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fetal cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077639/identification-of-a-continuous-neutralizing-epitope-within-ul128-of-human-cytomegalovirus
#1
Flavia Chiuppesi, Teodora Kaltcheva, Meng Zhuo, Peter A Barry, Don J Diamond, Felix Wussow
: As human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common infectious cause of fetal anomalies during pregnancy, developing a vaccine that prevents HCMV infection is considered a global health priority. Although HCMV immune correlates of protection are only poorly defined, neutralizing antibodies (NAb) targeting the envelope pentamer complex (PC) composed of subunits gH, gL, UL128, UL130, and UL131A are thought to contribute in preventing HCMV infection. Here, we describe a continuous target sequence within UL128 that is recognized by a previously isolated potent PC-specific NAb, termed 13B5...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034524/maternal-immunoglobulin-g-avidity-as-a-diagnostic-tool-to-identify-pregnant-women-at-risk-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#2
Masatoki Kaneko, Masanao Ohhashi, Toshio Minematsu, Junsuke Muraoka, Kazumi Kusumoto, Hiroshi Sameshima
BACKGROUND: The immunoglobulin (Ig) G avidity index (AI) is useful to detect primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. However, because IgG matures with time, this index is not useful to detect a primary infection, unless measured at an appropriate time. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify the difference between using IgG AI and IgM positivity according to the stage of pregnancy to identify congenital CMV infection risk. STUDY DESIGN: We collected the serum samples from 1115 pregnant women who underwent maternal screening for primary infection (n = 956) and were referred to our hospital because of CMV IgM positivity (n = 155) or had abnormal fetal ultrasonography findings (n = 4)...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988973/characterizing-human-cytomegalovirus-reinfection-in-congenitally-infected-infants-an-evolutionary-perspective
#3
Cornelia Pokalyuk, Nicholas Renzette, Kristen K Irwin, Susanne P Pfeifer, Laura Gibson, William J Britt, Aparecida Y Yamamoto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Timothy F Kowalik, Jeffrey D Jensen
Given the strong selective pressures often faced by populations when colonizing a novel habitat, the level of variation present on which selection may act is an important indicator of adaptive potential. While often discussed in an ecological context, this notion is also highly relevant in our clinical understanding of viral infection, in which the novel habitat is a new host. Thus, quantifying the factors determining levels of variation is of considerable importance for the design of improved treatment strategies...
December 18, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987334/echocardiography-findings-in-a-case-with-ballantyne-syndrome
#4
Yutaro Suzuki, Mie Yamamura, Keisuke Kikuchi, Rifumi Hattori, Takeshi Umazume, Hisanori Minakami
Marked fluid retention occurs in Ballantyne syndrome, but few reports are available on changes in cardiac morphology in this syndrome. A woman with generalized edema, dyspnea, fetal hydrops (skin edema and ascites), thickened placenta, and elevated plasma B-type natriuretic peptide level (344 pg/mL) was admitted to our hospital at gestational week (GW) 20(+3) . Blood pressure remained within the normal range. However, acute increases in left atrial volume index, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and hyperdynamic left ventricular function (as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction to 74% with cardiac index of 5...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986675/prediction-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-high-risk-pregnant-women
#5
Kenji Tanimura, Shinya Tairaku, Yasuhiko Ebina, Ichiro Morioka, Satoshi Nagamata, Kana Deguchi, Mayumi Morizane, Masashi Deguchi, Toshio Minematsu, Hideto Yamada
BACKGROUND: This prospective study aimed to determine maternal clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound findings that effectively predict the occurrence of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (CCI) in high-risk pregnant women. METHODS: Three hundred CMV immunoglobulin (Ig) M-positive pregnant women were enrolled. The maternal clinical and laboratory findings, including serum CMV IgM and IgG; IgG avidity index (AI); antigenemia assay (C7-HRP); polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of CMV-DNA in the maternal serum, urine, and uterine cervical secretion; and prenatal ultrasound findings, were evaluated...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974560/zika-virus-infects-early-and-mid-gestation-human-maternal-decidual-tissues-inducing-distinct-innate-tissue-responses-in-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#6
