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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908324/pd-1-blockade-with-nivolumab-in-patients-with-recurrent-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#1
Josine Quispel-Janssen, Vincent van der Noort, Jeltje F de Vries, Marion Zimmerman, Ferry Lalezari, Erik Thunnissen, Kim Monkhorst, Robert Schouten, Laurel Schunselaar, Maria Disselhorst, Houke Klomp, Koen Hartemink, Sjaak Burgers, Wieneke Buikhuisen, Paul Baas
BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) has limited treatment options and a poor outcome. PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors have proven efficacious in several cancer types. Nivolumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against PD-1 with a favorable toxicity profile. In MPM, the immune system is considered to play an important role. We therefore tested nivolumab in recurrent MPM. METHODS: In this single center trial, patients with MPM received nivolumab 3mg/kg i...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907597/myeloid-p38%C3%AE-signaling-promotes-intestinal-igf-1-production-and-inflammation-associated-tumorigenesis
#2
Catrin Youssif, Monica Cubillos-Rojas, Mònica Comalada, Elisabeth Llonch, Cristian Perna, Nabil Djouder, Angel R Nebreda
The protein kinase p38α plays a key role in cell homeostasis, and p38α signaling in intestinal epithelial cells protects against colitis-induced tumorigenesis. However, little is known on the contribution of p38α signaling in intestinal stromal cells. Here, we show that myeloid cell-specific downregulation of p38α protects mice against inflammation-associated colon tumorigenesis. The reduced tumorigenesis correlates with impaired detection in the colon of crucial chemokines for immune cell recruitment. We identify insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as a novel mediator of the p38α pathway in macrophages...
June 14, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907236/peritoneal-lavage-with-povidone-iodine-solution-in-colorectal-cancer-induced-rats
#3
Hua-Li Song, Dong-Mei Zhang, Heng Wen, Meng Wang, Na Zhao, Yu-Hua Gao, Ni Ding
BACKGROUND: Although peritoneal lavage with povidone-iodine (PVPI) is frequently performed after surgery on the gastrointestinal tract, the effects of PVPI on the intestinal epithelial barrier are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of abdominal irrigation with PVPI on the intestinal epithelial barrier in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-induced rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CRC model was induced in rats with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905937/iron-overload-in-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes-an-updated-overview
#4
REVIEW
Nour M Moukalled, Fuad A El Rassi, Sally N Temraz, Ali T Taher
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS...
June 15, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904634/dietary-walnuts-protect-against-obesity-driven-intestinal-stem-cell-decline-and-tumorigenesis
#5
Fangxia Guan, Tahmineh Tabrizian, Ardijana Novaj, Masako Nakanishi, Daniel W Rosenberg, Derek M Huffman
Obesity can negatively impact intestinal homeostasis, and increase colon cancer risk and related mortality. Thus, given the alarmingly high rates of obesity in the US and globally, it is critical to identify practical strategies that can break the obesity-cancer link. Walnuts have been increasingly recognized to mitigate cancer risk, and contain many bioactive constituents with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that could potentially counteract pathways thought to be initiators of obesity-related cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904244/treatment-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-atrophic-gastritis
#6
REVIEW
Edith Lahner, Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a major human pathogen causing chronic, progressive gastric mucosal damage and is linked to gastric atrophy and cancer. Hp-positive individuals constitute the major reservoir for transmission of infection. There is no ideal treatment for Hp. Hp infection is not cured by a single antibiotic, and sometimes, a combined treatment with three or more antibiotics is ineffective. Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a chronic disease whose main features are atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia of the gastric glands, which arise from long-standing Hp infection...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904241/microbial-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-detection-and-or-prognosis
#7
REVIEW
Romain Villéger, Amélie Lopès, Julie Veziant, Johan Gagnière, Nicolas Barnich, Elisabeth Billard, Delphine Boucher, Mathilde Bonnet
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer worldwide. CRC is still associated with a poor prognosis among patients with advanced disease. On the contrary, due to its slow progression from detectable precancerous lesions, the prognosis for patients with early stages of CRC is encouraging. While most robust methods are invasive and costly, actual patient-friendly screening methods for CRC suffer of lack of sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the development of sensitive, non-invasive and cost-effective methods for CRC detection and prognosis are necessary for increasing the chances of a cure...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904174/liver-x-receptors-in-lipid-signalling-and-membrane-homeostasis
#8
REVIEW
Bo Wang, Peter Tontonoz
Liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ) are nuclear receptors with pivotal roles in the transcriptional control of lipid metabolism. Transcriptional activity of LXRs is induced in response to elevated cellular levels of cholesterol. LXRs bind to and regulate the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in cholesterol absorption, transport, efflux, excretion and conversion to bile acids. The coordinated, tissue-specific actions of the LXR pathway maintain systemic cholesterol homeostasis and regulate immune and inflammatory responses...
