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Cognitive psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641817/-preventing-violence-in-schizophrenia-with-cognitive-remediation
#1
C Darmedru, C Demily, N Franck
OBJECTIVES: The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior...
June 19, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639724/longitudinal-changes-in-global-and-domain-specific-cognitive-function-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-newcastle-85-study
#2
Blossom C M Stephan, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Antoneta Granic, Joanna Collerton, Karen Davies, Brian K Saxby, Keith A Wesnes, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Carol Jagger
OBJECTIVE: Ageing is associated with changes in cognition in some, but not all domains. In young-old adults, defined as persons aged 65-84 years, baseline cognitive function has been shown to impact on cognitive trajectories. Whether similar patterns occur in the very-old, defined as persons aged 85 years and over, is not known. METHODS: Longitudinal changes (5 years' follow-up) in global and domain specific cognitive function including memory, attention and speed were investigated in participants from the Newcastle 85+ Study (n = 845)...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630456/rare-disruptive-variants-in-the-disc1-interactome-and-regulome-association-with-cognitive-ability-and-schizophrenia
#3
S Teng, P A Thomson, S McCarthy, M Kramer, S Muller, J Lihm, S Morris, D C Soares, W Hennah, S Harris, L M Camargo, V Malkov, A M McIntosh, J K Millar, D H Blackwood, K L Evans, I J Deary, D J Porteous, W R McCombie
Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#4
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625196/the-effectiveness-of-enhanced-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-e-a-naturalistic-study-within-an-out-patient-eating-disorder-service
#5
Rachel Signorini, Jeanie Sheffield, Natalie Rhodes, Carmel Fleming, Warren Ward
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioural Therapy (CBT-E) for adults with a range of eating disorder presentations within routine clinical settings has been examined in only two known published studies, neither of which included a follow-up assessment period. AIM: The current study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CBT-E within an out-patient eating disorder service in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, and incorporated a follow-up assessment period of approximately 20 weeks post-treatment...
June 19, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611885/american-association-for-emergency-psychiatry-task-force-on-medical-clearance-of-adult-psychiatric-patients-part-ii-controversies-over-medical-assessment-and-consensus-recommendations
#6
REVIEW
Michael P Wilson, Kimberly Nordstrom, Eric L Anderson, Anthony T Ng, Leslie S Zun, Jennifer M Peltzer-Jones, Michael H Allen
INTRODUCTION: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. METHODS: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600645/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-for-perinatal-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-development-of-an-inpatient-group-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Alexa Bonacquisti, Matthew J Cohen, Crystal Edler Schiller
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for childbearing women. Current treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy, have demonstrated modest success in addressing perinatal psychiatric symptoms; however, additional treatment options are needed to address the limitations of current approaches, particularly for women experiencing moderate to severe perinatal mental illness during pregnancy or postpartum. We discuss the use of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a promising treatment approach that may be uniquely suited for perinatal women due to its emphasis of values, mindfulness, and acceptance; these psychological constructs notably address the significant psychiatric and behavioral health condition comorbidity, somatic symptoms, and stigma associated with perinatal mood and anxiety disorders...
June 10, 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589328/results-from-the-field-development-and-evaluation-of-a-psychiatry-residency-training-rotation-in-cognitive-behavioral-therapies
#8
Barbara W Kamholz, Amy E Lawrence, Gabrielle I Liverant, Shimrit K Black, Justin M Hill
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this project was to develop and evaluate a new residency training rotation focused on cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) and to assess outcomes across multiple domains. METHODS: Data are presented from 30 psychiatry residents. Primary learning-related outcomes included content knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes and behavioral intentions towards evidence-based psychotherapies (e.g., CBT). RESULTS: Residents reported significant increases in CBT knowledge, CBT-specific self-efficacy, overall psychotherapy self-efficacy, belief in patient benefit from CBT, and behavioral intention to use CBT...
