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TB treatment default

G Kigozi, C Heunis, P Chikobvu, S Botha, D van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective record review of pulmonary TB cases-older than 15 years, with a recorded pre-treatment smear result-captured in the electronic TB register ( between 2003 and 2012. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multiple logistic regression technique were used to determine the factors associated with treatment default...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Veerakumar Arumugam Mariappan, Swaroop Kumar Sahu, Sonali Sarkar, Shivanand Kattimani, Govindarajan Soundappan
BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes like failures and defaults among the TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in urban Pondicherry and study the association of various socio-demographic variables with current smoked and smokeless tobacco users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 235 PTB patients from 6 randomly selected urban PHCs of Pondicherry from Jan 2013 to March 2014...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Sophie Jullien, Siddharth Jain, Hannah Ryan, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers...
November 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maserapelo G Serapelwane, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Gaboipolelwe M Masilo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) management remains a major challenge despite the implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS). Some of the challenges include defaulting treatment, low TB cure rates and relapse after patients had been treated under DOTS. OBJECTIVES: This study explored and described experiences of patients having TB regarding the use of DOTS in Doctor Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District of North West Province, South Africa. The study describes and recommends support required by patients having TB who are using DOTS...
September 27, 2016: Curationis
Jesús E Ospina, Àngels Orcau, Joan-Pau Millet, Miriam Ros, Sonia Gil, Joan A Caylà
BACKGROUND: The increase in immigration in Barcelona between 2000 and 2008 forced a reorganization of the control of tuberculosis (TB). TB clinical units (TBCU) were created and community health workers (CHW) were gradually included. OBJECTIVE: To understand trends in the incidence of TB among immigrants, their main characteristics and treatment compliance during the period 1991-2013. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of cases detected among immigrants by the Tuberculosis Program in Barcelona, Spain...
2016: PloS One
R Parchure, V Kulkarni, R Gangakhedkar, S Swaminathan
SETTING: Little is known about outcomes of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) who are treated in the private sector in India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment outcomes of daily anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and their determinants among HIV-TB co-infected patients treated at a private clinic in Pune, India. DESIGN: Data on adult HIV-TB co-infected patients treated with daily ATT were analysed using logistic regression and Cox model to assess risk factors for default and death...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Omar Salad Elmi, Habsah Hasan, Sarimah Abdullah, Mat Zuki Mat Jeab, Zilfalil Ba, Nyi Nyi Naing
BACKGROUND: Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014...
July 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
Deepti Rathee, Piyush Arora, Manoj Meena, Rohit Sarin, Pitambar Chakraborty, Anand Jaiswal, Mukesh Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen technique...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
A D Harries, S M Graham, M M Weismuller, Njm Claessens, S Meijnen, N J Hargreaves, C Mwansambo, P N Kazembe, F M Salaniponi
There were 22,982 cases of TB registered in Malawi in 1998, of which 2739 (11.9%) were children. Children accounted for 11.3% of all case notifications with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 21.3% with smear-negative PTB and 15.9% with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). A significantly higher proportion of TB cases were diagnosed in central hospitals. Only 45% of children completed treatment. There were high rates of death (17%), default (13%) and unknown treatment outcomes (21%). Treatment outcomes were worse in younger children and in children with smear-negative PTB...
December 2005: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Z G Dememew, D Habte, M Melese, S D Hamusse, G Nigussie, N Hiruy, B Girma, Y Kassie, Y K Haile, D Jerene, P Suarez
SETTING: Amhara and Oromia Regions, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in case notification rates (CNRs) among new tuberculosis (TB) cases and treatment outcomes of sputum smear-positive (SS+) patients based on geographic setting, sex and age categories. METHODS: We undertook a trend analysis over a 4-year period among new TB cases reported in 10 zones using a trend test, a mean comparison t-test and one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The average CNR per 100 000 population was 128...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
R Kaplan, J Caldwell, S Hermans, S Adriaanse, L Mtwisha, L-G Bekker, K Jennings, R Wood
SETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes and rate of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation using weekly community-based adherence support compared to daily directly observed therapy (DOT). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis comparing two cohorts treated for tuberculosis (TB) in 70 TB clinics during 6-month periods before and after the introduction of a new adherence model comprising treatment literacy sessions during 2 weeks of DOT, followed by weekly home visits by community care workers to eligible patients managing their own treatment...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Durval Respeito, Orvalho J Augusto, Elisa López-Varela, Charfudin Sacoor, Victor G Sequera, Aina Casellas, Quique Bassat, Ivan Manhiça, Eusebio Macete, Frank Cobelens, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, there is limited data regarding the monitoring of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment results and determinants of adverse outcomes under routine surveillance conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate treatment outcomes among TB patients, analyze factors associated with a fatal outcome and determine the proportion of deaths attributable to TB in the district of Manhiça, Southern Mozambique. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study based on TB patients diagnosed in the period 2011-2012...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Paulo Victor de Sousa Viana, Maria Jacirema Ferreira Gonçalves, Paulo Cesar Basta
OBJECTIVE: This study analysed clinical and sociodemographic aspects and follow-up for notified cases of tuberculosis (TB) and explored inequalities in incidence rates and outcome by colour or race and the geographic macro-regions of Brazil. METHODS: This paper reports the results of a population-based descriptive epidemiological study of all notified cases of TB in Brazil during the period from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2011. We analysed sociodemographic and clinical variables according to colour or race (white, black, Asian, mixed, and indigenous) and geographic macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Central-West, South, and Southeast)...