June 14, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904166/pharmacological-activation-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-inhibits-colitis-associated-cancer-in-mice
#9
Philip E Dubé, Cambrian Y Liu, Nandini Girish, M Kay Washington, D Brent Polk
Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) target the overactive immune response of the intestinal mucosa. However, epidermal growth factor (EGF), an activating ligand of the EGF receptor (EGFR), has been shown to induce disease remission through direct targeting of intestinal mucosal healing. Despite promising preclinical and clinical results, this EGFR-activating therapy has not progressed, in part due to the potential for carcinogenesis associated with long-term use and the increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in IBD...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902646/factors-associated-with-recurrence-of-barrett-s-esophagus-after-radiofrequency-ablation
#10
Mimi C Tan, Kavin A Kanthasamy, Allison G Yeh, Daniel Kil, Lisa Pompeii, Xiaoying Yu, Hashem B El-Serag, Aaron P Thrift
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is effective treatment for Barrett's esophagus (BE). However, some patients have recurrence after complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM). We investigated the incidence of and factors associated with BE recurrence, with or without neoplasia, after RFA and CEIM using data from the national Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of Veterans with BE treated by RFA from 2005 through 2016 with follow-up endoscopy...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901779/dro1-ccdc80-inactivation-promotes-aom-dss-induced-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-aggravates-colitis-by-dss-in-mice
#11
Jessica I Grill, Jens Neumann, Andrea Ofner, Maximilian K Marschall, Heike Zierahn, Andreas Herbst, Eckhard Wolf, Frank T Kolligs
Colorectal carcinogenesis is a progressive multistep process involving the sequential accumulation of genetic alterations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. Down regulated by oncogenes 1 (Dro1/Ccdc80) has been shown to be a potent tumor suppressor of colorectal carcinogenesis in the genetic ApcMin/+ mouse model. In ApcMin/+ mice loss of DRO1 strongly increases colonic tumor multiplicity and leads to the regular formation of adenocarcinoma in the colon. To investigate DRO1`s role in chemically induced as well as inflammation-associated colorectal carcinogenesis the effect of Dro1 inactivation was studied in mice subjected to the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and upon combined treatment with AOM and the proinflammatory agent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), respectively...
June 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900744/a-pneumoperitoneum-due-to-intestinal-cystic-pneumatosis-associated-with-a-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor
#12
Alicia Martín-Lagos Maldonado, Cristina Lozano Cejudo, Antonio Sáenz Lozano
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis is characterized by multiple air-filled cysts in the intestine wall. A perforation causes pneumoperitoneum, frequently with minimal clinical affectation and do not require surgery at first in most cases. Recently, some cancer treatments, mainly molecular targeted therapy, have been associated with this complication. For this reason, radiologic findings of intestinal pneumatosis and/or secondary perforation during patient follow-up should be carefully interpreted. The clinical-analytical findings should always be considered...
June 14, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900399/the-effect-of-synbiotics-bifidobacterium-infantis-and-milk-oligosaccharides-on-shaping-gut-microbiota-community-structure-and-nash-treatment
#13
Prasant Kumar Jena, Lili Sheng, Nidhi Nagar, Chao Wu, Daniela Barile, David A Mills, Yui-Jui Yvonne Wan
Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis ( Bifidobacterium infantis ) consumes human milk oligosaccharides (MO) and protects intestinal permeability thereby having anti-inflammatory effects (Underwood et al., 2015; Bode, 2006; Asakuma et al., 2011) [1-3]. Via the gut-liver axis, gut barrier disruption and dysbiosis lead to hepatic inflammation (Sheng et al., 2017; Jena et al., 2017) [4,5,6]. Our published data revealed that butyrate, as well as synbiotics of B. infantis in combination with MO, had protective effects against cancer-prone non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models, i...