Yiska Weisblum, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Olesya M Vorontsov, Ronit Haimov-Kochman, Zichria Zakay-Rones, Karen Meir, David Shveiky, Sharona Elgavish, Yuval Nevo, Moshe Roseman, Michal Bronstein, David Stockheim, Ido From, Iris Eisenberg, Aya A Lewkowicz, Simcha Yagel, Amos Panet, Dana G Wolf
: Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a cause of congenital brain anomalies and a range of placental-related abnormalities, highlighting the need to unveil the modes of maternal-to-fetal transmission. The most likely route of vertical ZIKV transmission is via the placenta. The earliest events of ZIKV transmission in the maternal decidua, representing the maternal-uterine aspect of the chimeric placenta, have remained unexplored. Here we show that ZIKV replicates in first-trimester human maternal-decidual tissues grown ex-vivo as 3D organ cultures...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956621/expression-of-kir2ds1-by-decidual-natural-killer-cells-increases-their-ability-to-control-placental-hcmv-infection
#7
Ângela C Crespo, Jack L Strominger, Tamara Tilburgs
The combination of the activating killer cell Ig-like receptor 2DS1 (KIR2DS1) expressed by maternal decidual natural killer cells (dNK) and the presence of its ligand, the HLA-C allotype HLA-C2, expressed by fetal trophoblasts, reduces the risk of developing pregnancy complications. However, no molecular or cellular mechanism explains this genetic correlation. Here we demonstrate that KIR2DS1+ dNK acquired higher cytotoxic function than KIR2DS1- dNK when exposed to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected decidual stromal cells (DSC), particularly when DSCs express HLA-C2...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923540/fetal-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Marianne Leruez-Ville, Yves Ville
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection affects 0.7% of live births worldwide and is the leading cause of congenital neurological handicap of infectious origin. However, systematic screening for this infection has not been implemented in pregnancy or at birth in any country. This apparent paradox had been justified by persisting gaps in the knowledge of this congenital infection: uncertain epidemiological data, difficulty in the diagnosis of maternal infection, absence of validated prenatal prognostic markers, unavailability of an efficient vaccine and scarcity of data available on the treatment...
January 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903736/t-and-b-cell-markers-in-dried-blood-spots-of-neonates-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-b-cell-numbers-at-birth-are-associated-with-long-term-outcomes
#9
Roberta Rovito, Marjolein J Korndewal, Menno C van Zelm, Dimitrios Ziagkos, Els Wessels, Mirjam van der Burg, Aloys C M Kroes, Anton W Langerak, Ann C T M Vossen
Congenital CMV infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection that can cause long-term impairment (LTI). The pathogenesis of LTI is not completely understood. Fetal immunity may play a role in controlling the infection and preventing LTI, although immune activation may also contribute to fetal immunopathology. In this study, we analyzed various molecular markers of T and B cell numbers in neonatal dried blood spots of 99 children with cCMV and 54 children without cCMV: δRec-ψJα signal joints on TCR excision circles, intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element signal joints on Igκ-deleting recombination excision circles, genomic intron recombination signal sequence k-deleting element coding joint, genomic Vδ1-Jδ1, and Vδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902356/luciferase-tagged-wild-type-and-tropism-deficient-mouse-cytomegaloviruses-reveal-early-dynamics-of-host-colonization-following-peripheral-challenge
#10
Helen Farrell, Martha Oliveira, Kate Macdonald, Joseph Yunis, Michael Mach, Kimberley Bruce, Philip Stevenson, Rhonda Cardin, Nicholas Davis-Poynter
