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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822173/-breakthrough-in-key-science-and-technologies-in-dendrobium-catenatum-industry
#1
Ji-Ping Si, Qi Wang, Zhong-Jian Liu, Jing-Jing Liu, Yi-Bo Luo
In view of the significant difficulties of propagation, planting and simple product in Dendrobium catenatum(D. officinale)industry development, a series of research were carried out. Genome study showed that D. catenatum is a specie of diploid with 38 chromosomes and 28 910 protein-coding genes. It was identified that specific genes accumulated in different organs at the transcriptome level. We got an insight into the gene regulation mechanism of the loss of the endospermous seed, the wide ecological adaptability and the synthesis of polysaccharides, which provided a theoretical basis for genetic engineering breeding and development and utilization of active pharmaceutical ingredients...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822157/-the-analysis-of-multivariate-image-and-chemometrics-in-tlc-fingerprinting-of-artificial-cow-bezoar
#2
Ling-Wen Yao, Yan Shi, Dong-Mei Sun, Xian-Long Cheng, Feng Wei, Shuang-Cheng Ma
A method of thin-layer fingerprinting chromatogram of artificial cow-bezoar was established with the developing solvent consisting of cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and methanol (2∶7∶1∶2), and 10% sulfuric acid ethanol solution sprayed as colour-developing agent. After heated at 105 ℃, TLC was recorded as an image in ultraviolet light at 366 nm which was converted into grayscale. By the gray value extracted from the grayscale, the multivariate data obtained from TLC of samples could be analyzed by chemometric method...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821739/ultrafast-photonic-reinforcement-learning-based-on-laser-chaos
#3
Makoto Naruse, Yuta Terashima, Atsushi Uchida, Song-Ju Kim
Reinforcement learning involves decision making in dynamic and uncertain environments and constitutes an important element of artificial intelligence (AI). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate that the ultrafast chaotic oscillatory dynamics of lasers efficiently solve the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB), which requires decision making concerning a class of difficult trade-offs called the exploration-exploitation dilemma. To solve the MAB, a certain degree of randomness is required for exploration purposes...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820023/use-of-oxalic-acid-as-inducer-in-photocatalytic-oxidation-of-cresol-red-in-aqueous-solution-under-natural-and-artificial-light
#4
N Seraghni, I Ghoul, I Lemmize, A Reguig, N Debbache, T Sehili
This work was carried out in the field of water treatment using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), especially photolysis of carboxylic acid leads to the formation in situ of hydroxyl radical ((.)OH). Cresol red (CR) degradation induced by organic acids/UV system was investigated in aqueous solution. The preliminary study of CR-organic acid mixture in the dark and at room temperature allowed confirming the absence of interaction under our experimental conditions. However, up on irradiation at 365 nm the percentage of elimination of CR was 89% after 5 hours of irradiation...
August 18, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817256/tailorable-exciton-transport-in-doped-peptide-amphiphile-assemblies
#5
Lee A Solomon, Matthew E Sykes, Yimin A Wu, Richard D Schaller, Gary P Wiederrecht, Harry Christopher Fry
Light-harvesting biomaterials are an attractive target in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and artificial photosynthesis. Through peptide self-assembly, complex nanostructures can be engineered to study the role of chromophore organization during light absorption and energy transport. To this end, we demonstrate the one-dimensional transport of excitons along naturally occurring, light-harvesting, Zn-protoporphyrin IX chromophores within self-assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers. The internal structure of the nanofibers induces packing of the porphyrins into linear chains...