August 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899427/treating-the-intestine-with-oral-apoa-i-mimetic-tg6f-reduces-tumor-burden-in-mouse-models-of-metastatic-lung-cancer
#14
Arnab Chattopadhyay, Xinying Yang, Pallavi Mukherjee, Dawoud Sulaiman, Hannah R Fogelman, Victor Grijalva, Steven Dubinett, Tonya C Wasler, Manash K Paul, Ramin Salehi-Rad, Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Mohamad Navab, Alan M Fogelman, Srinivasa T Reddy
Having demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides ameliorate cancer in mouse models, we sought to determine the mechanism for the anti-tumorigenic function of these peptides. CT-26 cells (colon cancer cells that implant and grow into tumors in the lungs) were injected into wild-type BALB/c mice. The day after injection, mice were either continued on chow or switched to chow containing 0.06% of a concentrate of transgenic tomatoes expressing the apoA-I mimetic peptide 6F (Tg6F). After four weeks, the number of lung tumors was significantly lower in Tg6F-fed mice...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898408/cell-of-origin-dna-methylation-signatures-are-maintained-during-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#15
Felix Bormann, Manuel Rodríguez-Paredes, Felix Lasitschka, Dominic Edelmann, Tanja Musch, Axel Benner, Yehudit Bergman, Sebastian M Dieter, Claudia R Ball, Hanno Glimm, Heinz G Linhart, Frank Lyko
Colorectal adenomas are precursor lesions of colorectal cancers and represent clonal amplifications of single cells from colonic crypts. DNA methylation patterns specify cell-type identity during cellular differentiation and, therefore, provide opportunities for the molecular analysis of tumors. We have now analyzed DNA methylation patterns in colorectal adenomas and identified three biologically defined subclasses that describe different intestinal crypt differentiation stages. Importantly, colorectal carcinomas could be classified into the same methylation subtypes, reflecting their shared cell types of origin with adenomas...
June 12, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897487/dietary-red-raspberry-reduces-colorectal-inflammation-and-carcinogenic-risk-in-mice-with-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis
#16
Shima Bibi, Min Du, Mei-Jun Zhu
Background: Ulcerative colitis causes recurring intestinal mucosal injury and sustained inflammation, increasing the likelihood of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Dietary red raspberry (RB) is a rich source of phytonutrients known to have anti-inflammatory activity; however, the role of RB on CRC prevention in chronic colitis has not been examined. Objective: This study examined the effects of dietary RB supplementation on inflammation, epithelium repair, and oncogenic signaling in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis in mice...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897292/human-olfactory-receptors-novel-cellular-functions-outside-of-the-nose
#17
Désirée Maßberg, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are not exclusively expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons; they are also observed outside of the olfactory system in all other human tissues tested to date, including the testis, lung, intestine, skin, heart, and blood. Within these tissues, certain ORs have been determined to be exclusively expressed in only one tissue, whereas other ORs are more widely distributed in many different tissues throughout the human body. For most of the ectopically expressed ORs, limited data are available for their functional roles...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896400/carcinoma-in-the-residual-rectum-of-a-long-standing-crohn-s-disease-patient-following-subtotal-colectomy-a-case-report
#18
Kazuaki Shibuya, Shigenori Homma, Tadashi Yoshida, Yosuke Ohno, Nobuki Ichikawa, Hideki Kawamura, Teppei Imamoto, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Akinobu Taketomi
The development of colorectal cancer in long-standing Crohn's disease (CD) patients has become a major complication. Therapeutic guidelines for CD-associated cancer (CDAC) have already been established in Western countries; however, specific guidelines are not currently available in Japan. Surveillance of the residual intestine for cancer screening is important for long-standing CD patients. The present case report describes the occurrence of rectal carcinoma in a patient with a 25-year history of CD. A 37-year-old male with a 17-year history of CD underwent semi-emergent subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for bowel obstruction secondary to the transverse colon stenosis, and multiple severe stenosis and inflammation...
July 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894308/the-effects-of-optical-sensor-tissue-separation-in-endocavitary-photoplethysmography
#19
Zaibaa Patel, Mohamed A Thaha, Panayiotis A Kyriacou
<i>Objective:</i> Intestinal anastomotic failure that occurs mainly due to ischaemia is a serious risk in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Surgeons continue to rely on subjective methods such as visual inspection to assess intestinal viability during surgery and there are no clinical tools to directly monitor viability postoperatively. A dual wavelength, reflectance optical sensor has been developed for continuous and dynamic monitoring of intestinal viability via the intestinal lumen...
June 12, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893261/gut-dysbiosis-a-potential-link-between-increased-cancer-risk-in-ageing-and-inflammaging
#20
REVIEW
Arya Biragyn, Luigi Ferrucci
Cancer incidence substantially increases with ageing in both men and women, although the reason for this increase is unknown. In this Series paper, we propose that age-associated changes in gut commensal microbes, otherwise known as the microbiota, facilitate cancer development and growth by compromising immune fitness. Ageing is associated with a reduction in the beneficial commensal microbes, which control the expansion of pathogenic commensals and maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier through the production of mucus and lipid metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids...
June 2018: Lancet Oncology
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