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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043605/xpert-mtb-rif-for-rapid-detection-of-rifampicin-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia
#1
Mulualem Tadesse, Dossegnaw Aragaw, Belayneh Dimah, Feyisa Efa, Gemeda Abebe
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Accurate and rapid detection of drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis (TB) is critical for early initiation of treatment and for limiting the transmission of drug-resistant TB. Here, we investigated the accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance, and whether this detection predicts the presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: Smear- or culture-positive sputa obtained from TB patients with increased suspicion of drug resistance were included in this study...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043598/investigation-of-isoniazid-and-ethionamide-cross-resistance-by-whole-genome-sequencing-and-association-with-poor-treatment-outcomes-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#2
L Malinga, J Brand, C Jansen van Rensburg, G Cassell, M van der Walt
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Ethionamide (ETH) and isoniazid (INH) are part of the backbone regimen used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Both ETH and INH are structurally similar and are activated by ethA and katG gene products. Resistance to INH among MDR-TB patients may cause ETH to be ineffective, as both target nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase inhA protein and mutations within inhA gene may lead to their cross-resistance...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043497/ten-years-experience-of-directly-observed-treatment-short-course-dots-in-gambella-regional-state-ethiopia-an-evaluation-of-tuberculosis-control-program
#3
Solomon Sisay, Belete Mengistu, Woldargay Erku, Desalegne Woldeyohannes
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis (TB) as a global public health emergency and recommended DOTS as a standard strategy for controlling the disease. TB is one of the major causes of infectious diseases in the world, and 25% of all avoidable deaths in developing countries. About a third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tubercle bacilli, and hence at risk of developing active disease. The objective of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the impact of DOTS strategy on smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis case finding and their treatment outcomes in Gambella Regional State, Ethiopia...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999054/effects-of-isoniazid-resistance-on-tb-treatment-outcomes-under-programmatic-conditions-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-setting-a-prospective-multicentre-study
#4
Tumaini J Nagu, Said Aboud, Mecky I Matee, Markus J Maeurer, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ferdinand Mugusi
OBJECTIVES: The scale and impact of background isoniazid resistance in TB- and HIV-endemic countries requires definition to improve treatment success and guide the scale-up of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT). We describe the effects of isoniazid resistance on TB treatment outcomes among patients with or without HIV infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: A multicentre, prospective observational study was conducted among TB patients commencing WHO-recommended first-line TB treatment...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998499/study-of-factors-influencing-response-and-outcome-of-cat-iv-regimen-in-mdrtb-patients
#5
Arun Kumar Yadav, Ashok Kumar Mehrotra, S P Agnihotri, Shivani Swami
BACKGROUND: CAT IV regimen or the standardized drug regimen (SDR) under the Revised National Control Program (RNTCP) uses six second-line anti-tubercular drugs in the initial intensive phase (IP). These drugs have many side effects and toxicity; they are less efficacious and have poor acceptability. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and outcome of Cat-IV regimen and the factors which influence the treatment outcome in MDR TB patients. METHODS: It was a prospective observational study, which was done in the CAT II treatment failure, LPA proven MDR TB patients, above the age of 18 years, who were referred to DOTS Plus center for treatment...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936379/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-associated-with-unfavorable-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-tb-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-brazil-a-hierarchical-polytomous-analysis
#6
Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Jayant V Rajan, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, Elias Dos Santos Dias, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Mauro N Sanchez, Jonathan E Golub, Lee W Riley, Ethel Leonor Maciel
BACKGROUND: TB patients co-infected with HIV have worse treatment outcomes than non-coinfected patients. How clinical characteristics of TB and socioeconomic characteristics influence these outcomes is poorly understood. Here, we use polytomous regression analysis to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among TB-HIV co-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: TB-HIV cases reported in the Brazilian information system (SINAN) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2011 were identified and categorized by TB treatment outcome (cure, default, death, and development of MDR TB)...
