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fetal cytomegalovirus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343580/advancing-our-understanding-of-protective-maternal-immunity-as-a-guide-for-development-of-vaccines-to-reduce-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infections
#1
Sallie R Permar, Mark R Schleiss, Stanley A Plotkin
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogen worldwide, impacting an estimated 1 million newborns annually. Congenital HCMV (cCMV) infection is a major global contributor to long-term neurologic deficits, including deafness, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, as well as fetal loss and occasional infant mortality. Accordingly, a maternal vaccine to prevent cCMV continues to be a top public health priority. Nevertheless, we remain without a licensed vaccine. Maternal immunity provides partial protection, as the risk of vertical HCMV transmission from chronically infected mothers is reduced compared to settings in which the mother is newly infected during pregnancy...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328469/human-cytomegalovirus-ul141-protein-interacts-with-celf5-and-affects-viral-dna-replication
#2
Fei Zou, Zhi-Tao Lu, Shuang Wang, Si Wu, Ying-Ying Wu, Zheng-Rong Sun
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the primary viral cause of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation in newborns. The HCMV UL141‑encoded glycoprotein has been previously revealed to inhibit the cell‑surface expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)155, CD122, tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis‑inducing ligand death (TRAIL)‑receptor 1 (R1) and TRAIL‑receptor 2 (R2), thus protecting virally‑infected cells by allowing them to escape natural killer cell‑mediated cytotoxicity...
January 10, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276699/zika-virus-an-emerging-global-health-threat
#3
REVIEW
Rahul Mittal, Desiree Nguyen, Luca H Debs, Amit P Patel, George Liu, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In S Kay, Jeenu Mittal, Emmalee S Bandstra, Ramzi T Younis, Prem Chapagain, Dushyantha T Jayaweera, Xue Zhong Liu
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging healthcare threat. The presence of the mosquito Aedes species across South and Central America in combination with complementary climates have incited an epidemic of locally transmitted cases of ZIKV infection in Brazil. As one of the most significant current public health concerns in the Americas, ZIKV epidemic has been a cause of alarm due to its known and unknown complications. At this point, there has been a clear association between ZIKV infection and severe clinical manifestations in both adults and neonates, including but not limited to neurological deficits such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274932/adverse-perinatal-conditions-associated-with-prenatally-detected-fetal-echogenic-bowel-in-nova-scotia
#4
Rachelle Findley, Victoria M Allen, Jo-Ann K Brock
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the association of adverse perinatal outcomes with pregnancies complicated by fetal echogenic bowel. METHODS: Data for pregnancies complicated with echogenic bowel identified in the second trimester were derived from the tertiary referral IWK Health Centre (Halifax, NS) Viewpoint Ultrasound Database augmented by medical chart review. The study was undertaken between 2003 and 2014. Rates of positive cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis infection were determined using maternal serology and amniocentesis results...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240037/fetal-anemia-causing-hydrops-fetalis-from-an-alpha-globin-variant-homozygous-hemoglobin-constant-spring
#5
Patcharee Komvilaisak, Ratana Komvilaisak, Arunee Jetsrisuparb, Surapon Wiangnon, Junya Jirapradittha, Pakaphan Kiatchoosakun, Goonapa Fucharoen
BACKGROUND: Fetal anemia is often assumed to be due to red cell alloimmunization and Parvovirus infection, and can lead to hydrops fetalis and death in utero. Other causes, such as mutations of hemoglobin alpha, are less commonly considered. METHODS: We report 7 cases with fetal anemia causing hydrops fetalis. Serial Doppler ultrasound for measurement peak systolic velocity (PSV) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was used for evaluation of fetal anemia. Fetal anemia is suggested if the MCA/PSV ratio is >1...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185251/ultrasound-indications-for-maternal-storch-testing-in-pregnancy
#6
Cora Alexandra Voekt, Therese Rinderknecht, Hans Hellmuth Hirsch, Annette Blaich, Irene Mathilde Hösli
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Fetal abnormalities found on ultrasonography lead to a variety of diagnostic procedures, including a panel of serologies to detect possible maternal STORCH infections encompassing syphilis, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and others (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C, parvovirus B19, enterovirus, varicella zoster, and Leptospira interrogans). The value of indiscriminate testing for infections upon the detection of fetal ultrasound abnormalities has been questioned...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164089/pulmonary-hypoplasia-caused-by-fetal-ascites-in-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-despite-fetal-therapy
#7
Kazumichi Fujioka, Ichiro Morioka, Kosuke Nishida, Mayumi Morizane, Kenji Tanimura, Masashi Deguchi, Kazumoto Iijima, Hideto Yamada
We report two cases of pulmonary hypoplasia due to fetal ascites in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections despite fetal therapy. The patients died soon after birth. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypoplasia in our cases might be thoracic compression due to massive fetal ascites as a result of liver insufficiency. Despite aggressive fetal treatment, including multiple immunoglobulin administration, which was supposed to diminish the pathogenic effects of CMV either by neutralization or immunomodulatory effects, the fetal ascites was uncontrollable...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119569/the-utility-of-fetal-neurosonography-and-brain-mri-in-cases-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-during-pregnancy-a-retrospective-analysis-with-outcome-correlation
#8
Roee Birnbaum, Liat Ben-Sira, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger
OBJECTIVE: To analyze ultrasound and MRI results and developmental outcome in cases of maternal primary CMV infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of fetal neurosonography and brain MRI of CMV infected fetuses (Group 1). Cases of maternal infection in which the fetal status was unknown, and subsequently had a negative CMV postnatal urine analysis, were independently analyzed (Group 2). Imaging results were classified as: positive, negative or inconclusive...