August 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817145/coherent-electronic-and-nuclear-dynamics-in-a-rhodamine-heterodimer-dna-supramolecular-complex
#6
M Cipolloni, B Fresch, I Occhiuto, P Rukin, K G Komarova, A Cecconello, I Willner, R D Levine, F Remacle, E Collini
Elucidating the role of quantum coherences in energy migration within biological and artificial multichromophoric antenna systems is the subject of an intense debate. It is also a practical matter because of the decisive implications for understanding the biological processes and engineering artificial materials for solar energy harvesting. A supramolecular rhodamine heterodimer on a DNA scaffold was suitably engineered to mimic the basic donor-acceptor unit of light-harvesting antennas. Ultrafast 2D electronic spectroscopic measurements allowed identifying clear features attributable to a coherent superposition of dimer electronic and vibrational states contributing to the coherent electronic charge beating between the donor and the acceptor...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813152/coherent-exciton-delocalization-in-a-two-state-dna-templated-dye-aggregate-system
#7
Brittany L Cannon, Donald L Kellis, Lance Kenneth Patten, Paul H Davis, Jeunghoon Lee, Elton Graugnard, Bernard Yurke, William B Knowlton
Coherent exciton delocalization in dye aggregate systems gives rise to a variety of intriguing optical phenomena, including J- and H-aggregate behavior and Davydov splitting. Systems that exhibit coherent exciton delocalization at room temperature are of interest for the development of artificial light-harvesting devices, colorimetric detection schemes, and quantum computers. Here, we report on a simple dye system templated by DNA that exhibits tunable optical properties. At low salt and DNA concentrations, a DNA duplex with two internally functionalized Cy5 dyes (i...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808106/quantifying-the-efficiency-of-photoprotection
#8
REVIEW
Alexander V Ruban
A novel emerging technology for the assessment of the photoprotective 'power' of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ) has been reviewed and its insightful outcomes are explained using several examples. The principles of the method are described in detail as well as the work undertaken for its justification. This pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence approach has been applied for the past 5 years to quantify the photoprotective effectiveness of the NPQ and the light tolerance in Arabidopsis plants grown under various light conditions, during ontogenetic development as well as in a range of mutants impaired in carotenoid and protein biosynthesis...
September 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799732/excitation-power-modulates-energy-transfer-dynamics-in-a-supramolecular-ruii-feii-ruii-triad
#9
Joachim Kübel, Maria Wächtler, Benjamin Dietzek
Multichromophoric arrays are key to light-harvesting in natural and artificial photosynthesis. A trinuclear, symmetric RuII-FeII-RuII triad may resemble a light-harvesting model system, in which excitation energy from donor units (Ru-terpyridine-fragments) is efficiently transferred to the acceptor (an Fe-terpyridine-fragment). The photoinduced dynamics after simultaneous excitation of more than a single chromophoric unit (donor/acceptor) at varying excitation fluence is investigated in this contribution. Data suggests that energy transfer is decelerated if the acceptor states (on the FeII unit) are not depopulated fast enough...
August 11, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796893/singing-from-north-to-south-latitudinal-variation-in-timing-of-dawn-singing-under-natural-and-artificial-light-conditions
#10
Arnaud Da Silva, Bart Kempenaers
1. Animals breeding at northern latitudes experience drastic changes in daily light conditions during the breeding season with decreasing periods of darkness, whereas those living at lower latitudes are exposed to naturally dark nights throughout the year. Nowadays, many animals are also exposed to artificial night lighting (often referred to as light pollution). 2. Animals strongly rely on variation in light levels to time their daily and seasonal behaviour. Previous work on passerine birds showed that artificial night lighting leads to earlier onset of dawn song...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794102/optogenetics-and-pharmacogenetics-principles-and-applications
#11
Jingwei Jiang, Huxing Cui, Kamal Rahmouni
Remote and selective spatiotemporal control of the activity of neurons to regulate behavior and physiological functions has been a long-sought goal in system neuroscience. Identification and subsequent bioengineering of light-sensitive ion channels (e.g., channelrhodopsins, halorhodopsin and archaerhodopsins) from the bacteria has made it possible to utilize light to artificially modulate neuronal activity, namely optogenetics. Recent advance in genetics has also allowed development of novel pharmacological tools to selectively and remotely control neuronal activity using engineered G-protein coupled receptors which can be activated by otherwise inert drug-like small molecules such as the Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drug (DREADD) - a form of chemogenetics...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791701/electrophysiological-properties-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-identified-by-genetic-and-optogenetic-tagging
#12
Gretchen Y López-Hernández, Mala Ananth, Li Jiang, Elizabeth C Ballinger, David A Talmage, Lorna W Role
Recent developments in the generation of neuronal population-specific, genetically modified mouse lines have allowed precise identification and selective stimulation of cholinergic neurons in vivo. Although considerably less laborious than studies conducted with post hoc identification of cholinergic neurons by immunostaining, it is not known whether the genetically based labeling procedures that permit in vivo identification are electrophysiologically benign. In this study, we use mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that drives expression of a tau-green fluorescent fusion protein specifically in cholinergic neurons...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783730/artificial-light-at-night-as-a-new-threat-to-pollination
#13
Eva Knop, Leana Zoller, Remo Ryser, Christopher Gerpe, Maurin Hörler, Colin Fontaine
Pollinators are declining worldwide and this has raised concerns for a parallel decline in the essential pollination service they provide to both crops and wild plants. Anthropogenic drivers linked to this decline include habitat changes, intensive agriculture, pesticides, invasive alien species, spread of pathogens and climate change. Recently, the rapid global increase in artificial light at night has been proposed to be a new threat to terrestrial ecosystems; the consequences of this increase for ecosystem function are mostly unknown...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783081/culturing-toxic-benthic-blooms-the-fate-of-natural-biofilms-in-a-microcosm-system
#14
Francesca Di Pippo, Roberta Congestri
A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat...
