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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432172/why-tuberculosis-control-programmes-fail-role-of-microlevel-and-macrolevel-factors-an-analysis-from-india
#1
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
India accounts for one-fourth of the global tuberculosis (TB) burden. The National TB Program was started in 1962. Over a period of time, some lacunae such as poor case detection rate and incomplete treatment were observed. Later, the government formulated the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP), which achieved a case detection rate of 70% and a cure rate of 85%. Still, the problem of relapse and defaulter cases persists. In 2014, 6% defaulter cases were reported from India. RNTCP has also focused on microlevel aspects, that is, newer diagnostics such as GenXpert, line probe assay and medicines such as bedaquiline for drug-resistant TB...
April 21, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392916/treatment-outcomes-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-nigist-eleni-mohammed-general-hospital-hosanna-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-a-five-year-june-2009-to-august-2014-retrospective-study
#2
Tigist Mohammed, Kidist Daniel, Degefa Helamo, Taye Leta
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains to be a major public health problem among under developed world due to delay in detection and treatment of patients with active TB. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis has been recognized as a major public health problem for more than fifty years. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to determine treatment outcomes and associated factors among TB patients attending Nigist Eleni Mohammed General Hospital, Hosanna, SNNPR, Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332365/social-and-clinical-characteristics-of-immigrants-with-tuberculosis-in-south-korea
#3
Gee Ho Min, Young Kim, Jong Seok Lee, Jee Youn Oh, Gyu Young Hur, Young Seok Lee, Kyung Hoon Min, Sung Yong Lee, Je Hyeong Kim, Chol Shin, Seung Heon Lee
PURPOSE: To determine the social and clinical characteristics of immigrants with tuberculosis (TB) in South Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The registered adult TB patients who were diagnosed and treated in Korea Medical Centers from January 2013 to December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 105 immigrants with TB were compared to 932 native Korean TB patients. RESULTS: Among these 105 immigrants with TB, 86 (82%) were Korean-Chinese...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315657/magnitude-and-determinants-of-adverse-treatment-outcomes-among-tuberculosis-patients-registered-under-revised-national-tuberculosis-control-program-in-a-tuberculosis-unit-wardha-central-india-a-record-based-cohort-study
#4
Anuj Mundra, Pradeep R Deshmukh, Ajay Dawale
INTRODUCTION: Deaths, defaults, relapses, and treatment failures have made the control of TB difficult across the globe. METHODOLOGY: This study is a record-based follow-up of a cohort of patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in the year 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis Unit, India. Data were collected from the records available at the District Tuberculosis Office. RESULTS: Data of 510 patients were analyzed. The sputum conversion rate was 88%...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187753/survival-of-people-living-with-hiv-who-defaulted-from-tuberculosis-treatment-in-a-cohort-recife-brazil
#5
R Cunha, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos, I Coimbra, D de B Miranda-Filho, M de F Albuquerque, H R Lacerda, Raa Ximenes
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. It is the leading cause of death amongst people living with HIV, and default from tuberculosis (TB) treatment in people living with HIV increases the probability of death. The aim of this study was to estimate the survival probability of people living with HIV who default treatment for TB compared to those who complete the treatment. METHODS: This was a longitudinal cohort study of people living with HIV, from June 2007 to December 2013 with two components: a retrospective (for those who started tuberculosis treatment before 2013 for whom failure (death) or censoring occurred before 2013), and prospective (those who started tuberculosis treatment at any time between 2007 and June 2013 and for whom death or censoring occurred after the beginning of 2013), at two referral hospitals for people living with HIV (Correia Picanço Hospital - HCP and at Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz - HUOC), in Recife/PE...
