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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548897/evening-light-exposure-to-computer-screens-disrupts-human-sleep-biological-rhythms-and-attention-abilities
#1
A Green, M Cohen-Zion, A Haim, Y Dagan
The use of electronic devices with light-emitting screens has increased exponentially in the last decade. As a result, humans are almost continuously exposed to unintentional artificial light. We explored the independent and combined effects of two aspects of screen illumination, light wavelength, and intensity, on sleep, its biological regulation, and related functional outcomes. The 2 × 2 repeated-measure design included two independent variables: screen light intensity (low ([LI] versus high [HI]) and wavelength (short [SWL] versus long [LWL])...
May 26, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548648/electronic-retinal-implants-and-artificial-vision-journey-and-present
#2
REVIEW
J O Mills, A Jalil, P E Stanga
Retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration are two significant causes of severe visual dysfunction. In both, the retinal photoreceptors degenerate, preventing successful conversion of light into electrical energy that is interpreted in the visual cortex as visual function. Artificial vision or visual function began over two centuries ago with the idea of creating artificial light pulses, or phosphenes, through cortical stimulation. The pursuit is now on to improve artificial visual function. Two retinal implants appear the most likely to succeed in the future having undergone multicentre human trials: the Argus II electronic epiretinal device (Second Sight Medical Products, CA, USA) and Alpha-IMS electronic subretinal device (Retina Implant AG, Germany)...
May 26, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544213/bac-recombineering-of-the-agouti-loci-from-spotted-gar-and-zebrafish-reveals-the-evolutionary-ancestry-of-dorsal-ventral-pigment-asymmetry-in-fish
#3
Laura Cal, Manuel MegÍas, José Miguel Cerdá-Reverter, John H Postlethwait, Ingo Braasch, Josep Rotllant
Dorsoventral pigment patterning, characterized by a light ventrum and a dark dorsum, is one of the most widespread chromatic adaptations in vertebrate body coloration. In mammals, this countershading depends on differential expression of agouti-signaling protein (ASIP), which drives a switch of synthesis of one type of melanin to another within melanocytes. Teleost fish share countershading, but the pattern results from a differential distribution of multiple types of chromatophores, with black-brown melanophores most abundant in the dorsal body and reflective iridophores most abundant in the ventral body...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541930/progress-in-artificial-vision-through-suprachoroidal-retinal-implants
#4
Lilach Bareket, Alejandro Barriga-Rivera, Marc Patrick Zapf, Nigel H Lovell, Gregg J Suaning
Retinal implants have proven their ability to restore visual sensation to people with degenerative retinopathy, characterized by photoreceptor cell death and the retina's inability to sense light. Retinal bionics operate by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons in the retina, thus triggering the transfer of visual sensory information to the brain. Suprachoroidal implants were first investigated in Australia in the 1950s. In this approach, the neuromodulation hardware is positioned between the sclera and the choroid, thus providing significant surgical and safety benefits for patients, with the potential to maintain residual vision combined with the artificial input from the device...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541573/lighting-programs-for-male-and-female-meat-quails-coturnix-coturnix-raised-in-equatorial-region
#5
G C Aguiar, E R Freitas, P H Watanabe, C W S Figueiredo, L P Silva, G A J Nascimento, R C Lima, R C Nepomuceno, N L Sá
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of lighting programs for male and female meat quails raised in an equatorial region on performance and carcass traits. A total of 1,500 sexed quails (Coturnix coturnix) was distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with 2 sexes (male and female) and 3 lighting programs (natural, intermittent, and continuous) with 5 replicates of 50 birds. The lighting programs were applied in the period from 7 to 49 d of age, being natural (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 11 h and 30 min of dark), intermittent (12 h and 30 min of natural light and 5 h and 30 min of artificial light, alternating lighting periods with one h and 06 min and periods of darkness with one h and 12 min), and continuous (23 h of natural + artificial light and one h of dark)...