August 6, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783014/pilot-scale-treatment-of-atrazine-production-wastewater-by-uv-o3-ultrasound-factor-effects-and-system-optimization
#15
Liang Jing, Bing Chen, Diya Wen, Jisi Zheng, Baiyu Zhang
This study shed light on removing atrazine from pesticide production wastewater using a pilot-scale UV/O3/ultrasound flow-through system. A significant quadratic polynomial prediction model with an adjusted R(2) of 0.90 was obtained from central composite design with response surface methodology. The optimal atrazine removal rate (97.68%) was obtained at the conditions of 75 W UV power, 10.75 g h(-1) O3 flow rate and 142.5 W ultrasound power. A Monte Carlo simulation aided artificial neural networks model was further developed to quantify the importance of O3 flow rate (40%), UV power (30%) and ultrasound power (30%)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776638/a-novel-combination-of-peripheral-nerve-blocks-for-arthroscopic-shoulder-surgery
#16
D Musso, S Flohr-Madsen, K Meknas, T Wilsgaard, L M Ytrebø, Ø Klaastad
BACKGROUND: Interscalene brachial plexus block is currently the gold standard for intra- and post-operative pain management for patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. However, it is associated with block related complications, of which effect on the phrenic nerve have been of most interest. Side effects caused by general anesthesia, when this is required, are also a concern. We hypothesized that the combination of superficial cervical plexus block, suprascapular nerve block, and infraclavicular brachial plexus block would provide a good alternative to interscalene block and general anesthesia...
August 4, 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775347/liquid-metal-amoeba-with-spontaneous-pseudopodia-formation-and-motion-capability
#17
Liang Hu, Bin Yuan, Jing Liu
The unique motion of amoeba with a deformable body has long been an intriguing issue in scientific fields ranging from physics, bionics to mechanics. So far, most of the currently available artificial machines are still hard to achieve the complicated amoeba-like behaviors including stretching pseudopodia. Here through introducing a multi-materials system, we discovered a group of very unusual biomimetic amoeba-like behaviors of self-fueled liquid gallium alloy on the graphite surface immersed in alkaline solution...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774755/human-seasonal-and-circadian-studies-in-antarctica-halley-75-0-s
#18
Josephine Arendt, Benita Middleton
Living for extended periods in Antarctica exposes base personnel to extremes of daylength (photoperiod) and temperature. At the British Antarctic Survey base of Halley, 75(0)S, the sun does not rise for 110 d in the winter and does not set for 100 d in summer. Photoperiod is the major time cue governing the timing of seasonal events such as reproduction in many species. The neuroendocrine signal providing photoperiodic information to body physiology is the duration of melatonin secretion which reflects the length of the night: longer in the short days of winter and shorter in summer...
July 31, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772856/photoactive-nanomaterials-inspired-by-nature-ltl-zeolite-doped-with-laser-dyes-as-artificial-light-harvesting-systems
#19
Leire Gartzia-Rivero, Jorge Bañuelos, Iñigo López-Arbeloa
The herein reported work describes the development of hierarchically-organized fluorescent nanomaterials inspired by plant antenna systems. These hybrid materials are based on nanostructured zeolitic materials (LTL zeolite) doped with laser dyes, which implies a synergism between organic and inorganic moieties. The non-interconnected channeled structure and pore dimensions (7.1 Å) of the inorganic host are ideal to order and align the allocated fluorophores inside, inferring also high thermal and chemical stability...
May 4, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771840/influence-of-l-carnitine-and-l-arginine-on-protein-synthesis-and-maturation-of-the-semitendinosus-muscle-of-lightweight-piglets
#20
J G Madsen, E Seoni, M Kreuzer, P Silacci, G Bee
Lightweight (LW) piglets from large litters display impaired growth performance compared with heavier littermates. This study investigated the growth performance and muscle development of early-weaned LW piglets (birthweight <1.2 kg) from large litters (17.3 ± 3.0 total born per litter), fed ad libitum a milk replacer supplemented with either l-carnitine (CAR) or l-arginine (ARG) from day 7 to day 28 of age. In total, 36 female and entire male Swiss Large White piglets, weaned on day 7 of age, were artificially reared in pairs in rescue decks...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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