February 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173763/risk-factors-for-poor-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-kyiv-oblast-ukraine
#6
Omowunmi Aibana, Mariya Bachmaha, Viatcheslav Krasiuk, Natasha Rybak, Timothy P Flanigan, Vasyl Petrenko, Megan B Murray
BACKGROUND: Ukraine is among ten countries with the highest burden of multidrug- resistant TB (MDR-TB) worldwide. Treatment success rates for MDR-TB in Ukraine remain below global success rates as reported by the World Health Organization. Few studies have evaluated predictors of poor MDR-TB outcomes in Ukraine. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients initiated on MDR-TB treatment in the Kyiv Oblast of Ukraine between January 01, 2012 and March 31st, 2015...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166912/tuberculosis-knowledge-and-attitude-in-aspiring-doctors-and-nurses-is-it-time-for-our-tb-teaching-methods-to-evolve
#7
Preetam Rajgopal Acharya, Monalisa D'Souza, Ramesh Chandra Sahoo
BACKGROUND: India accounts for nearly 24% of all the new tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. A good core knowledge and a positive outlook towards TB patients among our aspiring doctors and nurses are necessities for India to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by the WHO as a part of its post-2015 global TB strategy and to successfully combat the newer challenges posed by this disease in the future. AIMS: To evaluate knowledge related to transmission, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis amongst medical and nursing students...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166697/risk-factors-for-readmission-to-hospital-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-tehran-iran-three-year-surveillance
#8
Masoud Shamaei, Mozhgan Samiei-Nejad, Masoumeh Nadernejad, Parvaneh Baghaei
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major health problem and TB hospital readmission could increase health system costs. In a retrospective study in a tertiary referral hospital for TB in Tehran, Iran, TB patients with readmission were evaluated. These TB patients in the index year who were then readmitted were compared with TB patients in the same year who were not readmitted during the follow-up period. One hundred and forty-six patients had hospital readmission within three-year follow-up with mean age of 51.6 years old of whom 78 patients (53...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163165/the-risk-of-global-epidemic-replacement-with-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#9
REVIEW
Emma S McBryde, Michael T Meehan, Tan N Doan, Romain Ragonnet, Ben J Marais, Vanina Guernier, James M Trauer
OBJECTIVES: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to tuberculosis (TB) control. To guide TB control, it is essential to understand the extent to which and the circumstances in which MDR-TB will replace drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB) as the dominant phenotype. The issue was examined by assessing evidence from genomics, pharmacokinetics, and epidemiology studies. This evidence was then synthesized into a mathematical model. METHODS: This model considers two TB strains, one with and one without an MDR phenotype...
March 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162099/cost-effectiveness-of-active-case-finding-of-household-contacts-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-hiv-tuberculosis-endemic-urban-area-of-lima-peru
#10
L Shah, M Rojas, O Mori, C Zamudio, J S Kaufman, L Otero, E Gotuzzo, C Seas, T F Brewer
We compared the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an active case-finding (ACF) programme for household contacts of tuberculosis (TB) cases enrolled in first-line treatment to routine passive case-finding (PCF) within an established national TB programme in Peru. Decision analysis was used to model detection of TB in household contacts through: (1) self-report of symptomatic cases for evaluation (PCF), (2) a provider-initiated ACF programme, (3) addition of an Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test for a single sputum sample from household contacts, and (4) all strategies combined...
February 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107430/discontinuation-from-antiretroviral-therapy-a-continuing-challenge-among-adults-in-hiv-care-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael Hajito, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Leila Mohammadi, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the immunological benefit of treatment and increases complications related to human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). However, the risk factors for ART discontinuation are poorly understood in developing countries particularly in Ethiopia. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding risk factors for ART discontinuation in Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative studies conducted in Ethiopia between 2002 and 2015 that evaluated factors associated with ART discontinuation were sought across six major databases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093078/treatment-outcomes-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-under-dots-plus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-published-studies
#12
REVIEW
Kelemu Tilahun Kibret, Yonatan Moges, Peter Memiah, Sibhatu Biadgilign
BACKGROUND: Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is a major public health problem that threatens the progress made in tuberculosis care and control worldwide. Treatment success rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a key issue that cannot be ignored. There is a paucity of evidence that assessed studies on the treatment of MDR-TB, which focus on the effectiveness of the directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS)-Plus program. Therefore, it is crucial to assess and summarize the overall treatment outcomes for MDR-TB patients enrolled in the DOTS-Plus program in recent years...
