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Cognitive psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345040/assessing-and-addressing-cognitive-impairment-in-bipolar-disorder-the-international-society-for-bipolar-disorders-targeting-cognition-task-force-recommendations-for-clinicians
#1
REVIEW
K W Miskowiak, K E Burdick, A Martinez-Aran, C M Bonnin, C R Bowie, A F Carvalho, P Gallagher, B Lafer, C López-Jaramillo, T Sumiyoshi, R S McIntyre, A Schaffer, R J Porter, S Purdon, I J Torres, L N Yatham, A H Young, L V Kessing, E Vieta
OBJECTIVES: Cognition is a new treatment target to aid functional recovery and enhance quality of life for patients with bipolar disorder. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Targeting Cognition Task Force aimed to develop consensus-based clinical recommendations on whether, when and how to assess and address cognitive impairment. METHODS: The task force, consisting of 19 international experts from nine countries, discussed the challenges and recommendations in a face-to-face meeting, telephone conference call and email exchanges...
January 18, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339664/cenesthopathy-and-subjective-cognitive-complaints-an-exploratory-study-in-schizophrenia
#2
Natalia Jimeno, Martin L Vargas
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cenesthopathy is mainly associated with schizophrenia; however, its neurobiological basis is nowadays unclear. The general objective was to explore clinical correlates of cenesthopathy and subjective cognitive complaints in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants (n = 30) meeting DSM-IV criteria for psychotic disorder were recruited from a psychiatry unit and assessed with: Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry (AMDP) system, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS)...
January 16, 2018: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335139/-the-analogon-a-caregiving-resource-in-geriatric-psychiatry
#3
REVIEW
Cyril Hazif-Thomas, Philippe Thomas
Few caregivers know what analogons are, yet they use them on occasion, intuitively, for the benefit of their patients. An analogon, an identifying object, enables patients with cognitive disorders to 'decipher' their environment and find meaning in it. Caregivers sometimes use analogons without being aware of the theory behind them.
January 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306906/-psychiatric-disorders-in-epilepsy-clinical-phenomena
#4
Anna Szucs, Andras Horvath, Daniel Fabo, Geza Szabo, Andrea Kovacs, Peter Halasz
The frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy compromises the quality of life of those affected, further increasing their suicide risk and the high burden of stigmatisation. Out of adulthood epilepsies, mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy carries the highest cognitive and psychiatric risk, making mental health comorbidities its inherent features. The pathomechanism of the epilepsy-related mental health symptoms and conditions appears to be related to undetected subclinical seizures, postictal exhaustion and inhibition, and the non-REM sleep related interictal epileptic activity...
September 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306698/gender-differences-in-c-reactive-protein-and-homocysteine-modulation-of-cognitive-performance-and-real-world-functioning-in-bipolar-disorder
#5
M Sanchez-Autet, B Arranz, G Safont, P Sierra, A Garcia-Blanco, L de la Fuente, M Garriga, M P García-Portilla
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and psychosocial impairment has been associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine in bipolar disorder, but gender differences have seldom been studied. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-four bipolar outpatients were included. Cognitive performance was assessed through the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP). Psychosocial functioning was evaluated using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) and the General Assessment of Functioning (GAF)...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295738/psychiatry-in-a-dish-stem-cells-and-brain-organoids-modeling-autism-spectrum-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Mirolyba Ilieva, Åsa Fex Svenningsen, Morten Thorsen, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental conditions with heterogeneous etiology, characterized by deficits in social cognition, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Despite an increasing scientific effort to find the pathophysiological explanations for the disease, the neurobiological links remain unclear. A large amount of evidence suggests that pathological processes taking place in early embryonic neurodevelopment might be responsible for later manifestation of autistic symptoms...
November 16, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284138/psychiatry-the-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-future
#7
REVIEW
James J H Rucker, Jonathan Iliff, David J Nutt
The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting...
December 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282616/non-invasive-cerebellar-stimulation-moving-towards-clinical-applications-for-cerebellar-and-extra-cerebellar-disorders
#8
EDITORIAL
Kim van Dun, Mario Manto
The field of non-invasive stimulation of the cerebellum is quickly expanding. The anatomical structure of the cerebellum with a high density of neurons in the superficial layer, its electrical properties, and its participation in numerous closed-loop circuits involved in motor, cognitive, and affective operations both in children and in adults make of the cerebellum a target with very high potential for neuromodulation of both cerebellar and extra-cerebellar disorders, in neurology, psychiatry, and neurosurgery...
December 27, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246661/a-quantitative-approach-to-neuropsychiatry-the-why-and-the-how
#9
REVIEW
Martien J Kas, Brenda Penninx, Bernd Sommer, Alessandro Serretti, Celso Arango, Hugh Marston
The current nosology of neuropsychiatric disorders allows for a pragmatic approach to treatment choice, regulation and clinical research. However, without a biological rationale for these disorders, drug development has stagnated. The recently EU-funded PRISM project aims to develop a quantitative biological approach to the understanding and classification of neuropsychiatric diseases to accelerate the discovery and development of better treatments. By combining clinical data sets from major worldwide disease cohorts and by applying innovative technologies to deeply phenotype stratified patient groups, we will define a set of quantifiable biological parameters for social withdrawal and cognitive deficits common to Schizophrenia (SZ), Major Depression (MD), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD)...
December 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236920/brazilian-version-of-the-cognitive-failures-questionnaire-cfq-cross-cultural-adaptation-and-evidence-of-validity-and-reliability
#10
Jonas J de Paula, Danielle S Costa, Débora M de Miranda, Marco A Romano-Silva
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in routine activities, such as forgetting commitments and experiencing difficulty concentrating. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to assess the frequency of these errors in everyday life. Although widely used in psychiatry and psychology, both in clinical and research settings, it has not been adapted for use in Brazil. Our objective was to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the CFQ for the Brazilian reality and assess its validity and reliability...
