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"Water pump"

Nae-Wen Kuo, Shih-Hao Jien, Nien-Ming Hong, Yao-Te Chen, Tsung-Yu Lee
A previous study has demonstrated that Danshui River has almost the highest dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) yield in the world and exports most of the DIN in the form of ammonium unlike the world's large rivers. However, the DIN sources are poorly constrained. In this study, the contributions of major sources in the Taipei metropolitan area to the DIN export in the Danshui River were investigated. It is observed that ammonium is the major DIN species in the downstream reaches, resulting from the ammonium-dominated inputs of the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and rain water pumping stations (RWPS)...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zongbo Yang, Jun Cheng, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
A water-circulating column photobioreactor (WCC-PBR) was developed to decrease bubble generation time and mixing time for growing microalgal biomass at low energy consumption. Bubble generation time was decreased by 60.4% and mixing time was decreased by 41.5% owing to an enhanced solution velocity with a water pump. Bubble residence time was decreased by 31.1% and mass transfer coefficient was decreased by 0.4% owing to a reduced distance between air aerator and solution surface. Microalgal growth rate was decreased by 12...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Zhijun Ren, Hongzhen Jin, Baojin Peng, Yile Shi
We construct and generate symmetric accelerating caustic beams (ACBs) by using 3/2-order phase-only masks with elliptical contour based on optical caustics and diffraction theory. The symmetric ACBs are a type of bimodal accelerating caustic beam with two quasi-constant intensity peaks, very similar to the combination of two face-to-face Airy-like beams judging by appearance. Their fundamental optical morphology and force properties of particles in ACBs are subsequently provided. The unique optical properties of ACBs can be exploited for practical uses, such as accelerating electrons and clearing micrometer-sized particles as a laser micrometer-sized "water pump" instead of a laser micrometer-sized "snowblower" of accelerating Airy beams...
September 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Sheri D Weiser, Abigail M Hatcher, Lee L Hufstedler, Elly Weke, Shari L Dworkin, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Rachel L Burger, Stephen Kodish, Nils Grede, Lisa M Butler, Craig R Cohen
This longitudinal qualitative study sought to understand how and why a livelihood intervention affected the health and health behaviors of HIV-infected Kenyan adults. The intervention included a microfinance loan, agricultural and financial training, and a human-powered water pump. In-depth interviews were conducted at two time points with intervention and control participants and program staff. We double coded interviews (n = 117) and used thematic content analysis of transcripts following an integrative inductive-deductive approach...
September 16, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Hong Yuan, Baodong Gai, Jinbo Liu, Jingwei Guo, Hui Li, Shu Hu, Liezheng Deng, Yuqi Jin, Fengting Sang
We have observed unusual blue-shifted radiations in water pumped by a strong 532-nm nanosecond laser. Properties including divergence, polarizations, and pulse shapes of the unusual radiations are measured and compared with those of the regular stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in water. The unusual radiations are attributed to the parametric anti-Stokes SRS that occurs on the interface of water and ionization plasma (or gas) formed in the laser-induced breakdown of water.
July 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Lintang N Fadlillah, M Widyastuti
Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied...
August 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Valderice P A Baydum, Fábio H P C Oliveira
This work aimed to study the influence of metals on the temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria community in Carpina Dam (7º53'22 '' S and 35º20'34''W). Samples were collected from Raw Water Pumping Station at the Water Treatment Station Feira Nova in the city of Feira Nova (Pernambuco, Brazil), from January/2011 to December /2013. The concentration of metals in water (aluminum, antimony, barium, lead, copper, chromium, cadmium, iron, manganese) was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the laboratory...
June 29, 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Zongbo Yang, Jun Cheng, Jianzhong Liu, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
A novel swing gas aerator was developed to generate small bubbles for improving the mass transfer coefficient and microalgal growth rate in a raceway pond. A high-speed photography system (HSP) was used to measure the bubble diameter and generation time, and online precise dissolved oxygen probes and pH probes were used to measure the mass transfer coefficient and mixing time. Bubble generation time and diameter decreased by 21% and 9%, respectively, when rubber gas aerators were swung in the microalgae solution...
September 2016: Bioresource Technology
Zachary A Barker, Ashlynn S Stillwell
Thermoelectric power plants demand large quantities of cooling water, and can use alternative sources like treated wastewater (reclaimed water); however, such alternatives generate many uncertainties. De facto water reuse, or the incidental presence of wastewater effluent in a water source, is common at power plants, representing baseline conditions. In many cases, power plants would retrofit open-loop systems to cooling towers to use reclaimed water. To evaluate the feasibility of reclaimed water use, we compared hydrologic and economic conditions at power plants under three scenarios: quantified de facto reuse, de facto reuse with cooling tower retrofits, and modeled engineered reuse conditions...