January 17, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043605/xpert-mtb-rif-for-rapid-detection-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#13
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Accurate and rapid detection of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) is critical for early initiation of treatment and for limiting the transmission of drug-resistant TB. Here, we investigated the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance, and whether this detection predicts the presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Smear- or culture-positive sputa obtained from TB patients with increased suspicion of drug resistance were included in this study...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043598/investigation-of-isoniazid-and-ethionamide-cross-resistance-by-whole-genome-sequencing-and-association-with-poor-treatment-outcomes-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#14
L Malinga, J Brand, C Jansen van Rensburg, G Cassell, M van der Walt
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Ethionamide (ETH) and isoniazid (INH) are part of the backbone regimen used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Both ETH and INH are structurally similar and are activated by ethA and katG gene products. Resistance to INH among MDR-TB patients may cause ETH to be ineffective, as both target nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase inhA protein and mutations within inhA gene may lead to their cross-resistance...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043497/ten-years-experience-of-directly-observed-treatment-short-course-dots-in-gambella-regional-state-ethiopia-an-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-control-program
#15
Solomon Sisay, Belete Mengistu, Woldargay Erku, Desalegne Woldeyohannes
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended DOTS as a standard strategy for controlling the disease. TB is one of the major causes of infectious diseases in the world, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. About a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tubercle bacilli, and hence at risk of developing active disease. The objective of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis case finding and their treatment outcomes in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999054/effects-of-isoniazid-resistance-on-tb-treatment-outcomes-under-programmatic-conditions-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-setting-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#16
Tumaini J Nagu, Said Aboud, Mecky I Matee, Markus J Maeurer, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ferdinand Mugusi
Objectives: The scale and impact of background isoniazid resistance in TB- and HIV-endemic countries requires definition to improve treatment success and guide the scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). We describe the effects of isoniazid resistance on TB treatment outcomes among patients with or without HIV infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: A multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted among TB patients commencing WHO-recommended first-line TB treatment...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998499/study-of-factors-influencing-response-and-outcome-of-cat-iv-regimen-in-mdrtb-patients
#17
Arun Kumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar Mehrotra, S P Agnihotri, Shivani Swami
BACKGROUND: CAT IV regimen or the standardized drug regimen (SDR) under the Revised National Control Program (RNTCP) uses six second-line anti-tubercular drugs in the initial intensive phase (IP). These drugs have many side effects and toxicity; they are less efficacious and have poor acceptability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of Cat-IV regimen and the factors which influence the treatment outcome in MDR TB patients. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study, which was done in the CAT II treatment failure, LPA proven MDR TB patients, above the age of 18 years, who were referred to DOTS Plus center for treatment...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936379/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-associated-with-unfavorable-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-tb-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-brazil-a-hierarchical-polytomous-analysis
#18
Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Jayant V Rajan, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, Elias Dos Santos Dias, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Mauro N Sanchez, Jonathan E Golub, Lee W Riley, Ethel Leonor Maciel
BACKGROUND: TB patients co-infected with HIV have worse treatment outcomes than non-coinfected patients. How clinical characteristics of TB and socioeconomic characteristics influence these outcomes is poorly understood. Here, we use polytomous regression analysis to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among TB-HIV co-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: TB-HIV cases reported in the Brazilian information system (SINAN) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2011 were identified and categorized by TB treatment outcome (cure, default, death, and development of MDR TB)...
December 6, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917196/five-years-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-treatment-outcomes-of-tb-hiv-patients-at-a-pepfar-dots-centre-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#19
Omotowo I Babatunde, Ekwueme O Christiandolus, Eke C Bismarck, Obi I Emmanuel, Agunwa C Chike, Eyisi I Gabriel
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of a cohort of smear positive TB-HIV co-infected patients over a five-year study period. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 600 smear-positive tuberculosis patients registered at the chest unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu from January 2008 to December 2012 was done...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894985/factors-influencing-treatment-default-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-high-burden-province-of-south-africa
#20
G Kigozi, C Heunis, P Chikobvu, S Botha, D van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective records review of pulmonary TB cases captured in the ETR.Net electronic TB register between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were >15 years of age and had a recorded pre-treatment smear result. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment default...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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