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Routine screening

Torsten C Schmidt
Water analysis has been an important area since the beginning of analytical chemistry. The focus though has shifted substantially: from minerals and the main constituents of water in the time of Carl Remigius Fresenius to a multitude of, in particular, organic compounds at concentrations down to the sub-nanogram per liter level nowadays. This was possible only because of numerous innovations in instrumentation in recent decades, drivers of which are briefly discussed. In addition to the high demands on sensitivity, high throughput by automation and short analysis times are major requirements...
March 21, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Deepti Sachan, S Aswin Kumar
Drug-dependent antibodies can rarely cause interference in pretransfusion antibody screening. The diluents for commercial reagent red blood cells contain different antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol, neomycin sulfate, and gentamycin as a preservative. The presence of antibodies to a given drug in patient may lead to positive results when performing antibody identification. We present a rare case of detection of anti-co-trimoxazole antibody during routine antibody screening in a female patient undergoing neurosurgery...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Prasun Bhattacharya, Eeshita Samanta, Nowroz Afroza, Archana Naik, Rathindranath Biswas
INTRODUCTION: With the increased utilization of immunohematology (IH) analyzers in the transfusion medicine, type, and screen policy is the method of choice. Still, the importance of routine crossmatching could not be overruled. Here, we tried to understand the clinical conditions and safety of red cell transfusion and their outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was conducted by IH laboratory, Medical College Kolkata, Blood Bank from October 1, 2015 to March 31, 2016...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Idah Chatindiara, Jacqueline Allen, Amy Popman, Darshan Patel, Marilize Richter, Marlena Kruger, Carol Wham
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in patients admitted to hospital may have detrimental effects on recovery and healing. Malnutrition is preceded by a state of malnutrition risk, yet malnutrition risk is often not detected during admission. The aim of the current study was to investigate the magnitude and potential predictors of malnutrition risk in older adults, at hospital admission. METHODS: A cross-sectional was study conducted in 234 older adults (age ≥ 65 or ≥ 55 for Māori or Pacific ethnicity) at admission to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand...
March 21, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
V Priya, B N Srikumar, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Performing multiple tasks either simultaneously, in rapid alternation or in succession, is routine in daily life. Further, testing rodents in a battery of tests is common both in drug discovery and behavioral phenotyping research. However, learning of new tasks can be influenced by prior experience(s). There has been some research on 'switching cost' involved in the transition from one behavior to another. However, there has been no specific assessment of the effect of learning an operant paradigm on performance in a spatial memory task and vice versa...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
Following the development of the first methods to measure the core Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers total-tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and the 42 amino acid form of amyloid-β (Aβ42), there has been an enormous expansion of this scientific research area. Today, it is generally acknowledged that these biochemical tests reflect several central pathophysiological features of AD and contribute diagnostically relevant information, also for prodromal AD. In this article in the 20th anniversary issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, we review the AD biomarkers, from early assay development to their entrance into diagnostic criteria...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
C F Song, H Li, B Tian, S Chen, J B Miao, Y L Fu, B You, Q R Chen, T Li, X X Hu, W Q Zhang, B Hu
Objective: To evaluate the incidence of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) after thoracic surgery and its characteristic. Methods: This was a single-center, prospective cohort study. Patients undergoing major thoracic surgeries between July 2016 and March 2017 at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University were enrolled in this study. Besides the routine examination, all patients were screened for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) by using noninvasive duplex lower-extremity ultrasonography after surgery...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Kousuke Kanemoto, Oh-Young Kwon, Go Taniguchi, Zhou Dong, Yotin Chinvarun, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Aileen McGonigal, Andres Miguel Kanner, Sung-Pa Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to investigate the prevalence of depression in people with epilepsy (PWE) in different countries in Asia. METHODS: We searched the electronic database PubMed on June 13, 2017 for articles in English that included the following search terms: "epilepsy" AND "depression" AND "country name" for all Asian countries since 1947. Relevant original studies from Asia were included if they reported the prevalence of depression in PWE...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Janneke P Bil, Peter Ag Schrooders, Maria Prins, Peter M Kouw, Judith He Klomp, Maarten Scholing, Lutje Phm Huijbregts, Gerard Jb Sonder, Toos Chfm Waegemaekers, Henry Jc de Vries, Wieneke Meijer, Freke R Zuure, Alma Tostmann
We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Shiming Cheng, Deanna Tollefson, Guangxue He, Yuan Li, Hui Guo, Shua Chai, Fangfang Gao, Fei Gao, Guoxin Han, Liping Ren, Yulin Ren, Jianbo Li, Lixia Wang, Jay K Varma, Dongmei Hu, Haiying Fan, Fei Zhao, Emily Bloss, Yu Wang, Carol Y Rao
Background: Health care workers are at high risk for tuberculosis (TB). China, a high burden TB country, has no policy on medical surveillance for TB among healthcare workers. In this paper, we evaluate whether China's national TB diagnostic guidelines could be used as a framework to screen healthcare workers for pulmonary TB disease in a clinical setting in China. Methods: Between April-August 2010, healthcare workers from 28 facilities in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China were eligible for TB screening, comprised of symptom check, chest X-ray and tuberculin skin testing...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Ekta Agarwal, Maree Ferguson, Merrilyn Banks, Angela Vivanti, Marijka Batterham, Judy Bauer, Sandra Capra, Elisabeth Isenring