May 24, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534872/a-light-driven-artificial-flytrap
#6
Owies M Wani, Hao Zeng, Arri Priimagi
The sophistication, complexity and intelligence of biological systems is a continuous source of inspiration for mankind. Mimicking the natural intelligence to devise tiny systems that are capable of self-regulated, autonomous action to, for example, distinguish different targets, remains among the grand challenges in biomimetic micro-robotics. Herein, we demonstrate an autonomous soft device, a light-driven flytrap, that uses optical feedback to trigger photomechanical actuation. The design is based on light-responsive liquid-crystal elastomer, fabricated onto the tip of an optical fibre, which acts as a power source and serves as a contactless probe that senses the environment...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533987/exoskeleton-may-influence-the-internal-body-temperatures-of-neotropical-dung-beetles-col-scarabaeinae
#7
Valentina Amore, Malva I M Hernández, Luis M Carrascal, Jorge M Lobo
The insect exoskeleton is a multifunctional coat with a continuum of mechanical and structural properties constituting the barrier between electromagnetic waves and the internal body parts. This paper examines the ability of beetle exoskeleton to regulate internal body temperature considering its thermal permeability or isolation to simulated solar irradiance and infrared radiation. Seven Neotropical species of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) differing in colour, surface sculptures, size, sexual dimorphism, period of activity, guild category and altitudinal distribution were studied...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530758/self-thermophoretic-motion-of-controlled-assembled-micro-nanomotors
#8
Xiankun Lin, Tieyan Si, Zhiguang Wu, Qiang He
As artificial active colloids, micro-/nanomotors (MNMs) can convert energy from the environment into mechanical motion in different fluids, showing potential applications in diverse fields such as targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy. However, chemical fuels for typical catalytic MNMs, e.g., hydrogen peroxide, are highly toxic to organisms, and thus fuel-free MNMs are required. Recently, we have developed near-infrared light (NIR) propelled MNMs through integrating plasmonic gold nanoshells into nanoparticles or layer-by-layer assemblies in an asymmetric manner...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526480/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#9
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
May 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526054/assessing-degradation-of-composite-resin-cements-during-artificial-aging-by-martens-hardness
#10
Stefan Bürgin, Nadja Rohr, Jens Fischer
BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of Martens hardness measurements in detecting the degradation of composite resin cements during artificial aging. METHODS: Four cements were used: Variolink II (VL2), RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RUN), PermaFlo DC (PDC), and DuoCem (DCM). Specimens for Martens hardness measurements were light-cured and stored in water at 37 °C for 1 day to allow complete polymerization (baseline). Subsequently the specimens were artificially aged by water storage at 37 °C or thermal cycling (n = 6)...
May 19, 2017: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523012/growth-and-accumulation-of-secondary-metabolites-in-perilla-as-affected-by-photosynthetic-photon-flux-density-and-electrical-conductivity-of-the-nutrient-solution
#11
Na Lu, Emmanuel L Bernardo, Chayanit Tippayadarapanich, Michiko Takagaki, Natsuko Kagawa, Wataru Yamori
The global demand for medicinal plants is increasing. The quality of plants grown outdoors, however, is difficult to control. Myriad environmental factors influence plant growth and directly impact biosynthetic pathways, thus affecting the secondary metabolism of bioactive compounds. Plant factories use artificial lighting to increase the quality of medicinal plants and stabilize production. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solutions are two important factors that substantially influence perilla (Perilla frutescens, Labiatae) plant growth and quality...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520092/mushrooms-as-efficient-solar-steam-generation-devices
#12
Ning Xu, Xiaozhen Hu, Weichao Xu, Xiuqiang Li, Lin Zhou, Shining Zhu, Jia Zhu
Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time...
May 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515326/semantic-closure-demonstrated-by-the-evolution-of-a-universal-constructor-architecture-in-an-artificial-chemistry
#13
Edward B Clark, Simon J Hickinbotham, Susan Stepney
We present a novel stringmol-based artificial chemistry system modelled on the universal constructor architecture (UCA) first explored by von Neumann. In a UCA, machines interact with an abstract description of themselves to replicate by copying the abstract description and constructing the machines that the abstract description encodes. DNA-based replication follows this architecture, with DNA being the abstract description, the polymerase being the copier, and the ribosome being the principal machine in expressing what is encoded on the DNA...
May 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509540/characterization-of-the-high-spin-co-ii-intermediate-species-of-the-o2-evolving-co4o4-cubic-molecules
#14
Georgia Zahariou
An artificial oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) contains a tetranuclear Co(III)4O4 cubic cluster ligated with acetate and pyridine molecules, a light-activated Ru(bpy)3(2+) moiety (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), and the sacrificial electron acceptor S2O8(2-) side. A recent EPR investigation of this system showed the formation of the high-spin Co(II) ion under visible-illumination conditions. It has been supported that this center originates from the cluster and is involved in the oxygen-evolving process. The present report is focused on the further characterization of the high-spin d(7) configuration of the Co(II) species...
