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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345624/the-effects-of-self-selected-light-dark-cycles-and-social-constraints-on-human-sleep-and-circadian-timing-a-modeling-approach
#1
Anne C Skeldon, Andrew J K Phillips, Derk-Jan Dijk
Why do we go to sleep late and struggle to wake up on time? Historically, light-dark cycles were dictated by the solar day, but now humans can extend light exposure by switching on artificial lights. We use a mathematical model incorporating effects of light, circadian rhythmicity and sleep homeostasis to provide a quantitative theoretical framework to understand effects of modern patterns of light consumption on the human circadian system. The model shows that without artificial light humans wakeup at dawn...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345508/use-of-a-novel-portable-led-based-capillary-refill-time-simulator-within-a-disaster-triage-context
#2
Todd P Chang, Genevieve Santillanes, Ilene Claudius, Phung K Pham, James Koved, John Cheyne, Marianne Gausche-Hill, Amy H Kaji, Saranya Srinivasan, J Joelle Donofrio, Cynthia Bir
Introduction A simple, portable capillary refill time (CRT) simulator is not commercially available. This device would be useful in mass-casualty simulations with multiple volunteers or mannequins depicting a variety of clinical findings and CRTs. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a prototype CRT simulator in a disaster simulation context. METHODS: A CRT prototype simulator was developed by embedding a pressure-sensitive piezo crystal, and a single red light-emitting diode (LED) light was embedded, within a flesh-toned resin...
March 27, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343265/effect-of-10-cerium-chloride-on-artificial-caries-lesions-of-human-enamel-evaluated-using-quantitative-light-induced-fluorescence-an-in-vitro-study
#3
R Jaisingh, R Shanbhog, B Nandlal, M Thippeswamy
AIM: To evaluate the effect of 10% cerium chloride intervention on pre-demineralised human enamel subjected to cycles of de- and remineralisation. METHODS: This was an in vitro, comparative type study of 60 human enamel samples that were randomly divided into control and test groups. The samples were then subjected to a cycle of demineralisation followed by intervention with respective treatment solutions (control group: placebo solution; test: 10% cerium chloride) for 30 s under constant agitation and then to a 2nd cycle of demineralisation followed by remineralisation using artificial saliva...
March 25, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343260/urethral-lumen-occlusion-by-artificial-sphincteric-devices-a-computational-biomechanics-approach
#4
Arturo Nicola Natali, Emanuele Luigi Carniel, Chiara Giulia Fontanella, Silvia Todros, Giulia Maria De Benedictis, Maria Angela Cerruto, Walter Artibani
The action induced by artificial sphincteric devices to provide urinary continence is related to the problem of evaluating the interaction between the occlusive cuff and the urethral duct. The intensity and distribution of the force induced within the region of application determine a different occlusion process and potential degradation of the urethral tissue, mostly at the borders of the cuff. This problem is generally considered in the light of clinical and surgical operational experience, while a valid cooperation is established with biomechanical competences by means of experimental and numerical investigation...
March 25, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338794/genome-wide-association-study-unravels-the-genetic-control-of-the-apple-volatilome-and-its-interplay-with-fruit-texture
#5
Brian Farneti, Mario Di Guardo, Iuliia Khomenko, Luca Cappellin, Franco Biasioli, Riccardo Velasco, Fabrizio Costa
Fruit quality represents a fundamental factor guiding consumers' preferences. Among apple quality traits, volatile organic compounds and texture features play a major role. Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), coupled with an artificial chewing device, was used to profile the entire apple volatilome of 162 apple accessions, while the fruit texture was dissected with a TAXT-AED texture analyzer. The array of volatile compounds was classed into seven major groups and used in a genome-wide association analysis carried out with 9142 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337979/monolayer-optical-memory-cells-based-on-artificial-trap-mediated-charge-storage-and-release
#6
Juwon Lee, Sangyeon Pak, Young-Woo Lee, Yuljae Cho, John Hong, Paul Giraud, Hyeon Suk Shin, Stephen M Morris, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha, Jong Min Kim
Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are considered to be promising candidates for flexible and transparent optoelectronics applications due to their direct bandgap and strong light-matter interactions. Although several monolayer-based photodetectors have been demonstrated, single-layered optical memory devices suitable for high-quality image sensing have received little attention. Here we report a concept for monolayer MoS2 optoelectronic memory devices using artificially-structured charge trap layers through the functionalization of the monolayer/dielectric interfaces, leading to localized electronic states that serve as a basis for electrically-induced charge trapping and optically-mediated charge release...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331534/ford-and-edison-in-a-modern-regulatory-environment-the-first-in-human-trial-of-night-work-and-artificial-light
#7
EDITORIAL
Thomas C Erren, David M Shaw, Ursula Wild, J Valérie Groß
A thought experiment places Henry Ford and Thomas Alva Edison in a modern regulatory environment. In a utopian occupational world devoid of night-shifts or artificial light, Ford wants to experiment with "working through the night". To support Ford's project, Edison offers his patented electric lamps to "turn nights into days". An ethics committee [EC] does not approve the night-work experiment and Utopia's Food and Drug Administration [FDA] does not approve the potential medical device as safe for use by humans...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327742/pair-natural-orbital-and-canonical-coupled-cluster-reaction-enthalpies-involving-light-to-heavy-alkali-and-alkaline-earth-metals-the-importance-of-sub-valence-correlation
#8
Yury Minenkov, Giovanni Bistoni, Christoph Riplinger, Alexander A Auer, Frank Neese, Luigi Cavallo
In this work, we tested canonical and domain based pair natural orbital coupled cluster methods (CCSD(T) and DLPNO-CCSD(T), respectively) for a set of 32 ligand exchange and association/dissociation reaction enthalpies involving ionic complexes of Li, Be, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb(ii). Two strategies were investigated: in the former, only valence electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the computationally very efficient FC (frozen core) approach; in the latter, all non-ECP electrons were included in the correlation treatment, giving rise to the AE (all electron) approach...
