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Artificial lighting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784968/ultranarrow-bandwidth-filter-based-on-a-thermal-eit-medium
#1
Gang Wang, Yu-Sheng Wang, Emily Kay Huang, Weilun Hung, Kai-Lin Chao, Ping-Yeh Wu, Yi-Hsin Chen, Ite A Yu
We present high-contrast electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) spectra in a heated vapor cell of single isotope 87 Rb atoms. The EIT spectrum has both high resonant transmission up to 67% and narrow linewidth of 1.1 MHz. We get rid of the possible amplification resulted from the effects of amplification without population inversion and four-wave mixing. Therefore, this high transmitted light is not artificial. The theoretical prediction of the probe transmission agrees well with the data and the experimental parameters can be derived reasonably from the model...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784957/metabolic-reprogramming-in-leaf-lettuce-grown-under-different-light-quality-and-intensity-conditions-using-narrow-band-leds
#2
Kazuyoshi Kitazaki, Atsushi Fukushima, Ryo Nakabayashi, Yozo Okazaki, Makoto Kobayashi, Tetsuya Mori, Tomoko Nishizawa, Sebastian Reyes-Chin-Wo, Richard W Michelmore, Kazuki Saito, Kazuhiro Shoji, Miyako Kusano
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an artificial light source used in closed-type plant factories and provide a promising solution for a year-round supply of green leafy vegetables, such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Obtaining high-quality seedlings using controlled irradiation from LEDs is critical, as the seedling health affects the growth and yield of leaf lettuce after transplantation. Because key molecular pathways underlying plant responses to a specific light quality and intensity remain poorly characterised, we used a multi-omics-based approach to evaluate the metabolic and transcriptional reprogramming of leaf lettuce seedlings grown under narrow-band LED lighting...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781601/artificial-plasmonic-molecules-and-their-interaction-with-real-molecules
#3
Gilad Haran, Lev Chuntonov
Plasmonic molecules are small assemblies of nanosized metal particles. Interactions between the particles modify their optical properties and make them attractive for multiple applications in spectroscopy and sensing. In this review, we focus on basic properties rather than on applications. Plasmonic molecules can be created using either nanofabrication methods or self-assembly techniques in solution. The interaction of plasmonic molecules with light leads to excitations that are classified using the concept of normal modes...
May 21, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781104/cavities-shield-birds-from-effects-of-artificial-light-at-night-on-sleep
#4
Thomas Raap, Rianne Pinxten, Marcel Eens
Light pollution is an ever increasing worldwide problem disrupting animal behavior. Artificial light at night (ALAN) has been shown to affect sleep in wild birds. Even cavity-nesting bird species may be affected when sleeping inside their cavity. Correlational studies suggest that light from outside the cavity/nest box, for example from street lights, may affect sleep. We used an experimental design to study to what extent nest boxes shield animals from effects of ALAN on sleep. We recorded individual sleep behavior of free-living great tits (Parus major) that were roosting in dark nest boxes and exposed their nest box entrance to ALAN the following night (1...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780545/an-artificial-photosynthetic-system-for-photoaccumulation-of-two-electrons-on-a-fused-dipyridophenazine-dppz-pyridoquinolinone-ligand
#5
Jean-François Lefebvre, Julian Schindler, Philipp Traber, Ying Zhang, Stephan Kupfer, Stefanie Gräfe, Isabelle Baussanne, Martine Demeunynck, Jean-Marie Mouesca, Serge Gambarelli, Vincent Artero, Benjamin Dietzek, Murielle Chavarot-Kerlidou
Increasing the efficiency of molecular artificial photosynthetic systems is mandatory for the construction of functional devices for solar fuel production. Decoupling the light-induced charge separation steps from the catalytic process is a promising strategy, which can be achieved thanks to the introduction of suitable electron relay units performing charge accumulation. We report here on a novel ruthenium tris-diimine complex able to temporarily store two electrons on a fused dipyridophenazine-pyridoquinolinone π-extended ligand upon visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor...
May 7, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777430/the-artificial-humic-substance-hs1500-does-not-inhibit-photosynthesis-of-the-green-alga-desmodesmus-armatus-in-vivo-but-interacts-with-the-photosynthetic-apparatus-of-isolated-spinach-thylakoids-in-vitro
#6
Matthias Gilbert, Hanno Bährs, Christian E W Steinberg, Christian Wilhelm
Humic substances (HSs) can influence the growth and composition of freshwater phytoplankton assemblage. Since HSs contain many phenolic and quinonic moieties and cause growth reductions in eco-physiological field experiments, HSs are considered photosystem II herbicides. To test this specific mode of action in vivo and in vitro, respectively, we used intact cells of the green alga Desmodesmus armatus, as well as thylakoids isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) as a model system for the green algal chloroplast...
