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Angiotensin II and endothelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810262/fetal-sheep-mesenteric-resistance-arteries-functional-and-structural-maturation
#1
Julia J Müller, Matthias Schwab, Charles R Rosenfeld, Iwa Antonow-Schlorke, Peter W Nathanielsz, Florian Rakers, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Sven Rupprecht
BACKGROUND: Fetal blood pressure increases during late gestation; however, the underlying vascular mechanisms are unclear. Knowledge of the maturation of resistance arteries is important to identify the mechanisms and vulnerable periods for the development of vascular dysfunction in adulthood. METHODS: We determined the functional and structural development of fetal sheep mesenteric resistance arteries using wire myography and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Media mass and distribution of myosin heavy-chain isoforms showed no changes between 0...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808570/nitric-oxide-cyclic-gmp-pathway-mediates-the-endothelin-1-upregulation-of-adiponectin-expression-in-rat-cardiomyocytes
#2
Bingyan Guo, Yongjun Li, Xin Jin, Suyun Liu, Chenglong Miao
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) serves an important role in the development of cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. ET-1 and angiotensin II (AngII) comprise a mutually reciprocal signalling network in the myocardium and serve similar or additive roles in the development of heart failure. Our previous study previously demonstrated that AngII upregulated the expression of APN in cardiomyocytes through an AngII receptor type 2/nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP(cGMP)-dependent pathway. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of ET-1 and the additive effects of ET-1 and AngII on the gene expression and secretion of APN, and the underlying mechanisms involved...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756589/crosstalk-between-the-angiotensin-and-endothelin-system-in-the-cerebrovasculature-after-experimental-induced-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#3
Stefan Wanderer, Jan Mrosek, Hartmut Vatter, Volker Seifert, Juergen Konczalla
Under physiologic conditions, losartan showed a dose-dependent antagonistic effect to the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstriction. This reduced vasoconstriction was abolished after preincubation with an endothelin B1 receptor (ET(B1)-receptor) antagonist. Also, an increased ET(B1)-receptor-dependent relaxation to sarafotoxin S6c (S6c; an ET(B1)-receptor agonist) was detected by preincubation with losartan. Investigations after experimental induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still missing. Therefore, we analyzed losartan in a further pathological setup...
July 29, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715643/new-insights-into-the-non-hemostatic-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-in-endothelial-protection
#4
Silvia Agostini, Vincenzo Lionetti
During exposure to ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) insult, angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) upregulation in endothelial cells progressively impairs nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability while increasing levels of superoxide anion (O2-) and leading to the onset of endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, the overexpression of ET-1 increases the endothelial and circulating levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), a glycoprotein with a crucial role in arterial thrombus formation. Nowadays, the non-hemostatic role of endothelial vWF is emerging; although we not yet know if its increased expression is cause or consequence of endothelial dysfunction...
July 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665894/non-hla-antibodies-impact-on-c4d-staining-stellate-cell-activation-and-fibrosis-in-liver-allografts
#5
Jacqueline G OʼLeary, Anthony J Demetris, Aurélie Philippe, Robert Freeman, Junchao Cai, Harald Heidecke, Cory Smith, Brent Hart, Linda W Jennings, Rusan Catar, Mathew Everly, Goran B Klintmalm, Duska Dragun
BACKGROUND: Recent data has shown an increased risk for rejection, fibrosis progression, and death in liver transplant (LT) recipients with preformed or de novo HLA donor-specific alloantibodies (DSA). However, the role of non-HLA autoantibodies and the interaction between HLA DSA and non-HLA autoantibodies remains uncharacterized. METHODS: We analyzed 1269 primary LT recipients from 1/2000-4/2009 with known HLA DSA status for Angiotensin II Type-1 Receptor and Endothelin-1 Type A receptor autoantibodies(anti-AT1R-Abs and anti-ETAR-Abs respectively) pre-LT and year-1 post-LT...