May 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502741/high-metabolic-activity-of-tissue-nonspecific-alkaline-phosphatase-not-only-in-young-but-also-in-adult-bone-as-demonstrated-using-a-new-histochemical-detection-protocol
#15
I Piotr Maly, Elisabeth Eppler, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl
Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is playing a key role in bone calcification, as has been demonstrated in different mammalian species including human and rodents. However, to investigate age-related changes during life history, histochemical demonstration of TNAP is severely hampered, particularly in the elderly, by technical difficulties associated with sectioning calcified tissue. Sufficient fixation must precede decalcification since poorly fixed bone tissue is exposed to the deleterious effects of decalcification reagents...
May 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499963/neither-artificial-light-at-night-anthropogenic-noise-nor-distance-from-roads-are-associated-with-oxidative-status-of-nestlings-in-an-urban-population-of-songbirds
#16
Giulia Casasole, Thomas Raap, David Costantini, Hamada AbdElgawad, Han Asard, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Increasing urbanization is responsible for road-related pollutants and causes an unprecedented increase in light and noise pollution, with potential detrimental effects for individual animals, communities and ecosystems. These stressors rarely act in isolation but studies dissecting the effects of these multiple stressors are lacking. Moreover, studies on urban stressors have mainly focused on adults, while exposure in early-life may be detrimental but is largely ignored. To fill this important knowledge gap, we studied if artificial light at night, anthropogenic noise and road-related pollution (using distance from roads as a proxy) explain variation in oxidative status in great tit nestlings (Parus major) in an urban population...
May 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499591/chronic-exposure-to-dim-artificial-light-at-night-decreases-fecundity-and-adult-survival-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
L K McLay, M P Green, T M Jones
The presence of artificial light at night is expanding in geographical range and increasing in intensity to such an extent that species living in urban environments may never experience natural darkness. The negative ecological consequences of artificial night lighting have been identified in several key life history traits across multiple taxa (albeit with a strong vertebrate focus); comparable data for invertebrates is lacking. In this study, we explored the effect of chronic exposure to different night-time lighting intensities on growth, reproduction and survival in Drosophila melanogaster...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492234/molecular-basis-for-blue-light-dependent-phosphorylation-of-arabidopsis-cryptochrome-2
#18
Qing Liu, Qin Wang, Weixian Deng, Xu Wang, Mingxin Piao, Dawei Cai, Yaxing Li, William D Barshop, Xiaolan Yu, Tingting Zhou, Bin Liu, Yoshito Oka, James Wohlschlegel, Zecheng Zuo, Chentao Lin
Plant cryptochromes undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation to regulate their activity and abundance, but the protein kinases that phosphorylate plant cryptochromes have remained unclear. Here we show that photoexcited Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is phosphorylated in vivo on as many as 24 different residues, including 7 major phosphoserines. We demonstrate that four closely related Photoregulatory Protein Kinases (previously referred to as MUT9-like kinases) interact with and phosphorylate photoexcited CRY2...
May 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491122/in-situ-measurement-of-scots-pine-needle-pri
#19
Matti Mõttus, Rocío Hernández-Clemente, Viljami Perheentupa, Vincent Markiet
BACKGROUND: The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) calculated from narrow-band spectral reflectance data is a vegetation index which is increasingly used as an indicator of photosynthetic activity. The leaf-level link between the status of photosynthetic apparatus and PRI has been robustly established under controlled light conditions. However, when a whole canopy is measured instantaneously, the PRI signal is heavily modified by vegetation structure and local variations in incident light conditions...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482217/ruthenium-ii-complexes-of-saccharin-with-dipyridoquinoxaline-and-dipyridophenazine-structures-biological-interactions-and-photoinduced-dna-damage-activity
#20
Priyaranjan Kumar, Srikanth Dasari, Ashis K Patra
Ruthenium complexes trans-[Ru(sac)2(dpq)2] (1) and trans-[Ru(sac)2(dppz)2] (2) where sac is artificial sweetener saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide; 1,2-benzothiazole-3(2H)-one1,1-dioxide (Hsac)), dpq = dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized using various analytical and spectral techniques. Saccharin known to act as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) inhibitor which is a biomarker for highly aggressive and proliferative tumor in hypoxic stress, so inhibition of CA IX is a potential strategy for anticancer chemotherapy...
May 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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