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L-citrullin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894791/post-translational-modifications-of-enos-augment-nitric-oxide-availability-and-facilitates-hypoxia-adaptation-in-ladakhi-women
#1
Pooja, Dishari Ghosh, Kalpana Bhargava, Niroj Kumar Sethy
The lower inhaled oxygen per volume at high altitude poses an intimidating challenge for humans to survive and reproduce. Indigenous populations of the Himalayas reportedly exhibit higher microcirculatory blood flow accompanied by higher orders of magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) products in lung, plasma and red blood cells as a vascular adaptation strategy for hypobaric hypoxia. The precise mechanism of such observed higher NO metabolites for hypoxia adaptation remains elusive. Studying high altitude native Ladakhi women, we observed significant higher eNOS mRNA and protein in blood/plasma as compared to lowland women...
June 9, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887621/quantitative-analysis-of-l-arginine-dimethylated-arginine-derivatives-l-citrulline-and-dimethylamine-in-human-serum-using-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometric-method
#2
Mariusz G Fleszar, Jerzy Wiśniewski, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Błażej Misiak, Dorota Frydecka, Joanna Piechowicz, Katarzyna Lorenc-Kukuła, Andrzej Gamian
Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule involved in the regulation of many physiological processes. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of nervous system, immune and inflammatory responses, and blood flow. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) during two-step oxidation of l-arginine to l-citrulline. Intermediates and derivatives of NO metabolism, such as l-arginine, l-citrulline, asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetrical dimethylarginine (SDMA), and dimethylamine (DMA), are investigated as potential biomarkers...
2018: Chromatographia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884228/elevated-levels-of-plasma-symmetric-dimethylarginine-and-increased-arginase-activity-as-potential-indicators-of-cardiovascular-comorbidity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Unnikrishnan M Chandrasekharan, Zeneng Wang, Yuping Wu, W H Wilson Tang, Stanley L Hazen, Sihe Wang, M Elaine Husni
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In RA, chronic inflammation may lead to endothelial dysfunction, an early indicator of CVD, owing to diminished nitric oxide (NO) production. Because L-arginine is the sole precursor of NO, we hypothesized that levels of L-arginine metabolic products reflecting NO metabolism are altered in patients with RA. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with RA (n = 119) and age- and sex-matched control subjects (n = 238) were used for this study...
June 8, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870781/l-citrulline-restores-nitric-oxide-level-and-cellular-uptake-at-the-brain-capillary-endothelial-cell-line-tr-bbb-cells-with-glutamate-cytotoxicity
#4
Kyeong-Eun Lee, Young-Sook Kang
OBJECTIVE: Glutamate excitotoxicity provokes neuronal cell damage and death, leading to collapse of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Recently, it has been reported that l-citrulline, a neutral amino acid and a major precursor of l-arginine in the nitric oxide (NO) cycle, can prevent both neuronal cell death and cerebrovascular cell loss in brain ischemia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of l-citrulline on glutamate cytotoxicity in the BBB using the conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cell line (TR-BBB cells) as an in vitro model of the BBB...
June 2, 2018: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797700/l-citrulline-supplementation-increased-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-is-associated-with-exercise-performance-and-increased-skeletal-muscle-weight
#5
Myra O Villareal, Toshiya Matsukawa, Hiroko Isoda
SCOPE: L-citrulline has recently been reported as a more effective supplement for promoting intracellular NO production compared to L-arginine. Here, the effect of L-citrulline on skeletal muscle and its influence on exercise performance were investigated. The underlying mechanism of its effect, specifically on the expression of skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), was also elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six-week-old ICR mice were orally supplemented with L-citrulline (250 mg kg-1 ) daily, and their performance in weight-loaded swimming exercise every other day for 15 days, was evaluated...
May 24, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773079/effects-of-linagliptin-on-endothelial-function-and-postprandial-lipids-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-with-early-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#6
Norbert J Tripolt, Felix Aberer, Regina Riedl, Jasmin Url, Gudrun Dimsity, Andreas Meinitzer, Tatjana Stojakovic, Faisal Aziz, Ronald Hödl, Gabriele Brachtl, Dirk Strunk, Marianne Brodmann, Franz Hafner, Harald Sourij
BACKGROUND: Early glucose lowering intervention in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus was demonstrated to be beneficial in terms of micro- and macrovascular risk reduction. However, most of currently ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials are performed in subjects with manifest atherosclerosis and long-standing diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) but early type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on a set of cardiovascular surrogate measurements...