May 18, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777101/supramolecularly-directed-rotary-motion-in-a-photoresponsive-receptor
#7
Sander J Wezenberg, Ben L Feringa
Stimuli-controlled motion at the molecular level has fascinated chemists already for several decades. Taking inspiration from the myriad of dynamic and machine-like functions in nature, a number of strategies have been developed to control motion in purely synthetic systems. Unidirectional rotary motion, such as is observed in ATP synthase and other motor proteins, remains highly challenging to achieve. Current artificial molecular motor systems rely on intrinsic asymmetry or a specific sequence of chemical transformations...
May 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775503/artificial-rod-and-cone-photoreceptors-with-human-like-spectral-sensitivities
#8
Byeongho Park, Heehong Yang, Tai Hwan Ha, Hyun Seo Park, Seung Ja Oh, Yong-Sang Ryu, Youngho Cho, Hyo-Suk Kim, Juyeong Oh, Dong Kyu Lee, Chulki Kim, Taikjin Lee, Minah Seo, Jaebin Choi, Young Min Jhon, Deok Ha Woo, Seok Lee, Seok Hwan Kim, Hyuk-Jae Lee, Seong Chan Jun, Hyun Seok Song, Tai Hyun Park, Jae Hun Kim
Photosensitive materials contain biologically engineered elements and are constructed using delicate techniques, with special attention devoted to efficiency, stability, and biocompatibility. However, to date, no photosensitive material has been developed to replace damaged visual-systems to detect light and transmit the signal to a neuron in the human body. In the current study, artificial nanovesicle-based photosensitive materials are observed to possess the characteristics of photoreceptors similar to the human eye...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775077/evaluating-the-influence-of-road-lighting-on-traffic-safety-at-accesses-using-an-artificial-neural-network
#9
Yueru Xu, Zhirui Ye, Yuan Wang, Chao Wang, Cuicui Sun
OBJECTIVES: This paper focuses on the effect of road lighting on road safety at accesses and tries to quantitatively analyze the relationship between road lighting and road safety. METHODS: An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was applied in this study. This method is one of the most popular machine-learning methods in recent years and does not require any pre-defined assumptions. This method was applied using field data collected from ten road segments in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China...
May 18, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774639/controlling-dual-molecular-pumps-electrochemically
#10
Cristian Pezzato, Minh T Nguyen, Dong Jun Kim, Ommid Anamimoghadam, Lorenzo Mosca, Fraser Stoddart
Artificial molecular machines can be operated using either physical or chemical inputs. Light-powered motors display clean and autonomous operations, whereas chemically-driven machines generate waste products and are intermittent in their motions. Herein, we show that controlled changes in applied electrochemical potentials can drive the operation of artificial molecular pumps in a semi-autonomous manner - that is, without the need for consecutive additions of chemical fuel(s). The electroanalytical approach described in this communication promotes the assembly of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings along a positively charged oligomeric chain, providing easy access to the formation of multiple mechanical bonds by means of a controlled supply of electricity...
May 18, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772513/a-transition-to-white-led-increases-ecological-impacts-of-nocturnal-illumination-on-aquatic-primary-producers-in-a-lowland-agricultural-drainage-ditch
#11
Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770376/field-studies-reveal-functions-of-chemical-mediators-in-plant-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Meredith C Schuman, Ian T Baldwin
Plants are at the trophic base of most ecosystems, embedded in a rich network of ecological interactions in which they evolved. While their limited range and speed of motion precludes animal-typical behavior, plants are accomplished chemists, producing thousands of specialized metabolites which may function to convey information, or even to manipulate the physiology of other organisms. Plants' complex interactions and their underlying mechanisms are typically dissected within the controlled environments of growth chambers and glasshouses, but doing so introduces conditions alien to plants evolved in natural environments, such as being pot-bound, and receiving artificial light with a spectrum very different from sunlight...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768522/tif4-varnish-protects-the-retention-of-brackets-to-enamel-after-in-vitro-mild-erosive-challenge
#13
Maria Isabel Dantas de Medeiros, Hugo Lemes Carlo, Rogério Lacerda Dos Santos, Frederico Barbosa Sousa, Ricardo Dias de Castro, Renata Cristina Sobreira França, Fabíola Galbiatti de Carvalho
The effect of fluoride agents on the retention of orthodontic brackets to enamel under erosive challenge is little investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) and sodium fluoride (NaF) agents on the shear bond strength of brackets to enamel and on the enamel microhardness around brackets under erosive challenge. Brackets were bonded to bovine incisors. Five groups were formed according to fluoride application (n=10): TiF4 varnish, TiF4 solution, NaF varnish, NaF solution and control (without application)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768521/immediate-effects-of-temporary-bite-raising-with-light-cured-orthodontic-band-cement-on-the-electromyographic-response-of-masticatory-muscles
#14
Darin Pativetpinyo, Weera Supronsinchai, Chidsanu Changsiripun
To assess the immediate effects of temporary bite-raising using light-cured orthodontic band cement on the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis electromyography (EMG) activity in healthy adults. Surface EMG signals were recorded bilaterally from the superficial masseter and anterior temporalis muscles of 30 volunteers with a normal occlusion, before and after having temporary bite-raising. The bite-raising was done by adding light-cured orthodontic band cement (3x5x2 mm WxLxH) on the lingual cusps of both upper first molars...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768068/population-level-study-links-short-wavelength-nighttime-illumination-with-breast-cancer-incidence-in-a-major-metropolitan-area
#15
Nataliya Rybnikova, Boris A Portnov
Several population-level studies revealed a positive association between breast cancer (BC) incidence and artificial light at night (ALAN) exposure. However, the effect of short-wavelength illumination, implicated by laboratory research and small-scale cohort studies as the main driving force behind BC-ALAN association, has not been supported by any population-level study carried out to date. We investigated a possible link between BC and ALAN of different subspectra using a multi-spectral year-2011 satellite image, taken from the International Space Station, and superimposing it with year-2013 BC incidence data available for the Great Haifa Metropolitan Area in Israel...
