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Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Ulla Riis Madsen, Ami Hommel, Carina Bååth, Connie Bøttcher Berthelsen
INTRODUCTION: Although the group of vascular leg amputated patients constitutes some of the most vulnerable and frail on the orthopedic wards, previous research of amputated patients has focused on patients attending gait training in rehabilitation facilities leaving the patient experience shortly after surgery unexplored. Understanding patients' behavior shortly after amputation could inform health professionals in regard to how these vulnerable patients' needs at hospital can be met as well as how to plan for care post-discharge...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Giulia Ottaviani, L Maximilian Buja
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is defined as the unexpected death without an obvious noncardiac cause that occurs within 1 h of witnessed symptom onset (established SCD) or within 24 h of unwitnessed symptom onset (probable SCD). In the United States, its incidence is 69/100,000 per year. Dysfunctions of the cardiac conduction and autonomic nervous systems are known to contribute to SCD pathogenesis, even if most clinicians and cardiovascular pathologists lack experience with detailed examination of the cardiac conduction system and fail to recognize lesions that are crucial to explain the SCD itself...
August 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Megan Lane, Christian J Vercler
When a hospitalization ends in death, a request for an autopsy can lead to an emotionally charged encounter between a physician and the deceased patient's family. A case is presented in which a cardiac surgeon, believing he might have made a mistake, requests an autopsy, but members of the deceased patient's family believe that she would not have wanted an autopsy performed. A central question discussed in this commentary is whether and when consent for autopsy is necessary. We discuss two theoretical frameworks that support differing views on this question...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Giuseppe Pezzotti, Bryan J McEntire, Ryan Bock, Marco Boffelli, Wenliang Zhu, Eleonora Vitale, Leonardo Puppulin, Tetsuya Adachi, Toshiro Yamamoto, Narisato Kanamura, B Sonny Bal
The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material's surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4's zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i...
2016: Scientific Reports
Saeed Karimi-Aghdam
This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness...
August 11, 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Richard G Kyle, Iain M Atherton
Insights from the social sciences, including geography, sociology, and anthropology, have long been incorporated into pre-registration nursing programmes. However, scholars have suggested that their inclusion has been sporadic and lacks clear theoretical rationale. In this paper we argue anew that the social sciences - and particularly, human geography - could be central to nurse education. Specifically, we recast the concept of 'biogeography' drawn from human geography that emphasises the interplay between life (bio) and place (geo) to propose pedagogy that theoretically justifies and practically enables the inclusion of the social sciences in nurse education...
September 2016: Nurse Education in Practice
(no author information available yet)
Peter Kreeft, writing from a Christian point of view, explores what the problem of [Illegible Word] is and how it can be understood. He describes his book as a 'journey' in which he covers 'ten easy answers' to the problem of evil - including atheism, scientism, dualism and satanism.
February 13, 1988: Nursing Standard
F Goni-Saez, J Tirapu-Ustarroz
INTRODUCTION: Throughout the history of thought, science and philosophy have addressed the problem of mind-brain from different epistemic perspectives. The first covers specific areas of reality and constructs hypotheses with limited scope and multiple inter-scientific connectivity with the aim of validating theoretical models; the second extends its systemic architecture to all that is real (including scientific activity). DEVELOPMENT: The complexity of the mind-brain problem requires the generation of a link connecting the disciplines of philosophy and science; our onto-epistemological presuppositions therefore fall within the framework of a scientifically-oriented philosophy (scientific philosophy)...
August 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
James O Olufowote, Guoyu E Wang
Although health communication research and popular literature on physicians have heightened awareness of the dualisms physicians face, research is yet to focus on the discourse of physician educators who assimilate students into medicine for dualisms of the biomedical (BMD) and biopsychosocial (BPS) ideologies. The study drew on a dualism-centered model to analyze the discourse of 19 behavioral science course directors at 10 medical schools for the emergence of dualisms in instantiations of BPS ideologies and for the management of dualism in discourse that instantiated both BMD and BPS ideologies as part of the curriculum...
June 29, 2016: Health Communication
Gill Haddow, Emma King, Ian Kunkler, Duncan McLaren
An in vivo biosensor is a technology in development that will assess the biological activity of cancers to individualise external beam radiotherapy. Inserting such technology into the human body creates cybernetic organisms; a cyborg that is a human-machine hybrid. There is a gap in knowledge relating to patient willingness to allow automated technology to be embedded and to become cyborg. There is little agreement around what makes a cyborg and less understanding of the variation in the cyborgisation process...
October 2, 2015: Science As Culture
Heather L Jacobson, M Elizabeth Lewis Hall, Tamara L Anderson, Michele M Willingham
Most research on religion and the body has focused on the relationship between broad dimensions of religion, such as religious commitment or religious orientation, and body image or eating behaviors. The present study extends existing research by examining two specific religiously influenced beliefs about the body within a Protestant Christian sample, radical dualism and sanctification, and by focusing on a wider range of attitudes toward the body. The view of radical dualism sees the body as corrupt and separate from oneself, while the view of sanctification sees the body as holy, worthy of respect, and integral to one's being...