June 29, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488090/pathogenesis-of-systemic-sclerosis-current-concept-and-emerging-treatments
#6
REVIEW
Masutaka Furue, Chikage Mitoma, Hiroki Mitoma, Gaku Tsuji, Takahito Chiba, Takeshi Nakahara, Hiroshi Uchi, Takafumi Kadono
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an intractable multifaceted disease with high mortality. Although its pathogenesis is not fully understood, recent studies have advanced our knowledge on SSc. The cardinal pathological features of SSc are autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis. The B cells in SSc are constitutively activated and lead to the production of a plethora of autoantibodies, such as anti-topoisomerase I and anti-centromere antibodies. In addition to these autoantibodies, which are valuable for diagnostic criteria or biomarkers, many other autoantibodies targeting endothelial cells, including endothelin type A receptor and angiotensin II type I receptor, are known to be functional and induce activation or apoptosis of endothelial cells...
August 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487390/activation-of-the-amino-acid-response-pathway-blunts-the-effects-of-cardiac-stress
#7
Pu Qin, Pelin Arabacilar, Roberta E Bernard, Weike Bao, Alan R Olzinski, Yuanjun Guo, Hind Lal, Stephen H Eisennagel, Michael C Platchek, Wensheng Xie, Julius Del Rosario, Mohamad Nayal, Quinn Lu, Theresa Roethke, Christine G Schnackenberg, Fe Wright, Michael P Quaile, Wendy S Halsey, Ashley M Hughes, Ganesh M Sathe, George P Livi, Robert B Kirkpatrick, Xiaoyan A Qu, Deepak K Rajpal, Maria Faelth Savitski, Marcus Bantscheff, Gerard Joberty, Giovanna Bergamini, Thomas L Force, Gregory J Gatto, Erding Hu, Robert N Willette
BACKGROUND: The amino acid response (AAR) is an evolutionarily conserved protective mechanism activated by amino acid deficiency through a key kinase, general control nonderepressible 2. In addition to mobilizing amino acids, the AAR broadly affects gene and protein expression in a variety of pathways and elicits antifibrotic, autophagic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known regarding its role in cardiac stress. Our aim was to investigate the effects of halofuginone, a prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, on the AAR pathway in cardiac fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and in mouse models of cardiac stress and failure...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416805/a-new-inhibitor-of-the-%C3%AE-arrestin-ap2-endocytic-complex-reveals-interplay-between-gpcr-internalization-and-signalling
#8
Alexandre Beautrait, Justine S Paradis, Brandon Zimmerman, Jenna Giubilaro, Ljiljana Nikolajev, Sylvain Armando, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Lama Yamani, Yoon Namkung, Franziska M Heydenreich, Etienne Khoury, Martin Audet, Philippe P Roux, Dmitry B Veprintsev, Stéphane A Laporte, Michel Bouvier
In addition to G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization and endocytosis, β-arrestin recruitment to ligand-stimulated GPCRs promotes non-canonical signalling cascades. Distinguishing the respective contributions of β-arrestin recruitment to the receptor and β-arrestin-promoted endocytosis in propagating receptor signalling has been limited by the lack of selective analytical tools. Here, using a combination of virtual screening and cell-based assays, we have identified a small molecule that selectively inhibits the interaction between β-arrestin and the β2-adaptin subunit of the clathrin adaptor protein AP2 without interfering with the formation of receptor/β-arrestin complexes...
April 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393188/a-heptameric-peptide-purified-from-spirulina%C3%A2-sp-gastrointestinal-hydrolysate-inhibits-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-and-angiotensin%C3%A2-ii-induced-vascular-dysfunction-in-human-endothelial-cells
#9
Seong-Yeong Heo, Seok-Chun Ko, Chang Su Kim, Gun-Woo Oh, Bomi Ryu, Zhong-Ji Qian, Geunhyung Kim, Won Sun Park, Il-Whan Choi, Thi Tuong Vy Phan, Soo-Jin Heo, Do-Hyung Kang, Myunggi Yi, Won-Kyo Jung
In this study, a marine microalga Spirulina sp.-derived protein was hydrolyzed using gastrointestinal enzymes to produce an angiotensin I (Ang I)-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide. Following consecutive purification, the potent ACE inhibitory peptide was composed of 7 amino acids, Thr-Met‑Glu‑Pro‑Gly‑Lys-Pro (molecular weight, 759 Da). Analysis using the Lineweaver-Burk plot and molecular modeling suggested that the purified peptide acted as a mixed non-competitive inhibitor of ACE...
