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Angiotensin II and endothelin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684635/sulfatase-1-mediates-the-attenuation-of-ang-ii-induced-hypertensive-effects-by-ccl5-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-from-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Hye Ju Cha, Hye Young Kim, Hee Sun Kim
Extracellular sulfatases, sulfatase 1 (Sulf1) and sulfatase 2 (Sulf2), play a pivotal role in cell signaling and carcinogenesis. Chemokine CCL5 inhibits Ang II-induced hypertensive mediators via angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2 R) pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study, we investigated the effect of Sulfs on anti-hypertensive effects of CCL5 in SHR VSMCs. CCL5 attenuated Ang II-induced inhibition of sulfatase activity in SHR VSMCs...
April 20, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678849/effects-of-adenovirus-mediated-vegf165-gene-therapy-on-myocardial-infarction
#2
Chao Wang, Boya Zhang, Yu Lin, Yang Dong
AIM: To evaluate the role of adenovirus-mediated transduction human VEGF isoform 165 via direct myocardial injection in rats with an occluded circumflex coronary artery, and the possible underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were induced myocardial infarction (MI) with ligation of the left coronary artery. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) the sham group; 2) the MI group; 3) the NS (normal saline) group and 4) the VEGF group. Direct myocardial injection of 0...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663576/neuroprotection-by-post-stroke-administration-of-an-oral-formulation-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-ischemic-stroke
#3
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Lauren L Donnangelo, Justin T Graham, Jacob D Isenberg, Alex N Dang, Vermali Rodriguez, Ruben D M Sinisterra, Frederico B Sousa, Robson A S Santos, Colin Sumners
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Angiotensin-(1-7) decreases cerebral infarct volume and improves neurological function when delivered centrally prior to and during ischemic stroke. Here, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of angiotensin-(1-7) when delivered orally post-stroke. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that oral delivery of angiotensin-(1-7) attenuates cerebral damage induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, without affecting blood pressure or cerebral blood flow...
April 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652095/decrease-in-neprilysin-and-vasoconstrictors-and-increase-in-vasodilators-following-bariatric-surgery
#4
Husam Ghanim, Scott Monte, Joseph Caruana, Kelly Green, Sanaa Abuaysheh, Paresh Dandona
Since morbid obesity is associated with congestive cardiac failure and hypertension, and gastric bypass surgery is followed by a reduction in blood pressure and in the risk of congestive cardiac failure, we hypothesized that weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in morbidly obese patients is associated with a decrease in plasma concentrations of neprilysin, mediators of renin angiotensin system (RAS), catecholamines and endothelin-1 with an increase in the concentrations of vasodilators...
April 13, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649319/unraveling-endothelin-1-induced-hypercontractility-of-human-pulmonary-artery-smooth-muscle-cells-from-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#5
Jamie L Wilson, Rod Warburton, Linda Taylor, Deniz Toksoz, Nicholas Hill, Peter Polgar
Contraction of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) isolated from pulmonary arterial hypertensive (PAH) and normal (non-PAH) subject lungs was determined and measured with real-time electrical impedance. Treatment of HPASMC with vasoactive peptides, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and bradykinin (BK) but not angiotensin II, induced a temporal decrease in the electrical impedance profile mirroring constrictive morphological change of the cells which typically was more robust in PAH as opposed to non-PAH cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555668/at1-aa-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-agonistic-autoantibody-blockade-prevents-preeclamptic-symptoms-in-placental-ischemic-rats
#6
Mark W Cunningham, Javier Castillo, Tarek Ibrahim, Denise C Cornelius, Nathan Campbell, Lorena Amaral, Venkata Ramana Vaka, Nathan Usry, Jan M Williams, Babbette LaMarca
Women with preeclampsia produce AT1-AA (agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor), which stimulate reactive oxygen species, inflammatory factors, and hypertensive mechanisms (ET [endothelin] and sFlt-1 [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1]) in rodent models of preeclampsia. The placental ischemic reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia exhibits many of these features. In this study, we examined the maternal outcomes of AT1-AA inhibition ('n7AAc') in RUPP rats...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521602/the-role-of-glial-like-type-ii-cells-as-paracrine-modulators-of-carotid-body-chemoreception
#7
Colin A Nurse, Erin M Leonard, Shaima Salman
Mammalian carotid bodies (CB) are chemosensory organs that mediate compensatory cardiorespiratory reflexes in response to low blood PO2 (hypoxemia) and elevated CO2 /H+ (acid hypercapnia). The chemoreceptors are glomus or type I cells which occur in clusters enveloped by neighboring glial-like type II cells. During chemoexcitation type I cells depolarize, leading to Ca2+ -dependent release of several neurotransmitters, some excitatory and others inhibitory, which help shape the afferent carotid sinus nerve (CSN) discharge...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505736/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induces-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-astrogliosis-through-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#8
Brice Ongali, Nektaria Nicolakakis, Xin-Kang Tong, Clotilde Lecrux, Hans Imboden, Edith Eh Hamel
Transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (TGF mice) display cerebrovascular alterations as seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID), but no or only subtle cognitive deficits. TGF-β1 may exert part of its deleterious effects through interactions with angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling pathways. We test such interactions in the brain and cerebral vessels of TGF mice by measuring cerebrovascular reactivity, levels of protein markers of vascular fibrosis, nitric oxide synthase activity, astrogliosis and mnemonic performance in mice treated (6 months) with the AT1R blocker, losartan (10 mg/kg/day), or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (ACEi,3 mg/kg/day)...