December 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Alexandra Pârvan
Ontology is involved in medical care, because what both doctors and patients think the disease, the patient and the doctor are affects the giving and receiving of care, and hence the definition of medical care as profession. Going back to ancient philosophical views of disease as 'bounded entity' or as 'relation' (still echoed in contemporary theories and mindsets), I propose a way to think ontologically about disease that places it in necessary connection with the patient as person. Drawing on Augustine's views on disease, bodily integrity, and the human person as mind-body unit, I speak of 'monistic dualism' as the view where the unit and health of the person is continuously and personally generated by the mind's attention to and action on the body, whether the body is impaired or not...
August 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
John C Malone
Developments culminating in the nineteenth century, along with the predictable collapse of introspective psychology, meant that the rise of behavioral psychology was inevitable. In 1913, John B. Watson was an established scientist with impeccable credentials who acted as a strong and combative promoter of a natural science approach to psychology when just such an advocate was needed. He never claimed to have founded "behavior psychology" and, despite the acclaim and criticism attending his portrayal as the original behaviorist, he was more an exemplar of a movement than a founder...
May 2014: Behavior Analyst
Constance L Milton
Paradigms contain theoretical structures to guide scientific disciplines. Since ancient times, Cartesian dualism has been a prominent philosophy incorporated in the practice of medicine. The discipline of nursing has continued the body-mind emphasis with similar paradigmatic thinking and theories of nursing that separate body and mind. Future trends for paradigm and nursing theory development are harkening to former ways of thinking. In this article the author discusses the origins of Cartesian dualism and implications for its current usage...
July 2016: Nursing Science Quarterly
Jens Mammen
The paper is a reply to commentaries to "Activity theories and the Ontology of Psychology: Learning from Danish and Russian Experiences" (Mammen and Mironenko 2015). At the same time it is an attempt to reply to more general issues raised by the commentators and an attempt to further develop some general ideas from our paper with a focus on the introduction of the new analytical concepts sense and choice categories. These concepts have been elaborated in an axiomatic frame in (Mammen 2016) and the present paper is thus also pointing forwards to that and supporting it with examples from research on adult human relations of love and affection and on infant cognitive development...
September 2016: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Sui Huang
Cell migration in the "correct" direction is pivotal for many biological processes. Although most work is devoted to its molecular mechanisms, the cell's preference for one direction over others, thus overcoming intrinsic random motility, epitomizes a profound principle that underlies all complex systems: the choice of one axis, in structure or motion, from a uniform or symmetric set of options. Explaining directional motility by an external chemo-attractant gradient does not solve but only shifts the problem of causation: whence the gradient? A new study in PLOS Biology shows cell migration in a self-generated gradient, offering an opportunity to take a broader look at the old dualism of extrinsic instruction versus intrinsic symmetry-breaking in cell biology...
May 2016: PLoS Biology
Teresa Pusiol, Luca Roncati, Anna Maria Lavezzi, Fabrizio Taddei, Francesco Piscioli, Giulia Ottaviani
First, we report a sudden fetal death at 33(+3)weeks due to sino-atrial node dualism. The female stillborn was delivered by induced labor. The postmortem examination of the cardiac conduction system revealed a dualism of the sino-atrial node, associated with fragmentation of the atrio-ventricular node and His bundle. These abnormalities of the cardiac conduction system represent the morphological substrate for the development of malignant arrhythmias. In particular, the dualism of the sino-atrial node can cause the dissociation of the longitudinal nodal impulse into two distinct ways of different pulse generation, resulting in supraventricular tachyarrhythmias...
July 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Agneta Sutton
Asking whether transhumanist hopes of overcoming ageing and cognitive and other shortcomings are realistic, this paper pitches a Christian anthropology against a transhumanist anthropology. It is shown that on critical examination many of the technologies proposed by transhumanists in order to better or extend human life raise questions about dualism and materialism, about our nature as relational beings, and indeed even about what it means to be alive.
2015: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
Timm B Poeppl, Veronika I Müller, Felix Hoffstaedter, Danilo Bzdok, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Berthold Langguth, Rainer Rupprecht, Christian Sorg, Valentin Riedl, Roberto Goya-Maldonado, Oliver Gruber, Simon B Eickhoff
Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves impairment in cognitive and interpersonal functioning. The right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ) is a key brain region subserving cognitive-attentional and social processes. Yet, findings on the involvement of the RTPJ in the pathophysiology of MDD have so far been controversial. Recent connectivity-based parcellation data revealed a topofunctional dualism within the RTPJ, linking its anterior and posterior part (aRTPJ/pRTPJ) to antagonistic brain networks for attentional and social processing, respectively...
August 2016: Human Brain Mapping
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