May 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362327/the-salutary-influence-of-forest-bathing-on-elderly-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#10
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Genxiang Mao, Yongbao Cao, Bozhong Wang, Sanying Wang, Zhuomei Chen, Jirong Wang, Wenmin Xing, Xiaoxu Ren, Xiaoling Lv, Jianhua Dong, Shasha Chen, Xiuyuan Chen, Guofu Wang, Jing Yan
The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that forest bathing would be beneficial for elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) as an adjunctive therapy. Two groups of participants with CHF were simultaneously sent to the forest or an urban control area for a four-day trip, respectively. Subjects exposed to the forest site showed a significant reduction of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in comparison to that of the city group and their own baseline levels. The values for the cardiovascular disease related pathological factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1), and constituents of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including renin, angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II (ANGII), and ANGII receptor type 1 or 2 (AT1 or AT2) in subjects exposed to the forest environment were lower than those in the urban control group...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344559/cyclooxygenase-2-inhibition-limits-angiotensin-ii-induced-dna-oxidation-and-protein-nitration-in-humans
#11
Vincent Pialoux, Marc J Poulin, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Daniel A Muruve, Erica N Chirico, Camille Faes, Darlene Y Sola, Sofia B Ahmed
Compared to other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, celecoxib is associated with a lower cardiovascular risk, though the mechanism remains unclear. Angiotensin II is an important mediator of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of vascular disease. Cyclooxygenase-2 may modify the effects of angiotensin II though this has never been studied in humans. The purpose of the study was to test the effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on plasma measures of oxidative stress, the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, and nitric oxide metabolites, both at baseline and in respose to Angiotensin II challenge in healthy humans...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329261/effects-of-noise-on-vascular-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-mechanistic-insight-from-studies-in-mice
#12
Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber, Sebastian Steven, Lan P Tran, Elisabeth Ullmann, Sabine Kossmann, Frank P Schmidt, Matthias Oelze, Ning Xia, Huige Li, Antonio Pinto, Philipp Wild, Kai Pies, Erwin R Schmidt, Steffen Rapp, Swenja Kröller-Schön
Aims: Epidemiological studies indicate that traffic noise increases the incidence of coronary artery disease, hypertension and stroke. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Field studies with nighttime noise exposure demonstrate that aircraft noise leads to vascular dysfunction, which is markedly improved by vitamin C, suggesting a key role of oxidative stress in causing this phenomenon. Methods and results: We developed a novel animal model to study the vascular consequences of aircraft noise exposure...
February 17, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326642/neprilysin-inhibition-in-heart-failure-mechanisms-and-substrates-beyond-modulating-natriuretic-peptides
#13
REVIEW
Emilia D'Elia, Attilio Iacovoni, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Ferdinando L Lorini, Stefano Perlini, Michele Senni
The autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the natriuretic peptide system represent critical regulatory pathways in heart failure and as such have been the major targets of pharmacological development. The introduction and approval of angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have broadened the available drug treatments of patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin catalyses the degradation of a number of vasodilator peptides, including the natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and adrenomedullin, as well as vasoconstrictor peptides, including endothelin-1 and angiotensin I and II...
June 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289180/beneficial-effects-of-apelin-on-vascular-function-in-patients-with-central-obesity
#14
Francesca Schinzari, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Angela Barini, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Manfredi Tesauro
Patients with central obesity have impaired insulin-stimulated vasodilation and increased ET-1 (endothelin 1) vasoconstriction, which may contribute to insulin resistance and vascular damage. Apelin enhances insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal but also acts as a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator and a counter-regulator of AT1 (angiotensin [Ang] II type 1) receptor-induced vasoconstriction. We, therefore, examined the effects of exogenous (Pyr(1))apelin on NO-mediated vasodilation and Ang II- or ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obese patients...
