing the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in a dose-dependent fashion on the yeast induced pyrexia mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112383/chromolaena-odorata-a-neglected-weed-with-a-wide-spectrum-of-pharmacological-activities-review
#18
Kavitha Vijayaraghavan, Johanna Rajkumar, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Badr Al-Sayed, Mohammed Ali Seyed
The study of wound‑healing plants has acquired an interdisciplinary nature with a systematic investigational approach. Several biochemicals are involved in the healing process of the body, including antioxidants and cytokines. Although several pharmaceutical preparations and formulations are available for wound care and management, it remains necessary to search for efficacious treatments, as certain current formulations cause adverse effects or lack efficacy. Phytochemicals or biomarkers from numerous plants suggest they have positive effects on different stages of the wound healing process via various mechanisms...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107288/effects-of-infant-formula-with-human-milk-oligosaccharides-on-growth-and-morbidity-a-randomized-multicenter-trial
#19
Giuseppe Puccio, Philippe Alliet, Cinzia Cajozzo, Elke Janssens, Giovanni Corsello, Norbert Sprenger, Susan Wernimont, Delphine Egli, Laura Gosoniu, Philippe Steenhout
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated effects of infant formula supplemented with 2 human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) on infant growth, tolerance and morbidity. METHODS: Healthy infants, 0-14 days old, were randomized to an intact-protein, cow's-milk-based infant formula (Control, n = 87) or the same formula with 1.0 g/L 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL) and 0.5 g/L lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) (Test, n = 88) from enrollment to 6 months; all infants received standard follow-up formula without HMOs from 6-12 months...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106908/the-aspirin-story-from-willow-to-wonder-drug
#20
REVIEW
Michael J R Desborough, David M Keeling
The story of the discovery of aspirin stretches back more than 3500 years to when bark from the willow tree was used as a pain reliever and antipyretic. It involves an Oxfordshire clergyman, scientists at a German dye manufacturer, a Nobel Prize-winning discovery and a series of pivotal clinical trials. Aspirin is now the most commonly used drug in the world. Its role in preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has been revolutionary and one of the biggest pharmaceutical success stories of the last century...
January 20, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
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