March 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500223/protective-effects-of-the-angiotensin-ii-at-2-receptor-agonist-compound-21-in-ischemic-stroke-a-nose-to-brain-delivery-approach
#9
Douglas M Bennion, Chad H Jones, Alex N Dang, Jacob D Isenberg, Justin T Graham, Lena Lindblad, Oliver Domenig, Michael F Waters, Marko Poglitsch, Colin Sumners, U Muscha Steckelings
Significant neuroprotective effects of angiotensin II type 2 (AT2 ) receptor agonists in ischemic stroke have been previously demonstrated in multiple studies.  However, the routes of agonist application used in these pre-clinical studies, direct intracerebroventricular and systemic administration, are unsuitable for translation to humans; in the latter case because AT2 receptor agonists are blood brain barrier (BBB) impermeable. To circumvent this problem, in the current study we utilized the nose-to-brain (N2B) route of administration to bypass the blood brain barrier and deliver the selective AT2 receptor agonist Compound 21 (C21) to naïve rats or rats that had undergone endothelin 1-induced ischemic stroke...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479368/the-histone-demethylase-jmjd2a-modulates-the-induction-of-hypertrophy-markers-in-ipsc-derived-cardiomyocytes
#10
Wendy Rosales, Fernando Lizcano
The development of cardiovascular pathologies is partly attributed to epigenetic causes, including histone methylation, which appears to be an important marker in hearts that develop cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies showed that the histone demethylase JMJD2A can regulate the hypertrophic process in murine cardiomyocytes. However, the influence of JMJD2A on cardiac hypertrophy in a human cardiomyocyte model is still poorly understood. In the present study, cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were used...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472767/anti-hypertensive-and-cardioprotective-effects-of-a-novel-apitherapy-formulation-via-upregulation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-spontaneous-hypertensive-rats
#11
Yanru Sun, Mingfeng Han, Zhenhuang Shen, Haibo Huang, Xiaoqing Miao
Ventricular remodeling is associated with many heart diseases, and ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension can be fatal independent of hypertension. In this study, we prepared a novel apitherapy formulation, designated Bao-Yuan-Ling (BYL), which contained propolis, royal jelly, and bee venom, to treat spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). We then evaluated the pharmacology of BYL and the potential mechanisms through which BYL affects hypertension and ventricular remodeling. We found that BYL treatment could reduce blood pressure in SHRs...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372262/vascular-endothelium-dysfunction-a-conservative-target-in-metabolic-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Shalini Jamwal, Saurabh Sharma
AIM: Vascular endothelium plays a role in capillary transport of nutrients and drugs and regulates angiogenesis, homeostasis, as well as vascular tone and permeability as a major regulator of local vascular homeostasis. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of endothelium in metabolic disorders. METHODS: The endothelium maintains the balance between vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, procoagulant and anticoagulant, prothrombotic and antithrombotic mechanisms...