May 17, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Qi Zhang, Huiqiao Li, Lin Gan, Ying Ma, Dmitri Golberg, Tianyou Zhai
The widespread availability of nanostructures and nanodevices has placed strict requirements on their comprehensive characterization. Herein, in situ techniques are demonstrated to have created a rare opportunity to accurately analyze the intrinsic properties of individual nanostructures and to accomplish the smart design of nanodevices made from these nanostructures. This paper reviews recent developments in in situ fabrication and characterization technologies established within various types of microscopes and the rich information they may provide...
May 7, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Aamir Shahzad, Malrey Lee, Neal Naixue Xiong, Gisung Jeong, Young-Keun Lee, Jae-Young Choi, Abdul Wheed Mahesar, Iftikhar Ahmad
In Industrial systems, Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system, the pseudo-transport layer of the distributed network protocol (DNP3) performs the functions of the transport layer and network layer of the open systems interconnection (OSI) model. This study used a simulation design of water pumping system, in-which the network nodes are directly and wirelessly connected with sensors, and are monitored by the main controller, as part of the wireless SCADA system. This study also intends to focus on the security issues inherent in the pseudo-transport layer of the DNP3 protocol...
2016: Sensors
Liudmila Erokhova, Andreas Horner, Nicole Ollinger, Christine Siligan, Peter Pohl
The small intestine is void of aquaporins adept at facilitating vectorial water transport, and yet it reabsorbs ∼8 liters of fluid daily. Implications of the sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in either pumping water or passively channeling water contrast with its reported water transporting capacity, which lags behind that of aquaporin-1 by 3 orders of magnitude. Here we overexpressed SGLT1 in MDCK cell monolayers and reconstituted the purified transporter into proteoliposomes. We observed the rate of osmotic proteoliposome deflation by light scattering...
April 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
A Yu Budantsev
A device to carry out all types of vacuum infiltration in a wide temperature range. The device is easy to use and allows you to simultaneously conduct the infiltration of a large number of tissue samples. The main element of the device is a temperature-controlled cuvette, the temperature of which is set in the range of 23-65 °C. The design of the cell allows pumping air from the cell to the 50-100 mm Hg. In practice, histological methods are used to remove the vacuum infiltration of air from the tissue fixation (plant tissue), to accelerate the penetration of fasteners into the tissue...
2015: Tsitologiia
Deiviane Aparecida Calegar, Beatriz Coronato Nunes, Kerla Joeline Lima Monteiro, Jéssica Pereira Dos Santos, Helena Keiko Toma, Tais Ferreira Gomes, Marli Maria Lima, Márcio Neves Bóia, Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa
This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10...
February 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jiaye Su, Keda Yang
The design of a water pump, which has huge potential for applications in nanotechnology and daily life, is the dream of many scientists. In this paper, we successfully design a nanometer water pump by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ions of either sodium or chlorine in a narrow channel will generate electric current under electric fields, which then drives the water through a wider channel, similar to recent experimental setups. Considerable water flux is achieved within small field strengths that are accessible by experimentation...
March 4, 2016: Nanotechnology
M Marder, Chih-Hung Chen, T Patzek
Hydrofracturing to recover natural gas and oil relies on the creation of a fracture network with pressurized water. We analyze the creation of the network in two ways. First, we assemble a collection of analytical estimates for pressure-driven crack motion in simple geometries, including crack speed as a function of length, energy dissipated by fluid viscosity and used to break rock, and the conditions under which a second crack will initiate while a first is running. We develop a pseudo-three-dimensional numerical model that couples fluid motion with solid mechanics and can generate branching crack structures not specified in advance...
December 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Kartiki S Naik, Michael K Stenstrom
Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers, whereas decentralization is the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation. Smaller decentralized plants can achieve extensive reclamation and wastewater management with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularized expansion and lower capital investment. We devised a methodology to preliminarily assess these alternatives using local constraints and conducted a feasibility analysis for each option...
March 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Xiaoyan Zhou, Fengmin Wu, Yang Liu, Jianlong Kou, Hui Lu, Hangjun Lu
We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube...
November 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Corey Nagel, Jack Beach, Chantal Iribagiza, Evan A Thomas
In rural sub-Saharan Africa, where handpumps are common, 10-67% are nonfunctional at any one time, and many never get repaired. Increased reliability requires improved monitoring and responsiveness of maintenance providers. In 2014, 181 cellular enabled water pump use sensors were installed in three provinces of Rwanda. In three arms, the nominal maintenance model was compared against a "best practice" circuit rider model, and an "ambulance" service model. In only the ambulance model was the sensor data available to the implementer, and used to dispatch technicians...
December 15, 2015: Environmental Science & Technology
Shaveta Dhiman, Bimla Devi, Karnail Singh, Pushpa Devi
BACKGROUND: Group-A rotaviruses are responsible for 30 to 60% of severe watery diarrhea cases in young children. Timely diagnosis of rotavirus infection helps to determine appropriate treatment and prevents unnecessary use of antibiotics. AIM: To compare Immunochromatography (ICG) with standard ELISA test for diagnosis of and to determine incidence, clinical socio-epidemiological profile and possible risk factors associated with rotavirus infection in children below five years with acute gastroenteritis...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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