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Cognitive psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749310/biological-and-psychological-influences-of-cross-sex-hormone-in-transgender
#1
Ling Shiao Ling, Hatta Sidi, Raja Adam Raja Lope, Srijit Das, Azlin Baharudin
Transgender is a complex state of bio-psycho-social dimension of human sexuality. It encompasses cognitive-emotional-behavior component that makes the person unique in his or her sexual expression. Transgender tend to use cross sex hormone in order to eradicate their secondary sexual characteristics and to facilitate the shift to their experienced gender. The common masculinising sex hormone use, i.e. Female to Male Treatment Options (FMTO) is testosterone and for feminising hormone i.e. Male to Female Treatment Options (MFTO) is a combination of estrogen with anti-androgen, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745436/a-theory-driven-investigation-of-the-association-between-emotion-dysregulation-and-suicide-risk-in-a-clinical-adolescent-sample
#2
Michael Eaddy, Lucas Zullo, Sarah E Horton, Jennifer L Hughes, Betsy Kennard, Andrew Diederich, Graham J Emslie, Lisa Schuster, Sunita M Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Emotion dysregulation has been consistently linked to suicide ideation and attempt, but an explanatory model for this relationship has not been adequately investigated in adolescents. This study examined the concurrent relationship among emotion dysregulation, variables from the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), and suicide risk (operationalized as a continuous variable that increases in intensity from nonspecific to active suicide ideation to suicide ideation with a plan) in a clinical adolescent sample...
May 10, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738960/verbal-and-physical-client-aggression-a-longitudinal-analysis-of-professional-caregivers-psychophysiological-stress-response-and-burnout
#3
Nina Kind, Anne Eckert, Célia Steinlin, Jörg M Fegert, Marc Schmid
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of verbal and physical client aggression on risk of developing high hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an indicator of chronic stress exposure and burnout in a Swiss population of professional caregivers working in youth residential care. METHOD: Participants (n = 121; 62.0% women) reported on client aggression and burnout symptoms and provided hair samples at four annual sampling points. HCC was determined in the first 1...
May 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736130/applicability-evaluation-of-simplified-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#4
Li Zhang, Zhipei Zhu, Fang Fang, Yuan Shen, Na Liu, Chunbo Li
Background: We have developed a structured cognitive behavioral therapy manual for anxiety disorder in China, and the present study evaluated the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy based on our previous research. Aims: To evaluate the applicability of simplified cognitive behavioral therapy (SCBT) on generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by conducting a multi-center controlled clinical trial. Methods: A multi-center controlled clinical trial of SCBT was conducted on patients with GAD, including institutions specializing in mental health and psychiatry units in general hospitals...
April 25, 2018: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736062/dropout-rates-and-factors-associated-with-dropout-from-treatment-among-elderly-patients-attending-the-outpatient-services-of-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#5
Sandeep Grover, Devakshi Dua, Subho Chakrabarti, Ajit Avasthi
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the "dropout" rates from treatment and associated factors among elderly patients attending a tertiary care psychiatry outpatient facility. Materials and Methods: Data of 1422 patients aged ≥60 years, attending the walk-in clinic were evaluated. Results: Out of 1422 patients, 406 (28.55%) belonged to the "dropout" group. In the "dropout" group, the age of patients was significantly higher than the followed-up group, and a higher proportion of patients were >70 years old...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730871/the-relationship-of-insight-with-psychopathology-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Ahmet Tiryaki, Aykut Karahan, Filiz Civil Arslan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of the different dimensions of insight with clinical variables, symptom severity, and cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: In this cross-sectional descriptive study,  66  out  patients that applied to the Karadeniz Technical University, Psychiatry Clinic and were diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV were evaluated. The patients were evaluated with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID-I), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), and the Schedule for Assessing the Three Components of Insight (SAI)...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716665/cognitive-remediation-in-large-systems-of-psychiatric-care
#7
Alice Medalia, Alice M Saperstein, Matthew D Erlich, Lloyd I Sederer
IntroductionWith the increasing enthusiasm to provide cognitive remediation (CR) as an evidence-based practice, questions arise as to what is involved in implementing CR in a large system of care. This article describes the first statewide implementation of CR in the USA, with the goal of documenting the implementation issues that care providers are likely to face when bringing CR services to their patients. METHODS: In 2014, the New York State Office of Mental Health set up a Cognitive Health Service that could be implemented throughout the state-operated system of care...
