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Angiotensin II and endothelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329261/effects-of-noise-on-vascular-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mechanistic-insight-from-studies-in-mice
#1
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber, Sebastian Steven, Lan P Tran, Elisabeth Ullmann, Sabine Kossmann, Frank P Schmidt, Matthias Oelze, Ning Xia, Huige Li, Antonio Pinto, Philipp Wild, Kai Pies, Erwin R Schmidt, Steffen Rapp, Swenja Kröller-Schön
Aims: Epidemiological studies indicate that traffic noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Field studies with nighttime noise exposure demonstrate that aircraft noise leads to vascular dysfunction, which is markedly improved by vitamin C, suggesting a key role of oxidative stress in causing this phenomenon. Methods and results: We developed a novel animal model to study the vascular consequences of aircraft noise exposure...
February 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326642/neprilysin-inhibition-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-substrates-beyond-modulating-natriuretic-peptides
#2
REVIEW
Emilia D'Elia, Attilio Iacovoni, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Ferdinando L Lorini, Stefano Perlini, Michele Senni
The autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the natriuretic peptide system represent critical regulatory pathways in heart failure and as such have been the major targets of pharmacological development. The introduction and approval of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have broadened the available drug treatments of patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin catalyses the degradation of a number of vasodilator peptides, including the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and adrenomedullin, as well as vasoconstrictor peptides, including endothelin-1 and angiotensin I and II...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289180/beneficial-effects-of-apelin-on-vascular-function-in-patients-with-central-obesity
#3
Francesca Schinzari, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Angela Barini, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Manfredi Tesauro
Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr(1))apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients...
March 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287881/renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-alone-or-combined-with-eta-receptor-blockade-effects-on-the-course-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-5-6-nephrectomized-ren-2-transgenic-hypertensive-rats
#4
Lenka Sedláková, Věra Čertíková Chábová, Šárka Doleželová, Petra Škaroupková, Libor Kopkan, Zuzana Husková, Lenka Červenková, Soňa Kikerlová, Ivana Vaněčková, Janusz Sadowski, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Petr Kujal, Herbert J Kramer, Luděk Červenka
BACKGROUND: Early addition of endothelin (ET) type A (ETA) receptor blockade to complex renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has previously been shown to provide better renoprotection against progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX). In this study, we examined if additional protection is provided when ETA blockade is applied in rats with already developed CKD. METHODS: For complex RAS inhibition, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor along with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker was used...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271726/molecular-mechanisms-of-atrial-fibrosis-implications-for-the-clinic
#5
Shivshankar Thanigaimani, Dennis H Lau, Thomas Agbaedeng, Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders
Recent research has unravelled an increasing list of cardiac conditions and risk factors that may be responsible for the abnormal underlying atrial substrate that predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial fibrosis has been demonstrated as the pivotal structural abnormality underpinning conduction disturbances that promote AF in different disease models. Despite the advancement in our discoveries of the molecular mechanisms involved in the profibrotic milieu, targeted therapeutics against atrial fibrosis remain lacking...
March 8, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264495/the-endothelin-type-a-receptor-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-preeclampsia
#6
REVIEW
Bhavisha Bakrania, Jeremy Duncan, Junie P Warrington, Joey P Granger
Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy typically characterized by new onset hypertension after gestational week 20 and proteinuria. Although PE is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death worldwide, the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear and treatment options are limited. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of PE. Multiple studies report that ET-1 is increased in PE and some studies report a positive correlation between ET-1 and the severity of symptoms...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241704/-influence-of-n-hexane-on-vascular-endothelial-active-substances-in-brain-tissue-in-mice
#7
L Lin, Z Q Zhang, C Z Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of n-hexane on vascular endothelial active substances in brain tissue in mice and its significance. Methods: A total of 48 healthy Kunming mice were randomly divided into high-dose exposure group, middle-dose exposure group, low-dose exposure group, and control group, with 12 mice in each group. All groups except the control group were exposed to n-hexane via static inhalation (0.035 g/L, 0.018 g/L, and 0.009 g/L for the high-, middle-, and low-dose exposure groups, respectively) 4 hours a day for 21 days...
January 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133468/changing-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-clinical-use-of-sacubitril-valsartan-combination
#8
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky
Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk of morbidity and mortality. Sacubitril valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a new oral agent approved for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure in adults with reduced ejection fraction. It is described as the first in class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) since it incorporates the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Neprilysin is an endopeptidase that breaks down several vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides (NPs), bradykinin, endothelin and angiotensin II (Ang-II)...