June 6, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584287/rescue-of-impaired-sociability-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-cacna1c-deficient-mice-by-pharmacologically-targeting-eif2%C3%AE
#9
Z D Kabir, A Che, D K Fischer, R C Rice, B K Rizzo, M Byrne, M J Glass, N V De Marco Garcia, A M Rajadhyaksha
CACNA1C, encoding the Cav1.2 subunit of L-type Ca(2+) channels, has emerged as one of the most prominent and highly replicable susceptibility genes for several neuropsychiatric disorders. Cav1.2 channels play a crucial role in calcium-mediated processes involved in brain development and neuronal function. Within the CACNA1C gene, disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with impaired social and cognitive processing and altered prefrontal cortical (PFC) structure and activity. These findings suggest that aberrant Cav1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584286/genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-empathy-heritability-and-correlates-with-sex-neuropsychiatric-conditions-and-cognition
#10
V Warrier, K L Grasby, F Uzefovsky, R Toro, P Smith, B Chakrabarti, J Khadake, E Mawbey-Adamson, N Litterman, J-J Hottenga, G Lubke, D I Boomsma, N G Martin, P K Hatemi, S E Medland, D A Hinds, T Bourgeron, S Baron-Cohen
We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of cognitive empathy using the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) in 88,056 research volunteers of European Ancestry (44,574 females and 43,482 males) from 23andMe Inc., and an additional 1497 research volunteers of European Ancestry (891 females and 606 males) from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We confirmed a female advantage on the Eyes Test (Cohen's d=0.21, P<2.2 × 10(-16)), and identified a locus in 3p26.1 that is associated with scores on the Eyes Test in females (rs7641347, Pmeta=1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579208/louis-delasiauve-1804-1893-an-alienist-at-the-dawn-of-epileptology-and-pediatric-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
O Walusinski
This paper aims to honor the memory of the alienist Louis Delasiauve (1804-1893). His classification of the different types of epilepsy based on clinical symptoms is still relevant today and made him a precursor of contemporary epileptology. In 1851, Delasiauve clinically and etiologically isolated 'acute mental confusion' (acute confusional state) from all other forms of dementia. Never deviating from his republican and progressive ideals, he devoted himself throughout the 19th century to treating those insane asylum patients who received the poorest care: epileptics and children with intellectual disabilities...
June 1, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574009/potential-biomarkers-for-bipolar-disorder-where-do-we-stand
#12
REVIEW
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569221/a-four-part-working-bibliography-of-neuroethics-part-4-ethical-issues-in-clinical-and-social-applications-of-neuroscience
#13
EDITORIAL
Kira Becker, John R Shook, Martina Darragh, James Giordano
BACKGROUND: As a discipline, neuroethics addresses a range of questions and issues generated by basic neuroscientific research (inclusive of studies of putative neurobiological processes involved in moral and ethical cognition and behavior), and its use and meanings in the clinical and social spheres. Here, we present Part 4 of a four-part bibliography of the neuroethics literature focusing on clinical and social applications of neuroscience, to include: the treatment-enhancement discourse; issues arising in neurology, psychiatry, and pain care; neuroethics education and training; neuroethics and the law; neuroethics and policy and political issues; international neuroethics; and discourses addressing "trans-" and "post-" humanity...
May 31, 2017: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550022/longitudinal-assessment-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-sardinian-psychotic-patients-labsp-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#14
Diego Primavera, Mirko Manchia, Luca Deriu, Massimo Tusconi, Roberto Collu, Maria Scherma, Paola Fadda, Walter Fratta, Bernardo Carpiniello
INTRODUCTION: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and neuronal function and survival. Serum and plasma BDNF levels are moderately, but consistently, decreased in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared with healthy controls. There is a lack of knowledge, however, on the temporal manifestation of this decline. Clinical, illness course and treatment factors might influence the variation of BDNF serum levels in patients with psychosis...