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish persistent, systemic infections and cause disease by maternal-foetal transfer, suggesting that their dissemination is a key target for antiviral intervention. Late clinical presentation has meant that human CMV (HCMV) dissemination is not well understood. Murine CMV (MCMV) provides a tractable model. Whole mouse imaging of virus-expressed luciferase has proved a useful way to track systemic infections. MCMV, in which the abundant lytic gene M78 was luciferase-tagged via a self-cleaving peptide (M78-LUC), allowed serial, unbiased imaging of systemic and peripheral infection without significant virus attenuation...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878897/minimal-immune-determinants-connect-zika-virus-human-cytomegalovirus-and-toxoplasma-gondii-to-microcephaly-related-human-proteins
#11
Guglielmo Lucchese, Darja Kanduc
Aiming at the molecular definition of the relationship(s) between prenatal infections and fetal microcephaly and using pentapeptides as minimal immune determinants, we analyzed the peptide matching between proteins from infectious agents involved in microcephalic syndromes (namely Zika virus, human Cytomegalovirus, and Toxoplasma gondii) and human proteins that, when altered, have been specifically associated with microcephaly. We report that an unexpected high number of epitopic pentapeptides (ie, 34) are common to the three fetopathogenic agents and repeatedly occur throughout an important number of microcephaly-related human proteins...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832434/monitoring-of-venus-transgenic-cell-migration-during-pregnancy-in-non-transgenic-rabbits
#12
N Lipták, O I Hoffmann, A Kerekes, G Iski, D Ernszt, K Kvell, L Hiripi, Z Bősze
Cell transfer between mother and fetus were demonstrated previously in several species which possess haemochorial placenta (e.g. in humans, mice, rats, etc.). Here we report the assessment of fetal and maternal microchimerism in non-transgenic (non-TG) New Zealand white rabbits which were pregnant with transgenic (TG) fetuses and in non-TG newborns of TG does. The TG construct, including the Venus fluorophore cDNA driven by a ubiquitous cytomegalovirus enhancer, chicken ß-actin promoter (CAGGS), was previously integrated into the rabbit genome by Sleeping Beauty transposon system...
November 10, 2016: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797961/a-replication-defective-human-cytomegalovirus-vaccine-for-prevention-of-congenital-infection
#13
Dai Wang, Daniel C Freed, Xi He, Fengsheng Li, Aimin Tang, Kara S Cox, Sheri A Dubey, Suzanne Cole, Muneeswara Babu Medi, Yaping Liu, Jingyuan Xu, Zhi-Qiang Zhang, Adam C Finnefrock, Liping Song, Amy S Espeseth, John W Shiver, Danilo R Casimiro, Tong-Ming Fu
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection occurs in ~0.64% of infants born each year in the United States and is the leading nongenetic cause of childhood neurodevelopmental disabilities. No licensed HCMV vaccine is currently available. Natural immunity to HCMV in women before pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of fetal infection, suggesting that a vaccine is feasible if it can reproduce immune responses elicited by natural infection. On the basis of this premise, we developed a whole-virus vaccine candidate from the live attenuated AD169 strain, with genetic modifications to improve its immunogenicity and attenuation...
October 26, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781316/stillbirth-and-intrauterine-fetal-death-role-of-routine-histological-organ-sampling-to-determine-cause-of-death
#14
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, L Judge-Kronis, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for the investigation of intrauterine death and sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) recommend, based on expert opinion, autopsy procedures and tissue sampling strategies for histological analysis. Although stillbirth is much more common than SUDI, there have been no large-scale studies published which evaluate the usefulness of histological evaluation of specific organs in stillbirth for determining cause of death. Our aim was to evaluate the use of macroscopic and microscopic assessment of internal organs to determine cause of intrauterine death...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703572/cytomegalovirus-infection-during-pregnancy-and-its-impact-on-the-intrauterine-fetal-development-case-report
#15
Mariya Angelova, Emil Kovachev, Nikolai Todorov
AIM: The aim of this publication is to present a case of CMV infection during pregnancy, with clinical manifestations of the development of microcephaly and simultaneous dilatation of the 3rd and 4th brain ventricle at 23 weeks gestation. This article discusses the role of ultrasound screening in the second trimester of pregnancy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with the initials S.K. in her second pregnancy that came to our antenatal Consulting Centre...
