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Cognitive psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157846/definition-of-traumatic-brain-injury-neurosurgery-trauma-orthopedics-neuroimaging-psychology-and-psychiatry-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
REVIEW
Mubashir Pervez, Ryan S Kitagawa, Tiffany R Chang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disrupts the normal function of the brain. This condition can adversely affect a person's quality of life with cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physical symptoms that limit interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning. Although many systems exist, the simplest classification includes mild, moderate, and severe TBI depending on the nature of injury and the impact on the patient's clinical status. Patients with TBI require prompt evaluation and multidisciplinary management...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155799/risk-of-prevalent-and-incident-dementia-associated-with-insulin-like-growth-factor-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3
#2
O P Almeida, G J Hankey, B B Yeap, S A Paul Chubb, J Gollege, L Flicker
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) influences cell proliferation and survival. In the extracellular environment, IGF-1 circulates bound to proteins (IGF-binding proteins; IGFBP), some of which have physiological effects that seem independent of IGF-1, including the brain (for example, IGFBP-3). We completed a systematic review of the association between dementia and IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, and a cross-sectional and longitudinal study designed to investigate if lower plasma concentration of these proteins increased the risk of prevalent and incident dementia...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135445/-a-new-method-for-the-measurement-of-social-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#3
Eszter Varga, Títusz Bugya, Szilvia Endre, Róbert Herold, Réka Horváth, Orsolya Mákos, Eniko Csilla Kiss, Tamás Tényi
Impairments in social cognitive functions and their long-term effects are well known in schizophrenia. However, so far no computer application has been available to assess these functions of patients. Our study is about introducing a new computer application measuring social cognitive abilities. The program (SCAN) is available on the following link and can be downloaded for anyone: psychiatry.pote.hu › Research › Workgroups › Schizophrenia. The hypothesis of our present study was that SCAN is able to assess the social cognitive ability of patients with schizophrenia in a rapid, complex and objective way...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133950/treating-a-novel-plasticity-defect-rescues-episodic-memory-in-fragile-x-model-mice
#4
W Wang, B M Cox, Y Jia, A A Le, C D Cox, K M Jung, B Hou, D Piomelli, C M Gall, Gary Lynch
Episodic memory, a fundamental component of human cognition, is significantly impaired in autism. We believe we report the first evidence for this problem in the Fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse model of Fragile X syndrome and describe potentially treatable underlying causes. The hippocampus is critical for the formation and use of episodes, with semantic (cue identity) information relayed to the structure via the lateral perforant path (LPP). The unusual form of synaptic plasticity expressed by the LPP (lppLTP) was profoundly impaired in Fmr1-KOs relative to wild-type mice...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112193/transcriptome-alterations-of-prefrontal-cortical-parvalbumin-neurons-in-schizophrenia
#5
J F Enwright Iii, Z Huo, D Arion, J P Corradi, G Tseng, D A Lewis
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction is manifest as cognitive deficits that appear to arise from disturbances in gamma frequency oscillations. These oscillations are generated in DLPFC layer 3 (L3) via reciprocal connections between pyramidal cells (PCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons. The density of cortical PV neurons is not altered in SZ, but expression levels of several transcripts involved in PV cell function, including PV, are lower in the disease...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110352/the-screen-for-cognitive-impairment-in-psychiatry-proposal-for-a-polytomous-scoring-system
#6
Juana Gómez-Benito, Ángela I Berrío, Georgina Guilera, Emilio Rojo, Scot Purdon, Oscar Pino
The Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry is a simple, fast, and easy to administer scale that has been validated in clinical and community samples. The aim of this study was to propose a polytomous scoring system for the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry and to demonstrate its functioning, thus providing new and complementary information regarding the utility and precision of this screening tool. Three hundred seventy-six Spanish patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorder were evaluated...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107401/-map-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-other-dementias-in-spain-mapea-project
#7
Pablo Martínez-Lage, Manuel Martín-Carrasco, Enrique Arrieta, Jesús Rodrigo, Francesc Formiga
INTRODUCTION: In the current context of increased life expectancy and progressive aging of the population a very significant increase in the number of people with cognitive impairment and dementia is expected. Consequently, Spain will face an enormous social and health problem in the next decades. The Mapa de la enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias en España project aims to analyse plans, prevention and early diagnosis activities, process of care and resources available across the 17 Spanish regions for the management of cognitive impairment and dementia in order to identify improvement areas, as well as to provide a list of recommendations...