May 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287881/renin-angiotensin-system-blockade-alone-or-combined-with-eta-receptor-blockade-effects-on-the-course-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-5-6-nephrectomized-ren-2-transgenic-hypertensive-rats
#15
Lenka Sedláková, Věra Čertíková Chábová, Šárka Doleželová, Petra Škaroupková, Libor Kopkan, Zuzana Husková, Lenka Červenková, Soňa Kikerlová, Ivana Vaněčková, Janusz Sadowski, Elzbieta Kompanowska-Jezierska, Petr Kujal, Herbert J Kramer, Luděk Červenka
BACKGROUND: Early addition of endothelin (ET) type A (ETA) receptor blockade to complex renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has previously been shown to provide better renoprotection against progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Ren-2 transgenic hypertensive rats (TGR) after 5/6 renal ablation (5/6 NX). In this study, we examined if additional protection is provided when ETA blockade is applied in rats with already developed CKD. METHODS: For complex RAS inhibition, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor along with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker was used...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271726/molecular-mechanisms-of-atrial-fibrosis-implications-for-the-clinic
#16
REVIEW
Shivshankar Thanigaimani, Dennis H Lau, Thomas Agbaedeng, Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Prashanthan Sanders
Recent research has unravelled an increasing list of cardiac conditions and risk factors that may be responsible for the abnormal underlying atrial substrate that predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial fibrosis has been demonstrated as the pivotal structural abnormality underpinning conduction disturbances that promote AF in different disease models. Despite the advancement in our discoveries of the molecular mechanisms involved in the profibrotic milieu, targeted therapeutics against atrial fibrosis remain lacking...
April 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264495/the-endothelin-type-a-receptor-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-preeclampsia
#17
REVIEW
Bhavisha Bakrania, Jeremy Duncan, Junie P Warrington, Joey P Granger
Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy typically characterized by new onset hypertension after gestational week 20 and proteinuria. Although PE is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death worldwide, the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear and treatment options are limited. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of PE. Multiple studies report that ET-1 is increased in PE and some studies report a positive correlation between ET-1 and the severity of symptoms...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241704/-influence-of-n-hexane-on-vascular-endothelial-active-substances-in-brain-tissue-in-mice
#18
L Lin, Z Q Zhang, C Z Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of n-hexane on vascular endothelial active substances in brain tissue in mice and its significance. Methods: A total of 48 healthy Kunming mice were randomly divided into high-dose exposure group, middle-dose exposure group, low-dose exposure group, and control group, with 12 mice in each group. All groups except the control group were exposed to n-hexane via static inhalation (0.035 g/L, 0.018 g/L, and 0.009 g/L for the high-, middle-, and low-dose exposure groups, respectively) 4 hours a day for 21 days...
January 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133468/changing-the-treatment-of-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction-clinical-use-of-sacubitril-valsartan-combination
#19
REVIEW
Edgardo Kaplinsky
Despite significant therapeutic advances, patients with chronic heart failure (HF) remain at high risk of morbidity and mortality. Sacubitril valsartan (previously known as LCZ696) is a new oral agent approved for the treatment of symptomatic chronic heart failure in adults with reduced ejection fraction. It is described as the first in class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) since it incorporates the neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril and the angiotensin II receptor antagonist, valsartan. Neprilysin is an endopeptidase that breaks down several vasoactive peptides including natriuretic peptides (NPs), bradykinin, endothelin and angiotensin II (Ang-II)...
November 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116728/isolation-and-culture-of-endothelial-cells-from-large-vessels
#20
Augusto C Montezano, Karla B Neves, Rheure A M Lopes, Francisco Rios
The endothelium, which is at the interface between circulating blood and the vascular wall, comprises a simple squamous layer of cells that lines the inner surface of all blood vessels. Endothelial cells are highly metabolically active and play an important role in many physiological functions, including control of vasomotor tone, blood cell trafficking, vascular permeability, and maintenance of vascular integrity (Mensah, Vascul Pharmacol 46(5):310-314, 2007; Yetik-Anacak and Catravas, Vascul Pharmacol 45(5):268-276, 2006)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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