September 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699182/study-of-soluble-hla-g-in-congenital-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#16
Roberta Rizzo, Liliana Gabrielli, Daria Bortolotti, Valentina Gentili, Giulia Piccirilli, Angela Chiereghin, Claudia Pavia, Silvia Bolzani, Brunella Guerra, Giuliana Simonazzi, Francesca Cervi, Maria Grazia Capretti, Enrico Fainardi, Dario Di Luca, Maria Paola Landini, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical HLA class I antigen that is expressed during pregnancy contributing to maternal-fetal tolerance. HLA-G can be expressed as membrane-bound and soluble forms. HLA-G expression increases strongly during viral infections such as congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, with functional consequences in immunoregulation. In this work we investigated the expression of soluble (s)HLA-G and beta-2 microglobulin (component of HLA) molecules in correlation with the risk of transmission and severity of congenital HCMV infection...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683575/activation-of-langerhans-type-dendritic-cells-alters-human-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-reactivation-in-a-stimulus-dependent-manner
#17
Roxanne Coronel, Desyree M Jesus, Lucia Dalle Ore, Joe S Mymryk, Laura Hertel
Oral mucosal Langerhans cells (LC) are likely to play important roles in host defense against infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV). We previously showed that in vitro-differentiated immature LC (iLC) populations contain smaller amounts of infected cells but produce higher yields than mature LC (mLC) cultures, obtained by iLC stimulation with fetal bovine serum (FBS), CD40 ligand (CD40L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we sought to determine if exposure to select stimuli can improve LC permissiveness to infection, if specific components of the mLC cocktail are responsible for lowering viral yields, if this is due to defects in progeny production or release, and if these restrictions are also effective against reactivated virus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673425/treatment-of-perinatal-viral-infections-to-improve-neurologic-outcomes
#18
REVIEW
William J Muller
Viral infections in the fetus or newborn often involve the central nervous system (CNS) and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Substantial progress has been made in identifying interventions decreasing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. This review highlights progress in treatment of important viruses affecting the CNS in these susceptible hosts, focusing on herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and enteroviruses. The observation that high-dose acyclovir improves mortality in neonatal HSV disease culminated decades of antiviral research for this disease...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644020/progressive-lesions-of-central-nervous-system-in-microcephalic-fetuses-with-suspected-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome
#19
Manoel Sarno, Marcelo Aquino, Kleber Pimentel, Renata Cabral, Gisela Costa, Fernanda Bastos, Carlos Brites
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the pattern and progression of Central Nervous System (CNS) lesions of microcephalic fetuses with suspected Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses diagnosed with microcephaly after a routine primary care ultrasound scan suspect a fetal microcephaly in Salvador, Brazil, from July/2015 to February/2016 and these pregnancies were followed until delivery. Microcephaly was diagnosed when the head circumference was below two or more standard deviation for gestational age and its relationship with ZIKV infection was defined according to World Health Organization criteria...
September 19, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639132/maternal-pre-pregnancy-risk-factors-for-miscarriage-from-a-prevention-perspective-a-cohort-study-in-china
#20
Huan Zhou, Yongping Liu, Lu Liu, Min Zhang, Xingzhi Chen, Yulong Qi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of the pre-pregnancy modifiable risks with miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: We randomly selected 51 communities or villages from January 2013 to December 2014 in Anhui, China. We calculated incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each risk factor for miscarriage. RESULTS: The incidence rate of miscarriage was 7.45%, and pre-embryonic loss account for 12.66%, embryonic loss account for 38%, and fetal losses account for 49...
November 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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