November 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116728/isolation-and-culture-of-endothelial-cells-from-large-vessels
#9
Augusto C Montezano, Karla B Neves, Rheure A M Lopes, Francisco Rios
The endothelium, which is at the interface between circulating blood and the vascular wall, comprises a simple squamous layer of cells that lines the inner surface of all blood vessels. Endothelial cells are highly metabolically active and play an important role in many physiological functions, including control of vasomotor tone, blood cell trafficking, vascular permeability, and maintenance of vascular integrity (Mensah, Vascul Pharmacol 46(5):310-314, 2007; Yetik-Anacak and Catravas, Vascul Pharmacol 45(5):268-276, 2006)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013061/voltage-and-receptor-mediated-activation-of-a-non-selective-cation-channel-in-rat-carotid-body-glomus-cells
#10
Jiaju Wang, James O Hogan, Donghee Kim
A recent study showed that hypoxia activates a Ca(2+)-sensitive, Na(+)-permeable non-selective cation channel (NSC) in carotid body glomus cells. We studied the effects of mitochondrial inhibitors that increase Ca(2+) influx via Ca(2+) channel (Cav), and receptor agonists that release Ca(2+) from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) on NSC. Mitochondrial inhibitors (NaCN, FCCP, H2S, NO) elevated [Ca(2+)]i and activated NSC. Angiotensin II and acetylcholine that elevate [Ca(2+)]i via the Gq-IP3 pathway activated NSC. However, endothelin-1 (Gq) and 5-HT (Gq) showed little or no effect on [Ca(2+)]i and did not activate NSC...
March 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012855/prostanoids-counterbalance-the-synergism-between-endothelin-1-and-angiotensin-ii-in-mesenteric-veins-of-trained-rats
#11
Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Priscilla Bianca de Oliveira, Patrícia de Souza Rossignoli, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira Baptista, Roger William de Lábio, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão
Exercise-induced adaptations of the modulating mechanisms that influence the angiotensin (Ang II) responses assume different features depending on the venous bed. In femoral veins, exercise mobilizes vasodilator prostanoids to cooperate with NO in order to maintain reduced Ang II responses. On the other hand, exercise's influence on the Ang II responses in veins that drain blood from the mesenteric region has been poorly described. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the effects of a single bout of exercise, as well as exercise training, on the Ang II responses in mesenteric veins...
February 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996266/blueberry-anthocyanin-enriched-extracts-attenuate-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-induced-cardiovascular-dysfunction
#12
Ziyu Wang, Wei Pang, Congcong He, Yibo Li, Yugang Jiang, Changjiang Guo
Blueberry anthocyanin-enriched extracts (BAE) at three doses (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg) were administered by oral gavage to rats exposed to 10 mg/kg fine particulate matter (PM2.5) three times a week. A positive control group was exposed to PM2.5 without BAE treatment. We analyzed heart rate (HR), electrocardiogram (ECG), and histopathology, and biomarkers of cardiovascular system injuries, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function, and apoptosis. Results indicated that BAE, particularly at 1...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884701/cardiac-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors
#13
REVIEW
M Iveth Garcia, Darren Boehning
Calcium is a second messenger that regulates almost all cellular functions. In cardiomyocytes, calcium plays an integral role in many functions including muscle contraction, gene expression, and cell death. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are a family of calcium channels that are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues. In the heart, IP3Rs have been associated with regulation of cardiomyocyte function in response to a variety of neurohormonal agonists, including those implicated in cardiac disease...
November 22, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837397/from-arb-to-arni-in-cardiovascular-control
#14
REVIEW
Estrellita Uijl, Lodi C W Roksnoer, Ewout J Hoorn, A H Jan Danser
Coexistence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease synergistically aggravates the risk of cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. These high-risk, multi-morbid patient populations benefit less from currently available anti-hypertensive treatment. Simultaneous angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade and neprilysin inhibition ('ARNI') with valsartan/sacubitril (LCZ696) might potentiate the beneficial effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibition by reinforcing its endogenous counterbalance, the natriuretic peptide system...
