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Neuroscientific psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748696/how-to-move-beyond-the-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-international-classification-of-diseases
#1
Barbara Schildkrout
A new nosology for mental disorders is needed as a basis for effective scientific inquiry. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and International Classification of Diseases diagnoses are not natural, biological categories, and these diagnostic systems do not address mental phenomena that exist on a spectrum. Advances in neuroscience offer the hope of breakthroughs for diagnosing and treating major mental illness in the future. At present, a neuroscience-based understanding of brain/behavior relationships can reshape clinical thinking...
October 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583348/emotional-rejection-of-the-infant-status-of-the-concept
#2
Ian Brockington
Emotional rejection of the infant is a morbid, clinical phenomenon, central to mother-infant psychiatry. It occurs in about 1% of births in the general population, but much more often in mothers referred to specialist services. It has severe consequences for children, but responds well to treatment. It is now better recognized, but research is required, especially cohort studies and neuroscientific investigations.
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27522011/unconscious-emotion-a-cognitive-neuroscientific-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Ryan Smith, Richard D Lane
While psychiatry and clinical psychology have long discussed the topic of unconscious emotion, and its potentially explanatory role in psychopathology, this topic has only recently begun to receive attention within cognitive neuroscience. In contrast, neuroscientific research on conscious vs. unconscious processes within perception, memory, decision-making, and cognitive control has seen considerable advances in the last two decades. In this article, we extrapolate from this work, as well as from recent neural models of emotion processing, to outline multiple plausible neuro-cognitive mechanisms that may be able to explain why various aspects of one's own emotional reactions can remain unconscious in specific circumstances...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27428178/are-mental-disorders-brain-diseases-and-what-does-this-mean-a-clinical-neuropsychological-perspective
#4
Stefan Frisch
Neuroscientific research has substantially increased our knowledge about mental disorders in recent years. Along with these benefits, radical postulates have been articulated according to which understanding and treatment of mental disorders should generally be based on biological terms, such as neurons/brain areas, transmitters, genes etc. Proponents of such a 'biological psychiatry' claim that mental disorders are analogous to neurological disorders and refer to neurology and neuropsychology to corroborate their claims...
2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256973/-comparison-of-the-concept-of-responsibility-in-neuroscience-and-in-french-criminal-law-a-cross-literature-review-for-the-psychiatric-forensic-practice
#5
Damien Galland, Carol Jonas, Renaud Jardri, Maroussia Wilquin, Olivier Cottencin, Pierre Thomas, Benjamin Rolland
In forensic psychiatry, experts have to determine the level of responsibility of a subject with regard to their acts. Neuroscience and cognitive sciences have been increasingly studying the brain functions that are supposed to underlie individual responsibility. In neuroscience, impairment of responsibility is underlain by disruptions of different types of cognitive processes. This processes are executive functions, theory of mind, agency, volition and empathy. In the juridical conception, the term of responsibility refers to a broader perspective than in the neuroscientific approach...
June 2016: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27209602/neuroscience-in-forensic-psychiatry-from-responsibility-to-dangerousness-ethical-and-legal-implications-of-using-neuroscience-for-dangerousness-assessments
#6
Georgia Martha Gkotsi, Jacques Gasser
Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility...
May 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869840/emotor-control-computations-underlying-bodily-resource-allocation-emotions-and-confidence
#7
Adam Kepecs, Brett D Mensh
Emotional processes are central to behavior, yet their deeply subjective nature has been a challenge for neuroscientific study as well as for psychiatric diagnosis. Here we explore the relationships between subjective feelings and their underlying brain circuits from a computational perspective. We apply recent insights from systems neuroscience-approaching subjective behavior as the result of mental computations instantiated in the brain-to the study of emotions. We develop the hypothesis that emotions are the product of neural computations whose motor role is to reallocate bodily resources mostly gated by smooth muscles...