March 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320948/highly-oriented-photosynthetic-reaction-centers-generate-a-proton-gradient-in-synthetic-protocells
#9
Emiliano Altamura, Francesco Milano, Roberto R Tangorra, Massimo Trotta, Omar Hassan Omar, Pasquale Stano, Fabio Mavelli
Photosynthesis is responsible for the photochemical conversion of light into the chemical energy that fuels the planet Earth. The photochemical core of this process in all photosynthetic organisms is a transmembrane protein called the reaction center. In purple photosynthetic bacteria a simple version of this photoenzyme catalyzes the reduction of a quinone molecule, accompanied by the uptake of two protons from the cytoplasm. This results in the establishment of a proton concentration gradient across the lipid membrane, which can be ultimately harnessed to synthesize ATP...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320674/simulation-study-of-an-ultrasound-retinal-prosthesis-with-a-novel-contact-lens-array-for-noninvasive-retinal-stimulation
#10
Mengdi Gao, Yanyan Yu, Huixia Zhao, Guofeng Li, Hongyang Jiang, Congzhi Wang, Feiyan Cai, Leanne Chan, Bernard Chiu, Wei Qian, Weibao Qiu, Hairong Zheng
Millions of people around the world suffer from varying degrees of vision loss (including complete blindness) because of retinal degenerative diseases. Artificial retinal prosthesis, which is usually based on electrical neurostimulation, are the most advanced technology for different types of retinal degeneration. However, this technology involves placing a device into the eyeball, and such a highly invasive procedure is inevitably highly risk and expensive. Ultrasound has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for noninvasive neurostimulation, making it possible to stimulate the retina and induce action potentials similar to those elicited by light stimulation...
March 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319615/dual-light-control-of-nanomachines-that-integrate-motor-and-modulator-subunits
#11
Justin T Foy, Quan Li, Antoine Goujon, Jean-Rémy Colard-Itté, Gad Fuks, Emilie Moulin, Olivier Schiffmann, Damien Dattler, Daniel P Funeriu, Nicolas Giuseppone
A current challenge in the field of artificial molecular machines is the synthesis and implementation of systems that can produce useful work when fuelled with a constant source of external energy. The first experimental achievements of this kind consisted of machines with continuous unidirectional rotations and translations that make use of 'Brownian ratchets' to bias random motions. An intrinsic limitation of such designs is that an inversion of directionality requires heavy chemical modifications in the structure of the actuating motor part...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303945/dependence-of-nighttime-sleep-duration-in-one-month-old-infants-on-alterations-in-natural-and-artificial-photoperiod
#12
Sachiko Iwata, Fumie Fujita, Masahiro Kinoshita, Mitsuaki Unno, Takashi Horinouchi, Seiichi Morokuma, Osuke Iwata
Human sleep-wake cycles are entrained by both natural and artificial light-dark cycles. However, little is known regarding when and how the photoperiod changes entrain the biological clock after conception. To investigate the dependence of sleep patterns in young infants on the natural and artificial light-dark cycles, 1,302 pairs of one-month-old infants and their mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire. Birth in spring, longer daytime sleep duration, early/regular light-off times, and longer maternal nighttime sleep duration were identified as independent variables for longer infant nighttime sleep duration in both univariate and multivariate analyses...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303757/evaluation-of-microalgae-production-coupled-with-wastewater-treatment
#13
Davide De Francisci, Yixi Su, Arvo Iital, Irini Angelidaki
In the present study the feasibility of microalgae production coupled with wastewater treatment was assessed. Continuous cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana with wastewater was tested in lab-scale flat panel photobioreactors. Biomass productivity was determined for four dilution rates (4.32 d(-1), 3.6 d(-1), 1.8 d(-1) and 0.72 d(-1)). The productivity peak was 1.524 g l(-1)d(-1) at the dilution rate of 2.41 d(-1). Nitrogen and phosphorus removals were found to be inversely proportional to dilution rates, while COD removal was found to be 50% at all the tested conditions...