May 25, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#15
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533517/vortioxetine-reduces-bold-signal-during-performance-of-the-n-back-working-memory-task-a-randomised-neuroimaging-trial-in-remitted-depressed-patients-and-healthy-controls
#16
J Smith, M Browning, S Conen, R Smallman, J Buchbjerg, K G Larsen, C K Olsen, S R Christensen, G R Dawson, J F Deakin, P Hawkins, R Morris, G Goodwin, C J Harmer
Cognitive dysfunction is common in depression during both acute episodes and remission. Vortioxetine is a novel multimodal antidepressant that has improved cognitive function including executive function in depressed patients in randomised placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, it is unclear whether vortioxetine is able to target directly the neural circuitry implicated in the cognitive deficits in depression. Remitted depressed (n=48) and healthy volunteers (n=48) were randomised to receive 14 days treatment with 20 mg vortioxetine or placebo in a double-blind design...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533149/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-catatonia-on-admission-to-an-acute-geriatric-psychiatry-ward
#17
Jorge Cuevas-Esteban, Maria Iglesias-González, Maria Rubio-Valera, Jordi Serra-Mestres, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Luisa Baladon
BACKGROUND: This study aims to describe the prevalence of catatonia in a population of older acute psychiatric inpatients according to different diagnostic criteria. Secondary objectives are: to compare the catatonic symptom profile, prevalence, and severity, in respect to the underlying aetiology, and to evaluate the association between catatonic and somatic comorbidity. METHODS: The study included 106 patients admitted to an acute geriatric psychiatry ward. Catatonia was assessed using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS)...
May 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524462/editorial-perspective-neurodiversity-a-revolutionary-concept-for-autism-and-psychiatry
#18
EDITORIAL
Simon Baron-Cohen
Should we continue to refer to autism as a 'disease' or 'disorder', or is the framework of 'neurodiversity' a more humane and accurate lens through which to view people with autism? Evidence at the genetic, neural, behavioural and cognitive levels reveals people with autism show both differences, and signs of disability, but not disorder. Disability requires societal support, acceptance of difference and diversity, and societal "reasonable adjustment", whilst disorder is usually taken to require cure or treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507319/longitudinal-changes-of-tau-pet-imaging-in-relation-to-hypometabolism-in-prodromal-and-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#19
K Chiotis, L Saint-Aubert, E Rodriguez-Vieitez, A Leuzy, O Almkvist, I Savitcheva, M Jonasson, M Lubberink, A Wall, G Antoni, A Nordberg
The development of tau-specific positron emission tomography (PET) tracers allows imaging in vivo the regional load of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. Eighteen patients with baseline investigations enroled in a 17-month follow-up study, including 16 with AD (10 had mild cognitive impairment and a positive amyloid PET scan, that is, prodromal AD, and six had AD dementia) and two with corticobasal syndrome. All patients underwent PET scans with [(18)F]THK5317 (tau deposition) and [(18)F]FDG (glucose metabolism) at baseline and follow-up, neuropsychological assessment at baseline and follow-up and a scan with [(11)C]PIB (amyloid-β deposition) at baseline only...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507318/cerebellar-volume-and-cerebellocerebral-structural-covariance-in-schizophrenia-a-multisite-mega-analysis-of-983-patients-and-1349-healthy-controls
#20
T Moberget, N T Doan, D Alnæs, T Kaufmann, A Córdova-Palomera, T V Lagerberg, J Diedrichsen, E Schwarz, M Zink, S Eisenacher, P Kirsch, E G Jönsson, H Fatouros-Bergman, L Flyckt, G Pergola, T Quarto, A Bertolino, D Barch, A Meyer-Lindenberg, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye
Although cerebellar involvement across a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychiatric phenotypes is increasingly being recognized, previous large-scale studies in schizophrenia (SZ) have primarily focused on supratentorial structures. Hence, the across-sample reproducibility, regional distribution, associations with cerebrocortical morphology and effect sizes of cerebellar relative to cerebral morphological differences in SZ are unknown. We addressed these questions in 983 patients with SZ spectrum disorders and 1349 healthy controls (HCs) from 14 international samples, using state-of-the-art image analysis pipelines optimized for both the cerebellum and the cerebrum...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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