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TB treatment default

Ketema Tafess, Teresa Kisi Beyen, Adugna Abera, Geremew Tasew, Shimelis Mekit, Solomon Sisay, Legesse Tadesse, Gilman K H Siu
Background: Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) has been one of the major strategies to combat the epidemic of tuberculosis (TB) globally. This study aimed to evaluate TB treatment outcomes between September 2004 and July 2014 under the DOTS program at one of the largest public hospitals in Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective data of TB patients registered at Asella Teaching Hospital between September 2004 and July 2014 were obtained from hospital registry...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Lucie Cluver, Marija Pantelic, Mark Orkin, Elona Toska, Sally Medley, Lorraine Sherr
INTRODUCTION: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG-aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. METHODS: Clinical and interview data were gathered from N = 1060 adolescents living with HIV in rural and urban South Africa in 2014 to 2015...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Kaio Vinicius Freitas de Andrade, Joilda Silva Nery, Ramon Andrade de Souza, Susan Martins Pereira
Tuberculosis (TB) is a poverty infectious disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Evidences suggest that social protection strategies (SPS) can improve TB treatment outcomes. This study aimed to synthesize such evidences through systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We searched for studies conducted in low- or middle-income and in high TB-burden countries, published during 1995-2016. The review was performed by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and LILACS. We included only studies that investigated the effects of SPS on TB treatment outcomes...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Aishatu Lawal Adamu, Muktar H Aliyu, Najiba Aliyu Galadanci, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Umar Muhammad Lawan, Usman Bashir, Ibrahim Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Successful tuberculosis (TB) treatment is essential to effective TB control. TB-HIV coinfection, social determinants and access to services influenced by rural residence can affect treatment outcome. We examined the separate and joint effects of rural residence and HIV infection on poor treatment outcome among patients enrolled in a large TB treatment centre in Kano, Nigeria. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed a cohort of patients with TB enrolled in a large urban TB clinic in northern Nigeria, from January 2010 to December 2014...
January 8, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Kishor Parashramji Brahmapurkar, Vaishali K Brahmapurkar, Sanjay P Zodpey
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. In 2014, worldwide, 1.5 million deaths were reported from TB. The study was planned to assess sputum smear grading and treatment outcome among TB patients attending tuberculosis unit (TU), Jagdalpur of Bastar district in Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: It was a record-based analysis for the year 2014 data from TU, Jagdalpur, Bastar of Chhattisgarh. Statistical Analysis Used: Data entry and analysis were done using STATA/SE 14...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
M R Silva, J C Pereira, R R Costa, J A Dias, M D C Guimarães, I C G Leite
This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients' entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04-49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34-24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11-15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group)...
December 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Tauseef Ahmad, Muhammad Khan, Muhammad Mumtaz Khan, Eyasu Ejeta, Manoochehr Karami, Chinenyenwa Ohia
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Assessment of TB treatment outcomes, monitoring and evaluation of its risk factors in Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) are among the major indicators of the performance of a national TB control program. Even though Pakistan ranks 5th among the 22 high-TB burden countries, there are no available data in this regard. METHODS: Institution-based retrospective study was conducted to determine the treatment outcome of TB patients and investigate associated risk factors at District Head Quarter Hospital Shangla, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan...
October 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
C K Vidyaraj, A Chitra, S Smita, M Muthuraj, S Govindarajan, B Usharani, S Anbazhagi
Multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) are a threat to the TB control programs in developing countries, and the situation is worsened by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study was performed to correlate treatment outcome with the resistance patterns in HIV-seropositive patients coinfected with pulmonary TB. Sputum specimens were collected from 1643 HIV-seropositive patients and subjected to microscopy and liquid culture for TB. The smear- and culture-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus assay version 2...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Arif I Dela, Nitish Kumar D Tank, Anil P Singh, Kiran G Piparva
BACKGROUND: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) requires the use of expensive and toxic second-line anti-tubercular drugs which are given for a longer duration. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of second-line antitubercular drugs affect compliance and thereby treatment outcome. We set out to analyze ADRs and treatment outcome of MDR-TB patients receiving directly observed treatments plus therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of registered MDR-TB cases at district tuberculosis center during 2010-2014 was performed...