November 8, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114247/elusive-role-of-the-cd94-nkg2c-nk-cell-receptor-in-the-response-to-cytomegalovirus-novel-experimental-observations-in-a-reporter-cell-system
#9
Aldi Pupuleku, Marcel Costa-García, Domènec Farré, Hartmut Hengel, Ana Angulo, Aura Muntasell, Miguel López-Botet
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection promotes the differentiation and persistent expansion of a mature NK cell subset, which displays high surface levels of the activating CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor, together with additional distinctive phenotypic and functional features. The mechanisms underlying the development of adaptive NK cells remain uncertain but some observations support the involvement of a cognate interaction of CD94/NKG2C with ligand(s) displayed by HCMV-infected cells. To approach this issue, the heterodimer and its adaptor (DAP12) were expressed in the human Jurkat leukemia T cell line; signaling was detected by transfection of a reporter plasmid encoding for Luciferase (Luc) under NFAT/AP1-dependent control...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099873/assessing-zika-virus-replication-and-the-development-of-zika-specific-antibodies-after-a-mid-gestation-viral-challenge-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Craig J Bierle, Claudia Fernández-Alarcón, Nelmary Hernandez-Alvarado, Jason C Zabeli, Bradley C Janus, Dira S Putri, Mark R Schleiss
Primary Zika virus (ZIKV) infections that occur during pregnancy can cause spontaneous abortion and profoundly disrupt fetal development. While the full range of developmental abnormalities associated with congenital Zika syndrome is not yet known, severe cases of the syndrome can present with microcephaly, extensive neurologic and ocular damage, and pronounced joint malformations. Animal models that accurately recapitulate congenital Zika syndrome are urgently needed for vaccine development and for the study of ZIKV pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022925/anti-cytomegalovirus-immunoglobulin-m-titer-for-congenital-infection-in-first-trimester-pregnancy-with-primary-infection-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#11
K Toriyabe, F Morikawa, T Minematsu, M Ikejiri, S Suga, T Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) titer in pregnant women with primary infection as a predictive factor for congenital infection. STUDY DESIGN: Maternal CMV antibody screening during the first trimester was conducted prospectively at 16 centers in Japan between September 2013 and 2015. Women with confirmed maternal primary infection underwent testing for fetal congenital infection, and we investigated the positive predictive value of CMV IgM titer levels for congenital infection in women with a low IgG avidity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020825/the-yield-of-the-prenatal-work-up-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-the-spectrum-of-fetal-abnormalities-detected-postnatally-%C3%A2
#12
Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Adi Katz, Rivka H Regev, Ofer Markovitch, Reuven Sharony, Yael Ganor Paz, Tal Biron-Shental
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the yield of work-up in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies and their outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data regarding prenatal work-up (serology, genetic testing and imaging), and neonatal outcomes of 198 IUGR pregnancies (estimated fetal weight <10th percentile) were analyzed. RESULTS: IUGR was isolated in 72 cases. Work-up performed in 158 (80%) cases was positive in 4 (2.5%). No abnormalities were detected in prenatal genetic testing...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020188/human-cytomegalovirus-specific-memory-cd4-t-cell-response-and-its-correlation-with-virus-transmission-to-the-fetus-in-pregnant-women-with-primary-infection
#13
Chiara Fornara, Irene Cassaniti, Maurizio Zavattoni, Milena Furione, Kodjo M G Adzasehoun, Annalisa De Silvestri, Giuditta Comolli, Fausto Baldanti
Background: Primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection during pregnancy is the major cause of congenital viral sequelae. The HCMV-specific T-cell response may have a role in the prevention of virus transmission to the fetus. Methods: HCMV-specific memory T cells were investigated in the second month after primary infection onset in 44 pregnant women (15 transmitting the infection to the fetus) and 8 pregnant women with remote infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated for 12 days with peptide pools of HCMV proteins IE-1, IE-2, and pp65, and subsequently restimulated for 24 hours with the same peptide pools in a cultured enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay...