May 2, 2018: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704415/ways-of-understanding-of-religious-delusions-associated-with-a-change-of-identity-on-the-example-of-identification-with-jesus-christ
#8
REVIEW
Krzysztof Dyga, Radosław Stupak
Identification with Christ among psychiatric patients is an example of a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. As a delusion it includes a misidentification (change of identity) in the layer of content and, usually, grandiosity and/or paranoid traits in the formal aspect. What is more, it fits in the category of religious delusions, which are perhaps the most controversial type of delusions and as such require special sensitivity as well as knowledge beyond psychology or psychiatry. The aim of the articleis to show the phenomenon of identification with Christ among psychiatric patients, taking into account different ways of its explaining and understanding...
February 28, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691958/brain-based-treatment-a-new-approach-or-a-well-forgotten-old-one
#9
Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686612/minimal-self-and-timing-disorders-in-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#10
Brice Martin, Nicolas Franck, Michel Cermolacce, Jennifer T Coull, Anne Giersch
For years, phenomenological psychiatry has proposed that distortions of the temporal structure of consciousness contribute to the abnormal experiences described before schizophrenia emerges, and may relate to basic disturbances in consciousness of the self. However, considering that temporality refers mainly to an implicit aspect of our relationship with the world, disturbances in the temporal structure of consciousness remain difficult to access. Nonetheless, previous studies have shown a correlation between self disorders and the automatic ability to expect an event in time, suggesting timing is a key issue for the psychopathology of schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#11
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652769/schizophrenia-and-criminal-responsibility-a-systematic-review
#12
Georgios Tsimploulis, Gérard Niveau, Ariel Eytan, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Othman Sentissi
The significant progress of psychiatry in the 20th century provided a sophisticated theoretical framework to analyze the complex relationships between crime and mental illness. Schizophrenia has been traditionally associated with severe cognitive and affective deficits that heavily influence empathy, judgment capacities, but also control of impulsiveness. Although there is an association between psychotic disorders and absence or decrease of legal responsibility, their relationship is also determined by sociodemographic, developmental, and clinical factors...
May 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652529/neurocognitive-predictors-of-clinical-improvement-in-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-treated-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Fadi Maalouf, Rinad Bakhti, Hani Tamim, Safa Shehab, David Brent
OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have suggested cognitive deficits as consistently associated with adolescent depression. No study to date, however, has assessed neurocognitive predictors of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment response in adolescents with depression. This study examined neurocognitive tasks at baseline as predictors of clinical improvement with SSRI treatment (fluoxetine) at week 6 and 12 in an adolescent population. METHODS: Adolescents with depression were recruited from a child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic at a university medical center...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629061/depression-from-the-perspective-of-modern-and-persian-medicine
#14
Majid Anushiravani, Ali Akhondpour Manteghi, Ali Taghipur, Mahdi Eslami
Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide. Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine , Al-Hawi Fi Teb , Kamel Al-Sina'a , Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A'azam ...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#15
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#16
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599651/mindfulness-based-interventions-in-psychiatry
#17
Benjamin G Shapero, Jonathan Greenberg, Paola Pedrelli, Marasha de Jong, Gaelle Desbordes
Mindfulness meditation has a longstanding history in eastern practices that has received considerable public interest in recent decades. Indeed, the science, practice, and implementation of Mindfulness Based Interventions (MBIs) have dramatically increased in recent years. At its base, mindfulness is a natural human state in which an individual experiences and attends to the present moment. Interventions have been developed to train individuals how to incorporate this practice into daily life. The current article will discuss the concept of mindfulness and describe its implementation in the treatment of psychiatric disorders...
2018: Focus: Journal of Life Long Learning in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593585/functional-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-the-new-mrs-for-cognitive-neuroscience-and-psychiatry-research
#18
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the 1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589121/sigmund-freud-early-network-theories-of-the-brain
#19
REVIEW
Werner Surbeck, Tim Killeen, Johannes Vetter, Gerhard Hildebrandt
Since the early days of modern neuroscience, psychological models of brain function have been a key component in the development of new knowledge. These models aim to provide a framework that allows the integration of discoveries derived from the fundamental disciplines of neuroscience, including anatomy and physiology, as well as clinical neurology and psychiatry. During the initial stages of his career, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), became actively involved in these nascent fields with a burgeoning interest in functional neuroanatomy...
March 27, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567371/a-pilot-study-on-immuno-psychiatry-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-a-role-for-th17-cells-in-psychosis
#20
Elfi Vergaelen, Carmen Schiweck, Kristof Van Steeland, Jacqueline Counotte, Wim Veling, Ann Swillen, Hemmo Drexhage, Stephan Claes
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports a role for immune alterations in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD). A high prevalence (25% - 40%) of SSD has been found in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), which is known for T-cell deficits due to thymus hypoplasia. This study is the first to explore the association between the T-cell subsets and psychotic symptoms in adults with 22q11.2DS. METHODS: 34 individuals (aged 19-38 yrs.) with 22q11...
March 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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