December 11, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236807/the-ritualization-of-life-and-the-expansion-of-psy-cultures-in-colombia-the-local-and-the-barely-transnational
#11
Carlos Alberto Uribe
This paper exposes the status of psy cultures in Colombia. It is shown how the country's official health system has transformed biomedical psychiatry and cognitive behavioral psychology into the dominant and hegemonic psy culture. However, far from being hegemonic, as presented, both serve to foster and sustain the existence of different "religious" or "sacred" therapeutic systems and practices that denaturalize human existential and psychological suffering. In general, the latter are ritual practices with a strong spiritualist, anti-materialist and antimonist content, that deal freely with a wide range of cosmologies, beliefs and symbols, even including the same concepts and practices of a biomedical origin...
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231006/-characteristics-of-schizophrenia-patients-homicide-behaviors-and-their-correlations-with-criminal-capacity
#12
Z W Sun, T T Shi, P X Fu
OBJECTIVES: To explore the characteristics of schizophrenia patients' homicide behaviors and the influences of the assessments of criminal capacity. METHODS: Indicators such as demographic and clinical data, characteristics of criminal behaviors and criminal capacity from the suspects whom were diagnosed by forensic psychiatry as schizophrenia (n=110) and normal mental (n=70) with homicide behavior, were collected by self-made investigation form and compared...
February 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224729/different-cognitive-complaint-profiles-in-memory-clinic-and-depressive-patients
#13
Lisa Miebach, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Ingo Frommann, Rachel Buckley, Michael Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive complaints are considered early indicators of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) but are very common in geriatric patients, especially in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The clinical assessment of cognitive complaints is still poorly operationalized. Recent qualitative research suggests that certain phenomenologic complaint themes may have some specificity for prodromal AD. The aim of the study was to replicate and explore their occurrence in a clinical setting...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222080/the-12-item-self-report-world-health-organization-disability-assessment-schedule-whodas-2-0-administered-via-the-internet-to-individuals-with-anxiety-and-stress-disorders-a-psychometric-investigation-based-on-data-from-two-clinical-trials
#14
Erland Axelsson, Elin Lindsäter, Brjánn Ljótsson, Erik Andersson, Erik Hedman-Lagerlöf
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a widespread measure of disability and functional impairment, which is bundled with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) for use in psychiatry. Administering psychometric scales via the Internet is an effective way to reach respondents and allow for convenient handling of data. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the psychometric properties of the 12-item self-report WHODAS 2...
December 8, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216834/inventory-of-real-world-data-sources-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Audrey Tanguy, Linus Jönsson, Lianna Ishihara
BACKGROUND: Real world data have an important role to play in the evaluation of epidemiology and burden of disease; and in assisting health-care decision-makers, especially related to coverage and payment decisions. However, there is currently no overview of the existing longitudinal real world data sources in Parkinson's disease (PD) in the USA. Such an assessment can be very helpful, to support a future effort to harmonize real world data collection and use the available resources in an optimal way...
December 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203852/the-dynamics-of-stress-a-longitudinal-mri-study-of-rat-brain-structure-and-connectome
#16
R Magalhães, D A Barrière, A Novais, F Marques, P Marques, J Cerqueira, J C Sousa, A Cachia, F Boumezbeur, M Bottlaender, T M Jay, S Mériaux, N Sousa
Stress is a well-established trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, as it alters both structure and function of several brain regions and its networks. Herein, we conduct a longitudinal neuroimaging study to assess how a chronic unpredictable stress protocol impacts the structure of the rat brain and its functional connectome in both high and low responders to stress. Our results reveal the changes that stress triggers in the brain, with structural atrophy affecting key regions such as the prelimbic, cingulate, insular and retrosplenial, somatosensory, motor, auditory and perirhinal/entorhinal cortices, the hippocampus, the dorsomedial striatum, nucleus accumbens, the septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the thalamus and several brain stem nuclei...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203849/an-integrated-brain-behavior-model-for-working-memory
#17
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202654/sensation-and-psychiatry-linking-age-related-hearing-loss-to-late-life-depression-and-cognitive-decline
#18
Bret R Rutherford, Katharine Brewster, Justin S Golub, Ana H Kim, Steven P Roose
Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198278/brain-based-biomarkers-for-the-treatment-of-depression-evolution-of-an-idea
#19
Allison C Waters, Helen S Mayberg
An ambition of depression biomarker research is to augment psychometric and cognitive assessment of clinically relevant phenomena with neural measures. Although such applications have been slow to arrive, we observe a steady evolution of the idea and anticipate emerging technologies with some optimism. To highlight critical themes and innovations in depression biomarker research, we take as our point of reference a specific research narrative. We begin with an early model of frontal-limbic dysfunction, which represents a conceptual shift from localized pathology to understanding symptoms as an emergent property of distributed networks...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195105/lgi1-antibody-encephalitis-detailed-clinical-laboratory-and-radiological-description-of-13-cases-in-china
#20
Dahai Wang, Qinjian Hao, Lingshuang He, Lan He, Qiang Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: LGI1 antibody encephalitis is a synaptic autoimmune disorder that was first reported in 2010. To date, LGI1 antibody encephalitis is a widely-recognized disease in neurology and psychiatry. In order to aid clinical recognition of the condition, we analyze the clinical characteristics of 13 Chinese LGI1 antibody encephalitis patients. METHODS: We analyzed clinical features of patients admitted to the West China Hospital who had been diagnosed with LGI1 antibody encephalitis from 2015 to 2017...
November 14, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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