October 30, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980148/the-pathogenesis-of-microcephaly-resulting-from-congenital-infections-why-is-my-baby-s-head-so-small
#14
REVIEW
L D Frenkel, F Gomez, F Sabahi
The emergence of Zika-virus-associated congenital microcephaly has engendered renewed interest in the pathogenesis of microcephaly induced by infectious agents. Three of the original "TORCH" agents are associated with an appreciable incidence of congenital microcephaly: cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The pathology of congenital microcephaly is characterized by neurotropic infectious agents that involve the fetal nervous system, leading to brain destruction with calcifications, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and ophthalmologic abnormalities...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978246/prevention-and-treatment-of-fetal-cytomegalovirus-infection-with-cytomegalovirus-hyperimmune-globulin-a-multicenter-study-in-madrid
#15
Daniel Blázquez-Gamero, Alberto Galindo Izquierdo, Teresa Del Rosal, Fernando Baquero-Artigao, Nuria Izquierdo Méndez, María Soriano-Ramos, Pablo Rojo Conejo, María Isabel González-Tomé, Antonio García-Burguillo, Noelia Pérez Pérez, Virginia Sánchez, Jose Tomás Ramos-Amador, Maria De la Calle
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection worldwide. Data about the management of CMV infection in pregnant women are scarce, and treatment options are very limited. The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin (CMV-HIG) for the prevention and treatment of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in Madrid...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976995/knowledge-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-ccmv-among-physical-and-occupational-therapists-in-the-united-states
#16
Kathleen M Muldoon, Amy Armstrong-Heimsoth, Jodi Thomas
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956761/apobec3a-is-upregulated-by-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-in-the-maternal-fetal-interface-acting-as-an-innate-anti-hcmv-effector
#17
Yiska Weisblum, Esther Oiknine-Djian, Zichria Zakay-Rones, Olesya Vorontsov, Ronit Haimov-Kochman, Yuval Nevo, David Stockheim, Simcha Yagel, Amos Panet, Dana G Wolf
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital infection and is associated with a wide range of neurodevelopmental disabilities and intrauterine growth restriction. Yet our current understanding of the mechanisms modulating transplacental HCMV transmission is poor. The placenta, given its critical function in protecting the fetus, has evolved effective yet largely uncharacterized innate immune barriers against invading pathogens. Here we show that the intrinsic cellular restriction factor apolipoprotein B editing catalytic subunit-like 3A (APOBEC3A [A3A]) is profoundly upregulated following ex vivo HCMV infection in human decidual tissues-constituting the maternal aspect of the placenta...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840519/neighborhood-disadvantage-is-associated-with-high-cytomegalovirus-seroprevalence-in-pregnancy
#18
Paul M Lantos, Kate Hoffman, Sallie R Permar, Pearce Jackson, Brenna L Hughes, Amy Kind, Geeta Swamy
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of fetal malformations and childhood hearing loss. CMV is more common among socially disadvantaged groups, and geographically clusters in poor communities. The Area Deprivation Index (ADI) is a neighborhood-level index derived from census data that reflects material disadvantage. METHODS: We performed a geospatial analysis to determine if ADI predicts the local odds of CMV seropositivity. We analyzed a dataset of 3527 women who had been tested for CMV antibodies during pregnancy...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825766/trends-in-continuity-of-pregnancy-in-women-with-positive-cytomegalovirus-igm-during-the-first-trimester-2008-2009
#19
Ron Beloosesky, Ilana Feldblum, Alon Shrim, Jenny Kertes, Jacob Segal, Rachel Bachar, Yefet Youval
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is the most common cause of intrauterine infection, and is a common cause of sensorineural hearing loss and mental retardation. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate trends in amniocentesis and pregnancy outcome in women with suspected cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during the first trimester. METHODS: All blood tests for CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM) done between 2008 and 2009 on pregnant women who were enrolled in the Maccabi Healthcare Services were retrieved from laboratory database...
August 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780216/neuroimaging-findings-of-congenital-toxoplasmosis-cytomegalovirus-and-zika-virus-infections-a-comparison-of-three-cases
#20
Heron Werner, Pedro Daltro, Tatiana Fazecas, Mohammad Zare Mehrjardi, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are among the common infectious agents that may infect the fetuses vertically. Clinical presentations of these congenital infections overlap significantly, and it is usually impossible to determine the causative agent clinically. The objective was the comparison of neuroimaging findings in three fetuses who underwent intrauterine infection by toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV. METHODS: Three confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV, and ZIKV infections were included in the study over 7 months prospectively...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
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