May 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732286/safety-and-efficacy-of-daily-revactin-%C3%A2-in-men-with-erectile-dysfunction-a-3-month-pilot-study
#7
Sabine Nguyen, Jacob Rajfer, Magda Shaheen
Background: The earliest sign of an ongoing change in a man's erectile function (EF) is the increase in his refractory period. This is due to the onset of an aging related apoptosis of the corporal smooth muscle cells (CSMC) as a result of oxidative stress (ROS) within the CSMC itself. In response, the CSMC begin to upregulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme presumably to achieve high levels of nitric oxide (NO) used to combat ROS. Treatment of aged rats for 2 months with the nutraceutical Revactin® , known to stimulate the iNOS-NO-cGMP pathway in CSMC, resulted in (I) an increase in CSMC content with a decrease in corporal fibrosis, (II) decrease in systemic ROS, and (III) improvement in EF...
April 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712874/arginine-and-citrulline-catabolic-pathways-encoded-by-the-arc-gene-cluster-of-lactobacillus-brevis-atcc367
#8
Maria Majsnerowska, Elke E E Noens, Juke S Lolkema
High concentrations of L-arginine or L-citrulline in the growth medium provided the wine bacterium Lactobacillus brevis with a significant growth advantage. The arginine deiminase pathway (ADI) arc gene cluster of Lb. brevis contains three genes, arcD, arcE1 and arcE2, encoding putative L-arginine/L-ornithine exchangers. Uptake experiments with Lactococcus lactis cells expressing the genes showed that all three transported L-ornithine with affinities in the μM range. Similarly, ArcD and ArcE2 transported L-arginine, while ArcE1 transported L-citrulline, an intermediate of the ADI pathway...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698861/lc-ms-based-urinary-metabolomics-study-of-the-intervention-effect-of-aloe-emodin-on-hyperlipidemia-rats
#9
Hongyu Ji, Yu Liu, Fang He, Ran An, Zhimin Du
Hyperlipidemia has been highlighted to be one of the most prominent and global chronic condition nowadays. Daming capsule (DMC), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation, has treated hyperlipidemia on clinic in China for decades. Our recent study showed that aloe-emodin (AE) is one of the main bioactive components in DMC. Therefore, the present study aims to further investigate the lipid-lowering effect by serum biochemistry and histopathological examination, and reveal the underlying mechanisms by urinary metabolomics approach...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684379/effect-of-a-long-term-treatment-with-metformin-in-dystrophic-mdx-mice-a-reconsideration-of-its-potential-clinical-interest-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#10
Paola Mantuano, Francesca Sanarica, Elena Conte, Maria Grazia Morgese, Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Anna Cozzoli, Adriano Fonzino, Angelo Quaranta, Jean-Francois Rolland, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Luigia Trabace, Annamaria De Luca
The pharmacological stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via metabolic enhancers has been proposed as potential therapeutic strategy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Metformin, a widely-prescribed anti-hyperglycemic drug which activates AMPK via mitochondrial respiratory chain, has been recently tested in DMD patients in synergy with nitric oxide (NO)-precursors, with encouraging results. However, preclinical data supporting the use of metformin in DMD are still poor, and its actions on skeletal muscle appear controversial...
April 21, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673643/use-of-gasotransmitters-for-the-controlled-release-of-polymer-based-nitric-oxide-carriers-in-medical-applications
#11
REVIEW
Chungmo Yang, Soohyun Jeong, Seul Ku, Kangwon Lee, Min Hee Park
Nitric Oxide (NO) is a small molecule gasotransmitter synthesized by nitric oxide synthase in almost all types of mammalian cells. NO is synthesized by NO synthase by conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline in the human body. NO then stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase, from which various physiological functions are mediated in a concentration-dependent manner. High concentrations of NO induce apoptosis or antibacterial responses whereas low NO circulation leads to angiogenesis. The bidirectional effect of NO has attracted considerable attention, and efforts to deliver NO in a controlled manner, especially through polymeric carriers, has been the topic of much research...
June 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648475/alterations-in-plasma-l-arginine-and-methylarginines-in-heart-failure-and-after-heart-transplantation
#12
Jakob Lundgren, Anna Sandqvist, Mikael Hedeland, Ulf Bondesson, Gerhard Wikström, Göran Rådegran
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial function, including the nitric oxide (NO)-pathway, has previously been extensively investigated in heart failure (HF). In contrast, studies are lacking on the NO pathway after heart transplantation (HT). We therefore investigated substances in the NO pathway prior to and after HT in relation to hemodynamic parameters. DESIGN: 12 patients (median age 50.0 yrs, 2 females), heart transplanted between June 2012 and February 2014, evaluated at our hemodynamic lab, at rest, prior to HT, as well as four weeks and six months after HT were included...
April 12, 2018: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565828/a-metabolomics-approach-uncovers-differences-between-traditional-and-commercial-dairy-products-in-buryatia-russian-federation
#13
Lin Pan, Jie Yu, Zhihui Mi, Lanxin Mo, Hao Jin, Caiqing Yao, Dongyan Ren, Bilige Menghe
Commercially available and traditional dairy products differ in terms of their manufacturing processes. In this study, commercially available and traditionally fermented cheese, yogurt, and milk beverages were analyzed and compared. The metabolomic technique of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF) in the MSE mode was used in combination with statistical methods, including univariate analysis and chemometric analysis, to determine the differences in metabolite profiles between commercially and traditionally fermented dairy products...