March 17, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301082/ch3nh3pbbr3-perovskite-nanocrystals-as-efficient-light-harvesting-antenna-for-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer
#14
Vijayakumar C Nair, Chinnadurai Muthu, Anuja Vijayan
Hybrid perovskites have created enormous research interest as a low-cost material for high-performance photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, memories and sensors. Perovskite materials in nanocrystal form, show intense luminescence due to quantum confinement effect, were found to be particularly suitable for most of these applications. However, the potential use of perovskite nanocrystals as a light harvesting antenna for possible applications in artificial photosynthesis systems is not yet explored...
March 16, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294607/molecular-environment-modulates-conformational-differences-between-crystal-and-solution-states-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-2
#15
Jianguo Li, Zhongqiao Hu, Roger Beuerman, Chandra Verma
Human β-defensin 2 is a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide. In the crystal state, the N-terminal segment (residues 1-11) exhibits a helical conformation. However, a truncated form, with four amino acids removed from the N-terminus, adopts nonhelical conformations in solution, as shown by NMR. To explore the molecular origins of these different conformations, we performed Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the peptide in solution and in the crystal state. It is found that backbone hydration and specific protein-protein interactions are key parameters that determine the peptide conformation...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294566/artificial-photosynthesis-of-alcohols-via-multi-functionalized-semiconductor-photocathodes
#16
Yuqian Zhang, Bo Han, Yanjie Xu, Dongning Zhao, Yongjian Jia, Rong Nie, Zhouhe Zhu, Fengjuan Chen, Jianguo Wang, Huanwang Jing
Novel artificial photosynthesis systems are devised as cells of dye/Pd/NR-MOx (M = Ti, Zn)||Co-Pi/W:BiVO4 that convert efficiently CO2 to alcohols. The photocathodes are amino-functionalized, palladium deposited and in-situ sensitized nano-TiO2 or ZnO/FTO electrodes that are characterized by XPS, TEM, XRD, UV-vis spectra and determined by electrochemical techniques. The cell of dye/Pd/S-TiO2||Co-Pi/W:BiVO4 uniquely generates ethanol under irradiation of 200 mW/cm2, reaching 0.56 % light quantum efficiency (QE) at 0...
March 15, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294264/iron-cobalt-bimetal-oxide-nanorods-as-efficient-and-robust-water-oxidation-catalysts
#17
Xichen Zhou, Jingwei Huang, Fuming Zhang, Yukun Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yong Ding
Cobalt-based oxides are considered as potential water oxidation catalysts for future artificial photosynthetic systems because of their high abundance, strong stability and efficient performance. Herein, a series of cobalt-based oxides, MnCo3-nO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) samples, were synthesized through changing the metal sources by a low-temperature coprecipitation method. These catalysts were investigated under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation conditions. And they all exhibited efficient activity for water oxidation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions under visible light irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293822/ibuprofen-removal-by-heterogeneous-photocatalysis-and-ecotoxicological-evaluation-of-the-treated-solutions
#18
EDITORIAL
João P Candido, Sandro J Andrade, Ana L Fonseca, Flávio S Silva, Milady R A Silva, Márcia M Kondo
Emerging contaminants including pharmaceuticals are a class of compounds that are causing great concern due to several environmental problems. Conventional water and wastewater treatments do not achieve high removal efficiencies for many of these drugs. Therefore, the present work investigated the removal of ibuprofen (IBP) by heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO2 irradiated with artificial UV light or solar radiation. The treated solutions were tested against Daphnia similis and Raphidocelis subcapitata, which are species commonly used as bioindicators of environmental conditions...
March 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290973/total-artificial-heart-implantation-as-a-bridge-to-heart-transplantation-in-an-active-duty-service-member-with-amyloid-cardiomyopathy
#19
Michael S Scully, Dylan E Wessman, James M McKee, Gregory M Francisco, Keshav R Nayak, Jon A Kobashigawa
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac involvement by light-chain (AL) amyloid occurs in up to 50% of patients with primary AL amyloidosis. The prognosis of amyloid heart disease is poor with 1-year survival rates of 35 to 40%. Historically, heart transplantation was considered controversial for patients with AL amyloid cardiomyopathy (CM) given the systemic nature of the disease and poor survival. We present a case report of an active duty service member diagnosed with advanced cardiac amyloid who underwent total artificial heart transplant as a bridge to heart transplant and eventual autologous stem cell transplant...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287768/eye-movements-in-implicit-artificial-grammar-learning
#20
Susana Silva, Filomena Inácio, Vasiliki Folia, Karl Magnus Petersson
Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been probed with forced-choice behavioral tests (active tests). Recent attempts to probe the outcomes of learning (implicitly acquired knowledge) with eye-movement responses (passive tests) have shown null results. However, these latter studies have not tested for sensitivity effects, for example, increased eye movements on a printed violation. In this study, we tested for sensitivity effects in AGL tests with (Experiment 1) and without (Experiment 2) concurrent active tests (preference- and grammaticality classification) in an eye-tracking experiment...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
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