December 6, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917196/five-years-retrospective-cohort-analysis-of-treatment-outcomes-of-tb-hiv-patients-at-a-pepfar-dots-centre-in-south-eastern-nigeria
#7
Omotowo I Babatunde, Ekwueme O Christiandolus, Eke C Bismarck, Obi I Emmanuel, Agunwa C Chike, Eyisi I Gabriel
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of a cohort of smear positive TB-HIV co-infected patients over a five-year study period. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 600 smear-positive tuberculosis patients registered at the chest unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu from January 2008 to December 2012 was done...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894985/factors-influencing-treatment-default-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-high-burden-province-of-south-africa
#8
G Kigozi, C Heunis, P Chikobvu, S Botha, D van Rensburg
OBJECTIVE: To determine and describe the factors influencing treatment default of tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Free State Province of South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective records review of pulmonary TB cases captured in the ETR.Net electronic TB register between 2003 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were >15 years of age and had a recorded pre-treatment smear result. The demographic and clinical characteristics of defaulters were described. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with treatment default...
January 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865237/smoked-and-smokeless-tobacco-use-among-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-under-rntcp-in-urban-puducherry-india
#9
Veerakumar Arumugam Mariappan, Swaroop Kumar Sahu, Sonali Sarkar, Shivanand Kattimani, Govindarajan Soundappan
BACKGROUND: Smoking is associated with unfavourable treatment outcomes like failures and defaults among the TB patients. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence and pattern of tobacco use among the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in urban Pondicherry and study the association of various socio-demographic variables with current smoked and smokeless tobacco users. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 235 PTB patients from 6 randomly selected urban PHCs of Pondicherry from Jan 2013 to March 2014...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801499/six-month-therapy-for-abdominal-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Sophie Jullien, Siddharth Jain, Hannah Ryan, Vineet Ahuja
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) of the gastrointestinal tract and any other organ within the abdominal cavity is abdominal TB, and most guidelines recommend the same six-month regimen used for pulmonary TB for people with this diagnosis. However, some physicians are concerned whether a six-month treatment regimen is long enough to prevent relapse of the disease, particularly in people with gastrointestinal TB, which may sometimes cause antituberculous drugs to be poorly absorbed. On the other hand, longer regimens are associated with poor adherence, which could increase relapse, contribute to drug resistance developing, and increase costs to patients and health providers...
1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796102/experiences-of-patients-having-tuberculosis-tb-regarding-the-use-of-directly-observed-treatment-short-course-dots-in-the-north-west-province-south-africa
#11
Maserapelo G Serapelwane, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Gaboipolelwe M Masilo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) management remains a major challenge despite the implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS). Some of the challenges include defaulting treatment, low TB cure rates and relapse after patients had been treated under DOTS. OBJECTIVES: This study explored and described experiences of patients having TB regarding the use of DOTS in Doctor Ruth Segomotsi Mompati District of North West Province, South Africa. The study describes and recommends support required by patients having TB who are using DOTS...
September 27, 2016: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749904/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-immigrants-in-a-large-city-with-large-scale-immigration-1991-2013
#12
Jesús E Ospina, Àngels Orcau, Joan-Pau Millet, Miriam Ros, Sonia Gil, Joan A Caylà
BACKGROUND: The increase in immigration in Barcelona between 2000 and 2008 forced a reorganization of the control of tuberculosis (TB). TB clinical units (TBCU) were created and community health workers (CHW) were gradually included. OBJECTIVE: To understand trends in the incidence of TB among immigrants, their main characteristics and treatment compliance during the period 1991-2013. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of cases detected among immigrants by the Tuberculosis Program in Barcelona, Spain...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725046/treatment-outcomes-of-daily-anti-tuberculosis-treatment-in-hiv-infected-patients-seeking-care-at-a-private-clinic-in-india
#13
R Parchure, V Kulkarni, R Gangakhedkar, S Swaminathan
SETTING: Little is known about outcomes of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) who are treated in the private sector in India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the treatment outcomes of daily anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and their determinants among HIV-TB co-infected patients treated at a private clinic in Pune, India. DESIGN: Data on adult HIV-TB co-infected patients treated with daily ATT were analysed using logistic regression and Cox model to assess risk factors for default and death...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660541/treatment-outcomes-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-tb-compared-with-non-mdr-tb-infections-in-peninsular-malaysia
#14
Omar Salad Elmi, Habsah Hasan, Sarimah Abdullah, Mat Zuki Mat Jeab, Zilfalil Ba, Nyi Nyi Naing
BACKGROUND: Treating patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) strains is more complicated, complex, toxic, expensive, than treating patients with susceptible TB strains. This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes and potential factors associated between patients with MDR-TB and non MDR TB infections in peninsular Malaysia. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort study. Data were collected from the medical records of all registered MDR-TB patients and Non-MDR-TB patients at five TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to January 2014...