December 2015: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779752/-forensic-assessments-from-the-netherlands-institute-of-forensic-psychiatry-and-psychology-in-retrospect-applications-of-genetics-and-neuroscience-in-2000-and-2009
#8
J F Ter Harmsel, T Molendijk, C G van El, A M'charek, M Kempes, T Rinne, T Pieters
BACKGROUND: Developments in neurosciences and genetics are relevant for forensic psychiatry. AIM: To find out whether and how genetic and neuroscientific applications are being used in forensic psychiatric assessments, and, if they are, to estimate to what extent new applications will fit in with these uses. METHOD: We analysed 60 forensic psychiatric assessments from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Pieter Baan Center, and 30 non-clinical assessments from 2000 and 2009...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779007/integrating-insults-using-fault-tree-analysis-to-guide-schizophrenia-research-across-levels-of-analysis
#9
Angus W MacDonald Iii, Jennifer L Zick, Matthew V Chafee, Theoden I Netoff
The grand challenges of schizophrenia research are linking the causes of the disorder to its symptoms and finding ways to overcome those symptoms. We argue that the field will be unable to address these challenges within psychiatry's standard neo-Kraepelinian (DSM) perspective. At the same time the current corrective, based in molecular genetics and cognitive neuroscience, is also likely to flounder due to its neglect for psychiatry's syndromal structure. We suggest adopting a new approach long used in reliability engineering, which also serves as a synthesis of these approaches...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26704462/the-national-institute-of-mental-health-research-domain-criteria-a-bridge-too-far
#10
REVIEW
Joel Paris, Laurence J Kirmayer
The National Institute of Mental Health is actively promoting Research Domain Criteria as a new model for the research on mental disorders. Research Domain Criteria approaches disorders through a matrix, linking units of analysis with domains, based on the assumption that psychopathology reflects abnormal connectivity in the brain. This review suggests that the Research Domain Criteria perspective is likely to fail to provide an adequate basis for clinical psychiatric theory and practice. First, it uses models from neuroscience that are insufficiently developed...
January 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26610535/harm-reduction-as-continuum-care-in-alcohol-abuse-disorder
#11
Icro Maremmani, Mauro Cibin, Pier Paolo Pani, Alessandro Rossi, Giuseppe Turchetti
Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention...
November 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573970/charting-the-landscape-of-priority-problems-in-psychiatry-part-1-classification-and-diagnosis
#12
REVIEW
Klaas E Stephan, Dominik R Bach, Paul C Fletcher, Jonathan Flint, Michael J Frank, Karl J Friston, Andreas Heinz, Quentin J M Huys, Michael J Owen, Elisabeth B Binder, Peter Dayan, Eve C Johnstone, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, P Read Montague, Ulrich Schnyder, Xiao-Jing Wang, Michael Breakspear
Contemporary psychiatry faces major challenges. Its syndrome-based disease classification is not based on mechanisms and does not guide treatment, which largely depends on trial and error. The development of therapies is hindered by ignorance of potential beneficiary patient subgroups. Neuroscientific and genetics research have yet to affect disease definitions or contribute to clinical decision making. In this challenging setting, what should psychiatric research focus on? In two companion papers, we present a list of problems nominated by clinicians and researchers from different disciplines as candidates for future scientific investigation of mental disorders...
January 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26547881/motor-dysfunction-within-the-schizophrenia-spectrum-a-dimensional-step-towards-an-underappreciated-domain
#13
REVIEW
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Katharina M Kubera, Nadine D Wolf, Fabio Sambataro, Robert C Wolf
At the beginning of the 20th century, genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) were considered to be intricately linked to schizophrenia. Subsequently, however, GMA have been increasingly regarded as unspecific transdiagnostic phenomena or related to side effects of antipsychotic treatment. Despite possible medication confounds, within the schizophrenia spectrum GMA have been categorized into three broad categories, i.e. neurological soft signs, abnormal involuntary movements and catatonia. Schizophrenia patients show a substantial overlap across a broad range of distinct motor signs and symptoms suggesting a prominent involvement of the motor system in disease pathophysiology...