October 26, 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#8
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053485/the-effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-augmentation-of-antipsychotic-treatment-on-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#9
Bjanka Vuksan Ćusa, Nataša Klepac, Nenad Jakšić, Zoran Bradaš, Marija Božičević, Natalia Palac, Marina Šagud
OBJECTIVES: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) continues to be a challenge in modern psychiatry. Most of these patients have severe neurocognitive deficits. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has proved effective and safe in the treatment of TRS, but because of potential neurocognitive adverse effects, it is associated with many controversies. The aim of this prospective, open study was to evaluate the effects of ECT augmentation of antipsychotics on cognitive functions in patients with TRS...
October 19, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044445/development-of-a-screening-test-for-cognitive-impairment-in-alcoholic-population-tedca
#10
Rosa Jurado-Barba, Andrés Martínez, Ana Sion, María J Álvarez-Alonso, Adán Robles, Rafael Quinto-Guillen, Gabriel Rubio
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have found cognitive impairment in patients with a history of alcohol use disorder, affecting their psychosocial functioning and the achievement of therapeutic goals. In order to identify these effects, several cognitive screening tests have been used, though they were not specific for alcoholic population, possibly leading to an increase in the risk of error. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the main cognitive deficits in patients with history of alcohol use disorders, through the development of a specific screening test for alcohol-related cognitive impairment...
September 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034806/exploring-the-east-west-divide-in-prevalence-of-affective-disorder-a-case-for-cultural-differences-in-coping-with-negative-emotion
#11
June De Vaus, Matthew J Hornsey, Peter Kuppens, Brock Bastian
Lifetime rates of clinical depression and anxiety in the West tend to be approximately 4 to 10 times greater than rates in Asia. In this review, we explore one possible reason for this cross-cultural difference, that Asian cultures think differently about emotion than do Western cultures and that these different systems of thought help explain why negative affect does not escalate into clinical disorder at the same rate. We review research from multiple disciplines-including cross-cultural psychology, social cognition, clinical psychology, and psychiatry-to make the case that the Eastern holistic principles of contradiction (each experience is associated with its opposite), change (the world exists in a state of constant flux), and context (the interconnectedness of all things) fundamentally shape people's experience of emotions in different cultures...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Social Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024609/the-goldwater-rule-perspectives-from-and-implications-for-psychological-science
#12
Scott O Lilienfeld, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
When, if ever, should psychological scientists be permitted to offer professional opinions concerning the mental health of public figures they have never directly examined? This contentious question, which attracted widespread public attention during the 1964 U.S. presidential election involving Barry Goldwater, received renewed scrutiny during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, when many mental health professionals raised pointed questions concerning the psychiatric status of Donald Trump. Although the Goldwater Rule prohibits psychiatrists from offering diagnostic opinions on individuals they have never examined, no comparable rule exists for psychologists...
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019460/auditory-hallucinations-as-translational-psychiatry-evidence-from-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#13
Kenneth Hugdahl
In this invited review article I present a translational perspective and overview of our research on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia at the University of Bergen, Norway with a focus on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the phenomenology of experiencing "hearing voices". An auditory verbal hallucination, i.e. "hearing a voice", is defined as a sensory experience in the absence of a corresponding external sensory source that could explain the phenomenological experience. I suggest a general frame or scheme for the study of auditory verbal hallucinations which is called Levels of Explanation (LoE)...
October 11, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017153/bipolar-disorder-and-or-creative-bipolarity-robert-schumann-s-exemplary-psychopathology-combining-symptomatological-and-psychosocial-perspectives-with-creativity-research
#14
Rainer Matthias Holm-Hadulla, Asimina Koutsoukou-Argyraki
The psychopathological condition of Robert Schumann has been a prominent object of study in psychiatry since his hospitalization in 1854. Renowned psychiatrists have diagnosed Schumann with syphilis, schizophrenia, and bipolar and personality disorders. Until today, these analyses of his symptomatology have led to contradictory results. Recent discussion has suggested that his hospitalization was due to professional failure and separation wishes on the part of his wife, her family, and her friends. In line with this hypothesis is the opinion that the separation insisted upon by Clara Schumann was reinforced by the economic interests of the psychiatrist who kept Schumann in custody for 2 years until his death in 1856...