March 22, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551532/effect-of-ginger-paullinia-cupana-muira-puama-and-l-citrulline-singly-or-in-combination-on-modulation-of-the-inducible-nitric-oxide-no-cgmp-pathway-in-rat-penile-smooth-muscle-cells
#14
Monica G Ferrini, Eduardo Garcia, Andrea Abraham, Jorge N Artaza, Sabine Nguyen, Jacob Rajfer
INTRODUCTION: COMP-4 is a natural compound-based dietary supplement consisting of the combination of ginger, Paullinia cupana, muira puama and l-citrulline, which when given long-term has been shown in the aged rat to a) upregulate iNOS in the penile smooth muscle cells (SMC), b) reverse the corporal SMC apoptosis and fibrosis associated with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), and c) improve resulting erectile function. To elucidate the mechanism of how COMP-4 and its individual components modulate the iNOS-cGMP pathway, an in vitro study was conducted using a rat corporal primary SMC culture to determine its effect on NOS, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), cGMP and the phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme (PDE5)...
June 1, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511548/citrulline-as-a-marker-of-intestinal-function-and-absorption-in-clinical-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Konstantinos C Fragkos, Alastair Forbes
Background: Citrulline has been described as a marker of intestinal function or absorption but evidence varies according to clinical settings. Objective: The objective of this article is to examine the evidence of plasma citrulline as a marker of intestinal function and absorption in various clinical settings. Methods: Studies were examined for p values, means and standard deviations, correlation coefficients or other metrics depicting the association of citrulline with intestinal function...
March 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478971/kidney-mass-reduction-leads-to-l-arginine-metabolism-dependent-blood-pressure-increase-in-mice
#16
Samyuktha Muralidharan Pillai, Petra Seebeck, Ralph Fingerhut, Ji Huang, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang, François Verrey
BACKGROUND: Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459779/small-molecule-metabolite-biomarkers-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-bile-duct-tumor-thrombus-diagnosis
#17
Weifeng Tan, Jingquan He, Junliang Deng, Xinwei Yang, Longjiu Cui, Rongzheng Ran, Guangwei Du, Xiaoqing Jiang
Hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT) is a malignant disease. The most commonly used diagnosis methods for BDTT are MRCP/ERCP, ultrasonic diagnosis or CT scan. However, BDTT is often misdiagnosed as other bile duct diseases, such as extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHCC), choledochal cyst (Cyst) and common bile duct stone (Stone). Diagnostic methods, which are more accurate and less destructive, are urgently needed. In this paper, we analyzed the small molecule metabolites in the serum of BDTT, Stone, Cyst and EHCC patients and normal people using untargeted GC-MS, and identified 21 metabolites that show different levels among different samples...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459031/subcellular-targeting-of-nitric-oxide-synthases-mediated-by-their-n-terminal-motifs
#18
Carlos Costas-Insua, Javier Merino-Gracia, Clara Aicart-Ramos, Ignacio Rodríguez-Crespo
From a catalytic point of view, the three mammalian nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) function in an almost identical way. The N-terminal oxygenase domain catalyzes the conversion of l-arginine to l-citrulline plus ·NO in two sequential oxidation steps. Once l-arginine binds to the active site positioned above the heme moiety, two consecutive monooxygenation reactions take place. In the first step, l-arginine is hydroxylated to make Nω-hydroxy-l-arginine in a process that requires 1 molecule of NADPH and 1 molecule of O2 per mol of l-arginine reacted...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415069/administration-of-l-arginine-plus-l-citrulline-or-l-citrulline-alone-successfully-retarded-endothelial-senescence
#19
Tomoe Tsuboi, Morihiko Maeda, Toshio Hayashi
L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation has been shown to have several beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide (NO) protects against the progression of atherosclerosis and is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which converts L-arginine (L-Arg) into L-citrulline (L-Cit). Our previous study revealed that chronic administration of a combination of L-Cit and L- Arg has a better therapeutic effect on high cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. We investigated how L-Arg and L-Cit affect endothelial function, aging and atherosclerosis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408771/headache-in-mitochondrial-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Headache is a prominent feature in mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) but no comprehensive overview is currently available. This review aims at summarising and discussing findings concerning type, frequency, pathogenesis, and treatment of headache in MIDs. The most frequent headache types in MIDs are migraine and migraine-like headache (MLH). MLH is classified as secondary headache. More rarely, tension-type headache, trigemino-autonomic headache, or different secondary headaches can be found. Migraine or MLH may manifest with or without aura...
March 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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