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fetal cytomegalovirus

Bo Gao, Wei Wang, Han Wu, Cai Chen, Dan Shen, Saisai Wang, Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Shuheng Chan, Chengyi Song
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) is an important growth factor in mammals, but the functions of the local muscle-specific isoform of insulin-like growth factor 1 (mIGF-1) to skeletal muscle development have rarely been reported. To determine the effect of pig mIGF-1 on body development and muscle deposition in vivo and to investigate the molecular mechanisms, the transgenic mouse model was generated which can also provide experimental data for making transgenic pigs with pig endogenous IGF1 gene. We constructed a skeletal muscle-specific expression vector using 5'- and 3'-regulatory regions of porcine skeletal α-actin gene...
February 22, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Shih-Ting Lai, Chih-Ping Chen, Chen-Ju Lin, Chin Yuan Hsu, Peih-Shan Wu, Chen Chi Lee, Chen Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present two cases of late-onset bilateral fetal pleural effusions associated with fetal Down syndrome. CASE REPORTS: Case 1. A 33-year-old Vietnamese woman had undergone regular sonographic examinations since 23 weeks of gestation and no abnormality had been noted. However, bilateral moderate pleural effusions were found at 33 weeks of gestation, and massive pleural effusion, ascites and polyhydramnios developed at 34 weeks of gestation. Aspiration of the pleural effusion was subsequently performed...
February 2018: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Yoav Yinon, Dan Farine, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVES: To review the principles of prenatal diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and to describe the outcomes of the affected pregnancies. OUTCOMES: Effective management of fetal infection following primary and secondary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy. Neonatal signs include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), microcephaly, hepatosplenomegaly, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis, thrombocytopenia and anemia, and long-term sequelae consist of sensorineural hearing loss, mental retardation, delay of psychomotor development, and visual impairment...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
D S N'Diaye, O Launay, O Picone, V Tsatsaris, E Azria, F Rozenberg, M Schwarzinger, Y Yazdanpanah
BACKGROUND: CMV infections are the most frequent congenital infections worldwide. AIM: Assess the cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies of adolescent girls vs. current practice (hygiene counseling) to prevent CMV seroconversions during pregnancy in France. METHOD: A Markov decision-tree model simulated overtime the trajectory of a single fictive cohort of 390,000 adolescent women aged 14 years old, living in France. Impact of vaccination was explored until the end of their reproductive live 40 years later...
February 28, 2018: Vaccine
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Sallie R Permar, Mark R Schleiss, Stanley A Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Fei Zou, Zhi-Tao Lu, Shuang Wang, Si Wu, Ying-Ying Wu, Zheng-Rong Sun
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the primary viral cause of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation in newborns. The HCMV UL141‑encoded glycoprotein has been previously revealed to inhibit the cell‑surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)155, CD122, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand death (TRAIL)‑receptor 1 (R1) and TRAIL‑receptor 2 (R2), thus protecting virally‑infected cells by allowing them to escape natural killer cell‑mediated cytotoxicity...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Rahul Mittal, Desiree Nguyen, Luca H Debs, Amit P Patel, George Liu, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In S Kay, Jeenu Mittal, Emmalee S Bandstra, Ramzi T Younis, Prem Chapagain, Dushyantha T Jayaweera, Xue Zhong Liu
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rachelle Findley, Victoria M Allen, Jo-Ann K Brock
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the association of adverse perinatal outcomes with pregnancies complicated by fetal echogenic bowel. METHODS: Data for pregnancies complicated with echogenic bowel identified in the second trimester were derived from the tertiary referral IWK Health Centre (Halifax, NS) Viewpoint Ultrasound Database augmented by medical chart review. The study was undertaken between 2003 and 2014. Rates of positive cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis infection were determined using maternal serology and amniocentesis results...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Patcharee Komvilaisak, Ratana Komvilaisak, Arunee Jetsrisuparb, Surapon Wiangnon, Junya Jirapradittha, Pakaphan Kiatchoosakun, Goonapa Fucharoen
BACKGROUND: Fetal anemia is often assumed to be due to red cell alloimmunization and Parvovirus infection, and can lead to hydrops fetalis and death in utero. Other causes, such as mutations of hemoglobin alpha, are less commonly considered. METHODS: We report 7 cases with fetal anemia causing hydrops fetalis. Serial Doppler ultrasound for measurement peak systolic velocity (PSV) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was used for evaluation of fetal anemia. Fetal anemia is suggested if the MCA/PSV ratio is >1...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Cora Alexandra Voekt, Therese Rinderknecht, Hans Hellmuth Hirsch, Annette Blaich, Irene Mathilde Hösli
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Fetal abnormalities found on ultrasonography lead to a variety of diagnostic procedures, including a panel of serologies to detect possible maternal STORCH infections encompassing syphilis, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and others (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, parvovirus B19, enterovirus, varicella zoster, and Leptospira interrogans). The value of indiscriminate testing for infections upon the detection of fetal ultrasound abnormalities has been questioned...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Kazumichi Fujioka, Ichiro Morioka, Kosuke Nishida, Mayumi Morizane, Kenji Tanimura, Masashi Deguchi, Kazumoto Iijima, Hideto Yamada
We report two cases of pulmonary hypoplasia due to fetal ascites in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections despite fetal therapy. The patients died soon after birth. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia in our cases might be thoracic compression due to massive fetal ascites as a result of liver insufficiency. Despite aggressive fetal treatment, including multiple immunoglobulin administration, which was supposed to diminish the pathogenic effects of CMV either by neutralization or immunomodulatory effects, the fetal ascites was uncontrollable...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Roee Birnbaum, Liat Ben-Sira, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger
OBJECTIVE: To analyze ultrasound and MRI results and developmental outcome in cases of maternal primary CMV infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of fetal neurosonography and brain MRI of CMV infected fetuses (Group 1). Cases of maternal infection in which the fetal status was unknown, and subsequently had a negative CMV postnatal urine analysis, were independently analyzed (Group 2). Imaging results were classified as: positive, negative or inconclusive...