October 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993711/social-impairments-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-are-related-to-maternal-immune-history-profile
#15
S Patel, A Masi, R C Dale, A J O Whitehouse, I Pokorski, G A Alvares, I B Hickie, E Breen, A J Guastella
Maternal immune activation has been highlighted as a factor that might increase the risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Preclinical animal evidence shows that immune activation in mothers during pregnancy causes ASD-like behavioural traits in offspring. To this point, there has been no investigation of whether immune system activation in human mothers during pregnancy is associated with more severe symptoms in children with ASD. In this study, data from an existing ASD cohort (N=220) were analysed to investigate whether immune conditions in the mother were associated with greater severity of autism-related symptoms...
October 10, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991066/defense-automated-neurobehavioral-assessment-accurately-measures-cognition-in-patients-undergoing-electroconvulsive-therapy-for-major-depressive-disorder
#16
Kristen R Hollinger, Steven R Woods, Alexis Adams-Clark, So Yung Choi, Caroline L Franke, Ryoko Susukida, Carol Thompson, Irving M Reti, Adam I Kaplin
OBJECTIVES: The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) is an electronic cognitive test battery. The present study compares DANA to the standard Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in subjects undergoing electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder. METHODS: Seventeen inpatient subjects in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Psychiatry were administered longitudinal paired DANA and MMSE tests (7.6 ± 4.1 per patient) from January 10, 2014 to September 26, 2014...
October 3, 2017: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988827/self-as-object-emerging-trends-in-self-research
#17
REVIEW
Jie Sui, Xiaosi Gu
Self representation is fundamental to mental functions. While the self has mostly been studied in traditional psychophilosophical terms ('self as subject'), recent laboratory work suggests that the self can be measured quantitatively by assessing biases towards self-associated stimuli ('self as object'). Here, we summarize new quantitative paradigms for assessing the self, drawn from psychology, neuroeconomics, embodied cognition, and social neuroscience. We then propose a neural model of the self as an emerging property of interactions between a core 'self network' (e...
October 5, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984605/the-pitfall-of-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-mimics-despite%C3%A2-multidisciplinary-application-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-ftdc-criteria
#18
Welmoed A Krudop, Annemieke Dols, Cora J Kerssens, Piet Eikelenboom, Niels D Prins, Christiane Möller, Sigfried Schouws, Didi Rhebergen, Eric van Exel, Wiesje M van der Flier, Sietske Sikkes, Philip Scheltens, Max L Stek, Yolande A L Pijnenburg
BACKGROUND: The behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has a broad differential diagnosis including other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric misdiagnoses occur in up to 50% of bvFTD patients. Numbers on misdiagnosis of bvFTD in psychiatric disorders are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of bvFTD misdiagnoses in psychiatric disorders and other neurologic disorders. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with a (possible or probable) bvFTD diagnosis made by specialized memory clinic neurologists were included...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978249/the-influence-of-coercive-measures-on-patients-stances-towards-psychiatric-institutions
#19
Juliane Mielau, Jasmin Altunbay, Anja Lehmann, Felix Bermpohl, Andreas Heinz, Christiane Montag
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of coercive interventions (CI) on patients' evaluations of psychiatric hospitals as adversaries versus allies. METHODS: Self-constructed interviews were conducted relating to quantitative and subjective aspects of coercion and the attitude towards psychiatry of 79 patients with psychotic and bipolar disorders. The Coercion Experience Scale (CES) and the Admission Experience Survey (AES) were used to establish the subjective impact of CI...
October 5, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966147/understanding-psychiatric-disorder-by-capturing-ecologically-relevant-features-of-learning-and-decision-making
#20
REVIEW
Jacqueline Scholl, Miriam Klein-Flügge
Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms...
September 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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