December 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836671/glycine-prevents-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-mediated-by-glycine-receptor
#15
Yan Lu, Xudong Zhu, Jinjie Li, Ru Fang, Zhuoyun Wang, Jing Zhang, Kexue Li, Xiaoyu Li, Hui Bai, Qing Yang, Jingjing Ben, Hanwen Zhang, Qi Chen
As a major amino acid, glycine has multiple functions in metabolism, growth, immunity, cytoprotection, and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glycine on pathologic cardiac hypertrophy and the mechanism underlying it. Pre-treatment with glycine significantly attenuated murine cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction or by administration of angiotensin II (Ang II). This action was associated with a suppressive extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in myocardium...
January 1, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825364/mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin-mr-proadm-a-marker-of-positive-fluid-balance-in-critically-ill-patients-results-of-the-envol-study
#16
Bernard Vigué, Pierre-Etienne Leblanc, Frédérique Moati, Eric Pussard, Hussam Foufa, Aurore Rodrigues, Samy Figueiredo, Anatole Harrois, Jean-Xavier Mazoit, Homa Rafi, Jacques Duranteau
BACKGROUND: The optimal control of blood volume without fluid overload is a main challenge in the daily care of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Accordingly this study focused on the identification of biomarkers to help characterize fluid overload status. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients were studied from ICU admission to day 7 (D7). Blood and urine samples were taken daily and sodium and water balance strictly calculated resulting in a total cumulative assessment of ∆Na(+) and ∆H2O...
November 9, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798352/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-p38-target-regenerating-islet-derived-3%C3%AE-expression-is-upregulated-in-cardiac-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-heart
#17
Hanna Säkkinen, Jani Aro, Leena Kaikkonen, Pauli Ohukainen, Juha Näpänkangas, Heikki Tokola, Heikki Ruskoaho, Jaana Rysä
Regenerating islet-derived 3γ (Reg3γ) is a multifunctional protein, associated with various tissue injuries and inflammatory states. Since chronic inflammation is characteristics also for heart failure, the aim of this study was to characterize Reg3γ expression in cardiac inflammatory conditions. Reg3γ expression was studied in experimental rat models of myocardial infarction (MI) and pressure overload in vivo. For cell culture studies neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were used. In addition, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 3b and p38α MAPK in vivo and in vitro was performed...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777977/ip3-receptors-regulate-vascular-smooth-muscle-contractility-and-hypertension
#18
Qingsong Lin, Guiling Zhao, Xi Fang, Xiaohong Peng, Huayuan Tang, Hong Wang, Ran Jing, Jie Liu, W Jonathan Lederer, Ju Chen, Kunfu Ouyang
Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated (IP3R-mediated) calcium (Ca(2+)) release has been proposed to play an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction for decades. However, whether and how IP3R regulates blood pressure in vivo remains unclear. To address these questions, we have generated a smooth muscle-specific IP3R triple-knockout (smTKO) mouse model using a tamoxifen-inducible system. In this study, the role of IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release in adult VSMCs on aortic vascular contractility and blood pressure was assessed following tamoxifen induction...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748925/hydrogen-sulfide-suppresses-angiotensin-ii-stimulated-endothelin-1-generation-and-subsequent-cytotoxicity-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-endothelial-cells-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#19
Heng-Jing Hu, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Sheng-Hua Zhou, Qi-Ming Liu
The effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression and subsequent cytotoxicity remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that H2S protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against AngII‑stimulated ET‑1 generation and subsequent cytotoxicity‑induced endoplasmic reticulum stress via the NF‑κB signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrated that AngII significantly upregulated the expression levels of ET‑1, glucose‑regulated protein 78, CCAAT‑enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein, phosphorylated (p)‑p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase; stimulated nitric oxide production; suppressed the expression and activity of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), a H2S synthetase; and decreased cell viability...
November 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748819/src-tyrosine-kinase-mediates-endothelin-1-induced-early-growth-response-protein-1-expression-via-map-kinase-dependent-pathways-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#20
Estelle R Simo-Cheyou, George Vardatsikos, Ashok K Srivastava
We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase (NR-PTK) c-Src is an upstream regulator of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II-induced activation of protein kinase B (PKB) signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). We have also demonstrated that ET-1 potently induces the expression of the early growth response protein-1 (Egr-1), a zinc finger transcription factor that is overexpressed in models of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of c-Src in ET-1‑induced Egr-1 expression has not yet been investigated and its role in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling remains controversial...
December 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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