November 8, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
Aldi Pupuleku, Marcel Costa-García, Domènec Farré, Hartmut Hengel, Ana Angulo, Aura Muntasell, Miguel López-Botet
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection promotes the differentiation and persistent expansion of a mature NK cell subset, which displays high surface levels of the activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor, together with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. The mechanisms underlying the development of adaptive NK cells remain uncertain but some observations support the involvement of a cognate interaction of CD94/NKG2C with ligand(s) displayed by HCMV-infected cells. To approach this issue, the heterodimer and its adaptor (DAP12) were expressed in the human Jurkat leukemia T cell line; signaling was detected by transfection of a reporter plasmid encoding for Luciferase (Luc) under NFAT/AP1-dependent control...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Craig J Bierle, Claudia Fernández-Alarcón, Nelmary Hernandez-Alvarado, Jason C Zabeli, Bradley C Janus, Dira S Putri, Mark R Schleiss
Primary Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
K Toriyabe, F Morikawa, T Minematsu, M Ikejiri, S Suga, T Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer in pregnant women with primary infection as a predictive factor for congenital infection. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal CMV antibody screening during the first trimester was conducted prospectively at 16 centers in Japan between September 2013 and 2015. Women with confirmed maternal primary infection underwent testing for fetal congenital infection, and we investigated the positive predictive value of CMV IgM titer levels for congenital infection in women with a low IgG avidity...
December 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Adi Katz, Rivka H Regev, Ofer Markovitch, Reuven Sharony, Yael Ganor Paz, Tal Biron-Shental
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yield of work-up in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies and their outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data regarding prenatal work-up (serology, genetic testing and imaging), and neonatal outcomes of 198 IUGR pregnancies (estimated fetal weight <10th percentile) were analyzed. RESULTS: IUGR was isolated in 72 cases. Work-up performed in 158 (80%) cases was positive in 4 (2.5%). No abnormalities were detected in prenatal genetic testing...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Chiara Fornara, Irene Cassaniti, Maurizio Zavattoni, Milena Furione, Kodjo M G Adzasehoun, Annalisa De Silvestri, Giuditta Comolli, Fausto Baldanti
Background: Primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection during pregnancy is the major cause of congenital viral sequelae. The HCMV-specific T-cell response may have a role in the prevention of virus transmission to the fetus. Methods: HCMV-specific memory T cells were investigated in the second month after primary infection onset in 44 pregnant women (15 transmitting the infection to the fetus) and 8 pregnant women with remote infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated for 12 days with peptide pools of HCMV proteins IE-1, IE-2, and pp65, and subsequently restimulated for 24 hours with the same peptide pools in a cultured enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
L D Frenkel, F Gomez, F Sabahi
The emergence of Zika-virus-associated congenital microcephaly has engendered renewed interest in the pathogenesis of microcephaly induced by infectious agents. Three of the original "TORCH" agents are associated with an appreciable incidence of congenital microcephaly: cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The pathology of congenital microcephaly is characterized by neurotropic infectious agents that involve the fetal nervous system, leading to brain destruction with calcifications, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and ophthalmologic abnormalities...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Alberto Galindo Izquierdo, Teresa Del Rosal, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Nuria Izquierdo Méndez, María Soriano-Ramos, Pablo Rojo Conejo, María Isabel González-Tomé, Antonio García-Burguillo, Noelia Pérez Pérez, Virginia Sánchez, Jose Tomás Ramos-Amador, Maria De la Calle
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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