November 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
A Javaid, I Ullah, H Masud, A Basit, W Ahmad, Z A Butt, M Qasim
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the characteristics, treatment outcomes and risk factors for poor treatment outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study including all patients with MDR-TB who sought care at the MDR-TB unit in Peshawar was conducted between January 2012 and April 2014. Patients were followed until an outcome of TB treatment was recorded as successful (cured or completed) or unsuccessful...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Amrita Sarkar, Abhay Javia, Pradeep Pithadia, Dipesh Parmar
INTRODUCTION: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), a progressive respiratory illness requiring long-term treatment, is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and economic burden on the family as well as the country. In the tertiary health care facility where the study was carried out, it was observed that many COPD patients did not come for regular follow up. In these patients, treatment interruption may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. AIM: This study aimed to find out the reasons for defaulting follow up and treatment in COPD patients...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Yolanda Mueller, Qhubekani Mpala, Bernhard Kerschberger, Barbara Rusch, Gugu Mchunu, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Maryline Bonnet
Although efficacy of 36 months isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-positive individuals has been proven in trial settings, outcome, tolerance, and adherence have rarely been evaluated in real-life settings.This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted in 2 primary care rural clinics in Swaziland.After negative tuberculosis symptom screening, patients either with the positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or after tuberculosis treatment were initiated on IPT for 144 weeks. In addition to routine clinic visits, adherence was assessed every semester...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ahmed O A Ali, Martin H Prins
Defaulting on tuberculosis (TB) treatment remains a challenge to controlling TB. This case-control study aimed to identify determinants of treatment default among TB patients attending treatment clinics in Khartoum State from May to July 2011. Cases were TB patients who defaulted on treatment and controls were those who completed treatment. Of the 2727 TB patients attending the clinics, 328 (14%) had defaulted. Of these, 185 had resumed treatment before data collection and 143 had not and were eligible as cases...
August 20, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Krunal Prajapati, Vishal Mishra, Mira Desai, Rajesh Solanki, Purvi Naik
BACKGROUND: To investigate the factors affecting treatment outcome of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Gujarat, India. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted on patients with XDR TB from January 2012 to October 2016. Details of demography, clinical symptoms, sputum/culture and radiological examination, drug treatment, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and treatment outcome were recorded in pretested case record form (CRF). Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test and paired student's t test...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Sempeera Hassard, Anguzu Ronald, Kawooya Angella
INTRODUCTION: High Tuberculosis treatment default rate (17%) and sub-optimal treatment completion rates (45%) has burdened Kampala. Nevertheless, there are observable increase in the number of patients on TB DOT; from 6% to 29% in two consecutive annual reports. The main objective was to determine the association of TB patient attitudes towards community-based observers on the TB drug adherence on directly observed treatment for TB in Kampala. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Lubaga division, Kampala...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Shashi Kant, Arvind K Singh, Giridara G Parmeshwaran, Partha Haldar, Sumit Malhotra, Ravneet Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Delay in initiation of tuberculosis (TB) treatment may have a tremendous impact on disease transmission, development of drug resistance, poor outcome and overall survival of TB patients. The delay can occur at various levels. Delay in initiation of treatment after diagnosis is mostly due to health system failure and has immense programmatic implications. It has not been studied extensively in the Indian setting. METHODS: The authors did a cohort analysis of all TB patients initiated on treatment from two primary health centres (PHCs) at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System between January 2007 and December 2014...
July 2017: Rural and Remote Health
L Zhang, Q Meng, S Chen, M Zhang, B Chen, B Wu, G Yan, X Wang, Z Jia
OBJECTIVES: To examine treatment outcomes and factors associated with poor outcome of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in China. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including consecutive patients with MDR-TB between 2009 and 2013 in six regions of Zhejiang province. Patients were prescribed treatments by infectious disease specialists, and treatment outcomes were recorded. Sociodemographic characteristics were obtained through a structured questionnaire...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
M C Engelbrecht, N G Kigozi, P Chikobvu, S Botha, H C J van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: South Africa did not meet the MDG targets to reduce TB prevalence and mortality by 50% by 2015, and the TB cure rate remains below the WHO target of 85%. TB incidence in the country is largely fuelled by the HIV epidemic, and co-infected patients are more likely to have unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes. This paper analyses the demographic and clinical characteristics of new TB patients with unsuccessful treatment outcomes, as well as factors associated with unsuccessful treatment outcomes for HIV co-infected patients...
July 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
Adane Teshome Kefale, Yeniewa Kerie Anagaw
BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV challenges treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and worsens the outcome. This study aimed to assess the outcome of TB treatment and its predictors among HIV infected patients at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital (MTUTH), Ethiopia. METHODS: Medical records of 188 TB/HIV co-infected patients who attended the TB clinic of MTUTH from September 2012 to December 2015 were reviewed from March 14 to April 1, 2016. The primary endpoints of the study were treatment outcome of TB and its predictors...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
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