2016: PloS One
Ioana D Olaru, Christoph Lange, Alexander Indra, Liliya Meidlinger, Steliana Huhulescu, Rudolf Rumetshofer
RATIONALE: We evaluated whether treatment outcomes for patients with multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis can be substantially improved when sufficient resources for personalizing medical care are available. OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at the Otto Wagner Hospital in Vienna, Austria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study of patients initiated on treatment for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis between January 2003 and December 2012 at the Otto Wagner Hospital, Vienna, Austria...
August 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Loukia Aketi, Zacharie Kashongwe, Christian Kinsiona, Serge Bisuta Fueza, Jack Kokolomami, Grace Bolie, Paul Lumbala, Joseph Shiku Diayisu
Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is a diagnostic challenge in developing countries, and patient outcome can be influenced by certain factors. We report the disease course, clinical profile and factors associated with treatment outcome in a tertiary facility of Kinshasa. Documentary and analytical studies were conducted using clinical and exploratory data for children aged up to 15 years who were admitted to the University Clinics of Kinshasa for TB. Data are presented as frequencies and averages, and binary and logistic regression analyses were performed...
2016: PloS One
Gebreslassie Gebremariam, Getachew Asmamaw, Muktar Hussen, Mengistu Z Hailemariam, Demissie Asegu, Ayalew Astatkie, Anteneh G Amsalu
BACKGROUND: Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic of Arsi Negele Health Center was reviewed...
2016: PloS One
Siva Balaji Reddy Satti, Nagaraj Kondagunta
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
E J Rakotonirina, L Ravaoarisoa, A Raherinandrasana, B Vololonarivelo, M Rakotonjanahary, J D M Rakotomanga, J Macq
INTRODUCTION: This study assesses the nationwide applicability of results from a study in the tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic and treatment centers (DTCs) in a sample of six districts in Madagascar, which identified adaptations of national guidelines and local initiatives that might explain the effectiveness of individual DTCs in improving adherence to TB treatment and thus reducing treatment default. OBJECTIVE: To assess, at a national level, the importance of these adaptations/initiatives for TB treatment adherence...
January 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Anne E Asuquo, Benjamin D Thumamo Pokam, Emmanuel Ibeneme, Esu Ekpereonne, Valerie Obot, P N Asuquo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) infection and spread are preventable, and TB disease is curable depending on individual and community knowledge of causes of the disease, mode of prevention and cure. An earlier educational intervention carried out in Akwa Ibom State (AKS) of Nigeria in 2006 created awareness of the disease and improved utilization of orthodox medical facilities of residents in 34 communities who had symptoms of TB. OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this program is to reduce the burden of TB disease in 18 communities of AKS through educational intervention, TB case detection and integration into the State National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme (NTBLCP), as well as build laboratory capacity to improve TB case detection and control...
June 2015: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Nello Blaser, Cindy Zahnd, Sabine Hermans, Luisa Salazar-Vizcaya, Janne Estill, Carl Morrow, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser, Robin Wood
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in South Africa. The burden of disease varies by age, with peaks in TB notification rates in the HIV-negative population at ages 0-5, 20-24, and 45-49 years. There is little variation between age groups in the rates in the HIV-positive population. The drivers of this age pattern remain unknown. METHODS: We developed an age-structured simulation model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission in Cape Town, South Africa...
March 2016: Epidemics
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