May 16, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766666/light-at-night-disrupts-nocturnal-rest-and-elevates-glucocorticoids-at-cool-color-temperatures
#16
Valentina J Alaasam, Richard Duncan, Stefania Casagrande, Scott Davies, Abhijaat Sidher, Brett Seymoure, Yantao Shen, Yong Zhang, Jenny Q Ouyang
Nighttime light pollution is quickly becoming a pervasive, global concern. Since the invention and proliferation of light-emitting diodes (LED), it has become common for consumers to select from a range of color temperatures of light with varying spectra. Yet, the biological impacts of these different spectra on organisms remain unclear. We tested if nighttime illumination of LEDs, at two commercially available color temperatures (3000 and 5000 K) and at ecologically relevant illumination levels affected body condition, food intake, locomotor activity, and glucocorticoid levels in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766489/phenotypic-disparity-of-the-elbow-joint-in-domestic-dogs-and-wild-carnivores
#17
Borja Figueirido
In this article, I use geometric morphometrics in 2D from a sample of 366 elbow joints to quantify phenotypic disparity in domestic dog breeds, in wild canids, and across the order Carnivora. The elbow joint is a well-established morphological indicator of forearm motion and, by extension, of functional adaptations towards locomotor or predatory behavior in living carnivores. The study of the elbow joint in domestic dogs allows the exploration of potential convergences between (i) pursuit predators and fast-running dogs, and (ii) ambush predators and fighting breeds...
May 16, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764717/mitochondrial-damage-and-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-human-dermal-fibroblasts-exposed-to-artificial-visible-light-similar-to-screen-emitted-light
#18
Adeline Rascalou, Jérôme Lamartine, Pauline Poydenot, Frédéric Demarne, Nicolas Bechetoille
BACKGROUND: Artificial visible light is everywhere in modern life. Social communication confronts us with screens of all kinds, and their use is on the rise. We are therefore increasingly exposed to artificial visible light, the effects of which on skin are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to model the artificial visible light emitted by electronic devices and assess its effect on normal human fibroblasts. METHODS: The spectral irradiance emitted by electronic devices was optically measured and equipment was developed to accurately reproduce such artificial visible light...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763738/prediction-of-early-caries-prognosis-after-fluoride-application-based-on-the-severity-of-lesions-an-in-situ-study
#19
Hee-Eun Kim, Baek-Il Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of thisin situ study was to measure baseline fluorescence loss values (ΔF(0) ) using the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to screen enamel lesions for effective remineralization following fluoride application. METHODS: In this single-blindedin situ study, 20 adult volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing 4 specimens of human enamel. The surfaces of the specimens were divided into 3 regions: sound, demineralized, and treated regions...
May 12, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761749/effects-of-light-and-temperature-on-daily-activity-and-clock-gene-expression-in-two-mosquito-disease-vectors
#20
Gustavo B S Rivas, Rayane Teles-de-Freitas, Márcio G Pavan, José B P Lima, Alexandre A Peixoto, Rafaela Vieira Bruno
Most organisms feature an endogenous circadian clock capable of synchronization with their environment. The most well-known synchronizing agents are light and temperature. The circadian clock of mosquitoes, vectors of many pathogens, drives important behaviors related to vectoral capacity, including oviposition, host seeking, and hematophagy. Main clock gene expression, as well as locomotor activity patterns, has been identified in Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus under artificial light-dark cycles...
June 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
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