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity, defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 , has demonstrated protective associations with mortality in some diseases. However, recent evidence demonstrates that poor nutritional status in critically ill obese patients confounds this relationship. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if poor nutritional status, poor food intake and adverse health-related outcomes have a demonstrated association in non-critically ill obese acute care hospital patients. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey dataset (N = 3122), a prospective cohort study conducted in hospitals from Australia and New Zealand in 2010...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Amos Kosgey, Anakalo Shitandi, Jason W Marion
Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines' milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( N = 25), street vendors ( N = 21), and three MVMs ( N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michael A Preston, Glen P Mays, Zoran Bursac, Billy R Thomas, Jonathan Laryea, J Mick Tilford, Michelle Odlum, Sharla A Smith, Ronda S Henry-Tillman
Precision public health requires research that supports innovative systems and health delivery approaches, programs, and policies that are part of this vision. This study estimated the effects of health insurance mandate (HiM) variations and the effects of physician utilization on moderating colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates. A time-series analysis using a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach was conducted on CRC screenings (1997-2014) using a multivariate logistic framework. Key variables of interest were HiM, CRC screening status, and physician utilization...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
S Jarius, K Ruprecht, J P Stellmann, A Huss, I Ayzenberg, A Willing, C Trebst, M Pawlitzki, A Abdelhak, T Grüter, F Leypoldt, J Haas, I Kleiter, H Tumani, K Fechner, M Reindl, F Paul, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Antibodies to human full-length myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) as detected by new-generation cell-based assays have recently been described in patients presenting with acute demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, including patients previously diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, only limited data are available on the relevance of MOG-IgG testing in patients with chronic progressive demyelinating disease. It is unclear if patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) or secondary progressive MS (SPMS) should routinely be tested for MOG-IgG...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Alexandra Price, Jessica Cervantes, Scott Lindsey, Divya Aickara, Shasa Hu
Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by the classic triad of fingernail dysplasia, patellar absence/hypoplasia, and presence of iliac horns. We describe the various features of NPS, focusing on dermatologic and musculoskeletal findings. A 69-year-old man presented to the dermatology clinic for a routine skin cancer screening. Physical examination revealed hypoplastic fingernails with longitudinal ridging, splitting, and triangular lunulae; left patellar absence and right patellar hypoplasia; and bilateral iliac horns that had been present since birth...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Smadar Valérie Tourjman, Robert-Paul Juster, Scot Purdon, Emmanuel Stip, Edouard Kouassi, Stéphane Potvin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP) score and illness severity, subjective cognition and functioning in a cohort of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 40) diagnosed with MDD (DSM-IV-TR) completed the SCIP, a brief neuropsychological test, and a battery of self-administered questionnaires evaluating functioning (GAF, SDS, WHODAS 2.0, EDEC, PDQ-D5). Disease severity was evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Shashi Prateek, Smriti Gupta, Akanksha Gupta, Sonam Choudhary, Diksha Prakash, Geetika Nain
The aim of this prospective study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of women towards the Pap smear. It was carried out on the women coming to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at our University, with the help of a pre-formed questionnaire. We found that only 33% of the women were aware of the Pap smear, and of these hardly (10%) had the correct information. Sixty-five percent of the women said that they would have gotten the Pap smear done, if they had known about it earlier. Unless this knowledge amongst women is improved and their attitude is changed, the indices of cervical cancer cannot be improved...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Elham Kateeb, Elizabeth Momany
BACKGROUND: Beliefs about oral health during pregnancy demographic factors, such as level of education and socioeconomic status, are associated with an increased risk of oral diseases during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status of pregnant women and the relation to the women's oral health knowledge, beliefs, behaviour, and access to dental care. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, pregnant women visiting pre-natal care clinics at the Palestinian Ministry of Health centres in the Jerusalem governorate were invited to complete a structured interview with questions about beliefs about oral health care and their oral hygiene practices...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Sarah M Bartsch, Susan S Huang, James A McKinnell, Kim F Wong, Leslie E Mueller, Loren G Miller, Bruce Y Lee
OBJECTIVE While previous work showed that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention toolkit for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) can reduce spread regionally, these interventions are costly, and decisions makers want to know whether and when economic benefits occur. DESIGN Economic analysis SETTING Orange County, California METHODS Using our Regional Healthcare Ecosystem Analyst (RHEA)-generated agent-based model of all inpatient healthcare facilities, we simulated the implementation of the CRE toolkit (active screening of interfacility transfers) in different ways and estimated their economic impacts under various circumstances...
March 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Laurence Thielemans, Gornpan Gornsawun, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Moo Kho Paw, Pen Porn, Paw Khu Moo, Bart Van Overmeire, Stephane Proux, François Nosten, Rose McGready, Verena I Carrara, Germana Bancone
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an inherited enzymatic disorder associated with severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute haemolysis after exposure to certain drugs or infections. The disorder can be diagnosed phenotypically with a fluorescent spot test (FST), which is a simple test that requires training and basic laboratory equipment. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performances of the FST used on umbilical cord blood by locally-trained staff and to compare test results of the neonates at birth with the results after one month of age...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
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