July 2016: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625444/comparative-study-of-clinico-bacterio-radiological-profile-and-treatment-outcome-of-smokers-and-nonsmokers-suffering-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#15
Deepti Rathee, Piyush Arora, Manoj Meena, Rohit Sarin, Pitambar Chakraborty, Anand Jaiswal, Mukesh Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen technique...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528998/childhood-tuberculosis-in-malawi-caseload-diagnostic-practices-and-treatment-outcomes
#16
A D Harries, S M Graham, M M Weismuller, Njm Claessens, S Meijnen, N J Hargreaves, C Mwansambo, P N Kazembe, F M Salaniponi
There were 22,982 cases of TB registered in Malawi in 1998, of which 2739 (11.9%) were children. Children accounted for 11.3% of all case notifications with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB), 21.3% with smear-negative PTB and 15.9% with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). A significantly higher proportion of TB cases were diagnosed in central hospitals. Only 45% of children completed treatment. There were high rates of death (17%), default (13%) and unknown treatment outcomes (21%). Treatment outcomes were worse in younger children and in children with smear-negative PTB...
December 2005: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510245/trends-in-tuberculosis-case-notification-and-treatment-outcomes-after-interventions-in-10-zones-of-ethiopia
#17
Z G Dememew, D Habte, M Melese, S D Hamusse, G Nigussie, N Hiruy, B Girma, Y Kassie, Y K Haile, D Jerene, P Suarez
SETTING: Amhara and Oromia Regions, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in case notification rates (CNRs) among new tuberculosis (TB) cases and treatment outcomes of sputum smear-positive (SS+) patients based on geographic setting, sex and age categories. METHODS: We undertook a trend analysis over a 4-year period among new TB cases reported in 10 zones using a trend test, a mean comparison t-test and one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The average CNR per 100 000 population was 128...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510244/an-integrated-community-tb-hiv-adherence-model-provides-an-alternative-to-dot-for-tuberculosis-patients-in-cape-town
#18
R Kaplan, J Caldwell, S Hermans, S Adriaanse, L Mtwisha, L-G Bekker, K Jennings, R Wood
SETTING: Cape Town, South Africa. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes and rate of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation using weekly community-based adherence support compared to daily directly observed therapy (DOT). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis comparing two cohorts treated for tuberculosis (TB) in 70 TB clinics during 6-month periods before and after the introduction of a new adherence model comprising treatment literacy sessions during 2 weeks of DOT, followed by weekly home visits by community care workers to eligible patients managing their own treatment...
September 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27198545/poor-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-southern-mozambique-2011-2012
#19
Alberto L García-Basteiro, Durval Respeito, Orvalho J Augusto, Elisa López-Varela, Charfudin Sacoor, Victor G Sequera, Aina Casellas, Quique Bassat, Ivan Manhiça, Eusebio Macete, Frank Cobelens, Pedro L Alonso
BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, there is limited data regarding the monitoring of Tuberculosis (TB) treatment results and determinants of adverse outcomes under routine surveillance conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate treatment outcomes among TB patients, analyze factors associated with a fatal outcome and determine the proportion of deaths attributable to TB in the district of Manhiça, Southern Mozambique. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study based on TB patients diagnosed in the period 2011-2012...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176911/ethnic-and-racial-inequalities-in-notified-cases-of-tuberculosis-in-brazil
#20
Paulo Victor de Sousa Viana, Maria Jacirema Ferreira Gonçalves, Paulo Cesar Basta
OBJECTIVE: This study analysed clinical and sociodemographic aspects and follow-up for notified cases of tuberculosis (TB) and explored inequalities in incidence rates and outcome by colour or race and the geographic macro-regions of Brazil. METHODS: This paper reports the results of a population-based descriptive epidemiological study of all notified cases of TB in Brazil during the period from 01/01/2008 to 31/12/2011. We analysed sociodemographic and clinical variables according to colour or race (white, black, Asian, mixed, and indigenous) and geographic macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Central-West, South, and Southeast)...
2016: PloS One
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