May 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290188/the-potential-therapeutic-role-of-peroxisome-proliferatoractivated-receptors-agonist-in-preeclamptic-pregnant-rats
#13
Hayam Ibrahim Gad Allam, Abeer AbdulMoati Al Masri
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist on renal functions and blood levels of vasoregulatory peptides by administering rosiglitazone-a PPAR-γ agonist- to nitric oxide (NO) synthase lacking pregnant rats as a creature model of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Medical College at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July 2016 to May 2017...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288933/targeting-the-renin-angiotensin-system-as-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-pulmonary-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Wan Shun Daniel Tan, Wupeng Liao, Shuo Zhou, Dan Mei, Wai-Shiu Fred Wong
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in regulating electrolyte balance and blood pressure. RAS has also been implicated in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current therapeutics suffer from some drawbacks like steroid resistance, limited efficacies and side effects. Novel intervention is definitely needed to offer optimal therapeutic strategy and clinical outcome...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285068/radix-cyathula-officinalis-kuan-inhibits-arterial-remodeling-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#15
Jiajing Zhao, Yaohan Yue, Yun Xie, Liwen Liu, Fei Cao, Shurong Gao, Yingjue Wang
There is still no resolution for arterial remodeling related with hypertension, though hypertension treatment has access to a number of pharmacological agents. The present study aimed at investigating the prevention of Cyathula officinalis Kuan's roots ( C. officinalis Kuan) against in arterial remodeling in vitro . Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were intragastrically administered 3, 6 or 12 g/kg C. officinalis Kuan or normal saline or enalapril (2.5 mg/kg) once a day for 8 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin were used to measure blood pressure and stain carotid and arota...
December 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248456/endothelin-2-injures-the-blood-retinal-barrier-and-macroglial-m%C3%A3-ller-cells-interactions-with-angiotensin-ii-aldosterone-and-nadph-oxidase
#16
Saeed F Alrashdi, Devy Deliyanti, Dean M Talia, Jennifer L Wilkinson-Berka
Although increasing evidence indicates that endothelin-2 (Edn2) has distinct roles in tissue pathology, including inflammation, glial cell dysfunction, and angiogenesis, its role in the retina and the factors that regulate its actions are not fully understood. We hypothesized that Edn2 damages the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and that this is mediated by interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and reactive oxygen species derived from NADPH oxidase (Nox). C57BL/6J mice received an intravitreal injection of Edn2 or control vehicle to examine the blood pressure-independent effects of Edn2...
March 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236055/hyaluronan-production-by-renomedullary-interstitial-cells-influence-of-endothelin-angiotensin-ii-and-vasopressin
#17
Sara Stridh, Fredrik Palm, Tomoko Takahashi, Mayumi Ikegami-Kawai, Malou Friederich-Persson, Peter Hansell
The content of hyaluronan (HA) in the interstitium of the renal medulla changes in relation to body hydration status. We investigated if hormones of central importance for body fluid homeostasis affect HA production by renomedullary interstitial cells in culture (RMICs). Simultaneous treatment with vasopressin and angiotensin II (Ang II) reduced HA by 69%. No change occurred in the mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) or hyaluronidases (Hyals), while Hyal activity in the supernatant increased by 67% and CD44 expression reduced by 42%...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228345/mechanisms-and-mediators-of-hypertension-induced-by-erythropoietin-and-related-molecules
#18
Rajiv Agarwal
Hypertension is a common but frequently overlooked adverse effect of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. Underreporting of hypertension with EPO is likely due to either more aggressively managing hypertension through the prescription of antihypertensive drugs or closer attention to dry weight. The purpose and focus of this review is to critically evaluate the mechanisms of EPO-induced hypertension. Preclinical data are considered first, followed by clinical data where available. Mediated by a variety of molecules, there is an imbalance in the vascular tone favoring net vasoconstriction that mediates EPO-induced hypertension...
December 8, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222290/chronic-organ-failure-in-adult-sickle-cell-disease
#19
REVIEW
Elliott Vichinsky
Sickle cell disease is now a chronic adult illness characterized by progressive multiorgan failure, particularly involving the brain and kidney. The etiology is multifactorial; it includes hemolysis and nitric oxide deficiency. As patients age, most experience neurologic insult. Twenty-five percent of older adults have had a clinical stroke and at least half of the population have had a silent infarct, cortical atrophy, and neurocognitive impairment. Periodic screening with neuroimaging and neurocognitive testing is recommended...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217423/pre-transplant-at-1-r-antibodies-correlate-with-early-allograft-rejection
#20
Alison J Gareau, Chris Wiebe, Denise Pochinco, Ian W Gibson, Julie Ho, David N Rush, Peter W Nickerson
Studies investigating the potential pathogenic effects of non-HLA antibodies (Ab) have identified Ab against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R-Ab) as a risk factor for rejection and kidney graft loss. This study sought to validate the risk of AT1 R-Ab for acute rejection and to explore the role of other non-HLA Abs in this capacity. Pre- and post-transplant sera from a cohort of 101 patients (n=453 samples total) were tested for AT1 R-Ab and other non-HLA Ab using a commercially available ELISA kit and the Luminex platform, respectively...
February 2018: Transplant Immunology
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