December 2015: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26441567/non-mammalian-models-in-behavioral-neuroscience-consequences-for-biological-psychiatry
#14
REVIEW
Caio Maximino, Rhayra Xavier do Carmo Silva, Suéllen de Nazaré Santos da Silva, Laís do Socorro Dos Santos Rodrigues, Hellen Barbosa, Tayana Silva de Carvalho, Luana Ketlen Dos Reis Leão, Monica Gomes Lima, Karen Renata Matos Oliveira, Anderson Manoel Herculano
Current models in biological psychiatry focus on a handful of model species, and the majority of work relies on data generated in rodents. However, in the same sense that a comparative approach to neuroanatomy allows for the identification of patterns of brain organization, the inclusion of other species and an adoption of comparative viewpoints in behavioral neuroscience could also lead to increases in knowledge relevant to biological psychiatry. Specifically, this approach could help to identify conserved features of brain structure and behavior, as well as to understand how variation in gene expression or developmental trajectories relates to variation in brain and behavior pertinent to psychiatric disorders...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26216940/the-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-bvftd-syndrome-in-psychiatry
#15
REVIEW
Serggio C Lanata, Bruce L Miller
The primary goal of this article is to critically discuss the syndromic overlap that exists between early behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD)--the most common clinical syndrome associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)--and several primary psychiatric disorders. We begin by summarising the current state of knowledge regarding FTLD, including the recent discovery of FTLD-causative genetic mutations. Clinicopathological correlations in FTLD are subsequently discussed, while emphasising that clinical syndromes of FTD are dictated by the distribution of FTLD pathology in the brain...
May 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25439859/-neuroscience-in-the-courtroom-from-responsibility-to-dangerousness-ethical-issues-raised-by-the-new-french-law
#16
G-M Gkotsi, V Moulin, J Gasser
AIM: In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings...
October 2015: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25408913/centenary-of-karl-jaspers-s-general-psychopathology-implications-for-molecular-psychiatry
#17
REVIEW
Johannes Thome
Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry...
2014: Journal of Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25308387/challenges-and-strategies-in-helping-the-dsm-become-more-dimensional-and-empirically-based
#18
REVIEW
Robert F Krueger, Christopher J Hopwood, Aidan G C Wright, Kristian E Markon
The DSM-5 creation process and outcome underlines a core tension in psychiatry between empirical evidence that mental pathologies tend to be dimensional and a historical emphasis on delineating categorical disorders to frame psychiatric thinking. The DSM has been slow to reflect dimensional evidence because doing so is often perceived as a disruptive paradigm shift. As a result, other authorities are making this shift, circumventing the DSM in the process. For example, through the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), NIMH now encourages investigators to focus on a dimensional and neuroscientific conceptualization of mental disorder research...
December 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25158686/a-conceptual-framework-for-the-neurobiological-study-of-resilience
#19
Raffael Kalisch, Marianne B Müller, Oliver Tüscher
The well-replicated observation that many people maintain mental health despite exposure to severe psychological or physical adversity has ignited interest in the mechanisms that protect against stress-related mental illness. Focusing on resilience rather than pathophysiology in many ways represents a paradigm shift in clinical-psychological and psychiatric research that has great potential for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies. More recently, research into resilience also arrived in the neurobiological community, posing nontrivial questions about ecological validity and translatability...
2015: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25155246/-clinical-brain-profiling-a-neuroscientific-diagnostic-approach-for-mental-disorders
#20
Abraham Peled, Amir B Geva
Clinical brain profiling is an attempt to map a descriptive nosology in psychiatry to underlying constructs in neurobiology and brain dynamics. This paper briefly reviews the motivation behind clinical brain profiling (CBP) and presents some provisional validation using clinical assessments and meta-analyses of neuroscientific publications. The paper has four sections. In the first, we review the nature and motivation for clinical brain profiling. This involves a description of the key aspects of functional anatomy that can lead to psychopathology...
October 2014: Medical Hypotheses
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