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Natasha Fitzgerald-Yau, Jonathan Egan
Research has extensively identified empathic skills as essential in health trainings, policies, and recommendations. However, there have been conflicting views of the impact of empathy on burnout. Some studies contend that empathy serves a protective role, whereas other studies have shown that burnout leads to a diminished capacity to empathize. To date, studies have not yet explored whether defense styles mediate associations between empathy and burnout. A total of 442 nurses completed questionnaire measures of empathy, burnout, and defense mechanisms as part of a large-scale research study on nurse burnout...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Aoife M Egan, Moshe Hod, Tahir Mahmood, Fidelma P Dunne
Diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Unfortunately guidelines and clinical practices vary significantly and a number of key issues remain under debate. These include: glucose cut-offs for diagnosis; the approaches of universal versus selective screening; appropriate timing of screening; and acceptability of various screening strategies to the population at risk. Economic considerations are also of importance, but unfortunately data outlining the best approach from this viewpoint are limited...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Helen Egan, Michail Mantzios
Background: Caring for oneself through mindfulness and compassion to improve or enhance health behaviors, and specifically eating behaviors has come to the forefront of scientific inquiry. The experiences and challenges for people in decision making around food within the context of self-kindness for body and mind care have not been previously explored. Aims: This study explored the experiences of eating behaviors in a community sample and examined the understanding of self-kindness and its relationship to eating behaviors and wellbeing of body and mind...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jennifer M Egan, Colleen A Peterson, W Mark Fry
The sodium leak channel NALCN is poorly understood, but is reported as a Na+ -permeable, nonselective cation leak channel which regulates resting membrane potential and electrical excitability. Previous work has indicated that NALCN currents can be stimulated by activation of several G protein coupled receptors, including the M3 muscarinic receptor. We undertook a study using voltage clamp electrophysiology to investigate NALCN currents. We compared currents elicited from untransfected control HEK239 cells in response to M3R agonists muscarine or Oxotremorine M to currents elicited from cells transfected with M3R only or the M3R plus NALCN and cDNA encoding accessory proteins UNC-80 and Src...
June 2018: Biochimie Open
Stephen Bradley, John P Egan, Marcus Henning
AIM: Paediatric team handovers provide medical professionals and students with the opportunity to exchange clinically relevant information about patients. This study explored the extent to which learning opportunities existed and were utilised within paediatric team handovers in New Zealand secondary hospitals. METHODS: We undertook a qualitative, two-site case study within two paediatric departments in 2014 and 2015, and interviewed 29 participants, including medical students, junior doctors and consultants...
June 8, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Jim O'Connell, Cathy Rowan, Roisin Stack, Grace Harkin, Vikrant Parihar, Grace Chan, Niall Breslin, Garret Cullen, Cara Dunne, Laurence Egan, Gavin Harewood, Jan Leyden, Finbar MacCarthy, Padraic MacMathuna, Nasir Mahmud, Susan McKiernan, Deirdre McNamara, Hugh Mulcahy, Frank Murray, Anthony O'Connor, Aoibhlinn O'Toole, Stephen Patchett, Barbara Ryan, Juliette Sheridan, Eoin Slattery, Glen Doherty, David Kevans
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Golimumab (GLB) is an antitumour necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF) therapy that has shown efficacy as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to describe the outcome of GLB therapy for UC in a real-world clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients receiving GLB for UC in six Irish Academic Medical Centres were identified. The primary study endpoint was the 6-month corticosteroid-free remission rate...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Emma J Walker, Helen H Egan, Craig A Jackson, Matthew Tonkin
Previous research has clearly demonstrated the positive impact of therapeutic interventions on offenders' well-being. Much less is known about the impact on prison staff facilitating and delivering such interventions. We employed qualitative methodology to capture a deeper understanding of the work of therapeutic prison officers. Seven prison officers working in a U.K. Category B therapeutic community prison were interviewed about their working lives, including their own participation in therapy. Following a thematic analysis approach, key findings indicated that the physical and cultural work environment was very important to staff; the therapeutic element of their job role, although demanding, was both satisfying and rewarding; and that working in a therapeutic prison environment provided the opportunity for personal as well as professional development...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Paul F Egan, Kristina A Shea, Stephen J Ferguson
Experiments have demonstrated biological tissues grow by mechanically sensing their localized curvature, therefore making geometry a key consideration for tissue scaffold design. We developed a simulation approach for modeling tissue growth on beam-based geometries of repeating unit cells, with four lattice topologies considered. In simulations, tissue was seeded on surfaces with new tissue growing in empty voxels with positive curvature. Growth was fastest on topologies with more beams per unit cell when unit cell volume/porosity was fixed, but fastest for topologies with fewer beams per unit cell when beam width/porosity was fixed...
June 6, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Matthew S Haynsen, Mohammad Vatanparast, Gouri Mahadwar, Dennis Zhu, Roy Z Moger-Reischer, Jeff J Doyle, Keith A Crandall, Ashley N Egan
BACKGROUND: Kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, is a woody vine native to Southeast Asia that has been introduced globally for cattle forage and erosion control. The vine is highly invasive in its introduced areas, including the southeastern US. Modern molecular marker resources are limited for the species, despite its importance. Transcriptomes for P. montana var. lobata and a second phaseoloid legume taxon previously ascribed to genus Pueraria, Neustanthus phaseoloides, were generated and mined for microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms...
June 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Joanna Reynolds, Michael McGrath, Jessica Engen, Ghazaleh Pashmi, Matthew Andrews, Carolyn Sharpe, Matt Egan, Jin Lim, Karen Lock
Introduction: There are increased opportunities for public health practitioners (PHPs) in England to shape alcohol availability and reduce harms through a statutory role in licensing processes in local government. However, how public health can effectively influence alcohol licence decision-making is little understood. Methods: A mixed methods study was conducted to identify challenges faced by PHPs and mechanisms to strengthen their role. This involved a survey of practitioners across London local authorities (n = 18) and four focus group discussions with a range of licensing stakeholders (n = 36)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
William Egan, Eric Steinberg, Jeremy Rose
A 24-year-old female, otherwise healthy, presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with difficulty walking and bilateral leg pain. The patient was a recreational nitrous oxide (NO2 ) user, also known as "whippets" or simply nitrous. Neurologic examination demonstrated an unsteady gait and positive Romberg sign along with normal deep tendon reflexes and normal muscle strength in upper and lower extremities. Laboratory results demonstrated macrocytic erythropoiesis, reduced B12 , elevated homocysteine, and elevated methylmalonic acid...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Hannah Duffey, Maureen Egan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Simone Müller, Tjebo F C Heeren, Roberto Bonelli, Marcus Fruttiger, Peter Charbel Issa, Catherine A Egan, Frank G Holz
BACKGROUND/AIM: Macular pigment optical density (MPOD) is centrally depleted early on in macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacTel). Contrast sensitivity (CS) might be related to MPOD, and thus impaired in early MacTel. The effect of low luminance was assessed on both CS and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Pelli-Robson charts were used for CS testing at 1 m in photopic (110 lux) and mesopic (1 lux) conditions. BCVA was tested with ETDRS charts and low luminance visual acuity (LLVA) with a 2...
June 1, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ann E Egan, Abigail M K Thompson, Dana Buesing, Sarah M Fourman, Amy E B Packard, Tegesty Terefe, Dan Li, Xia Wang, Seongho Song, Matia B Solomon, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
Eating palatable foods can provide stress relief, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. We previously characterized a limited sucrose intake (LSI) paradigm in which twice-daily access to a small amount of 30% sucrose (vs. water as a control) reduces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses to stress and alters neuronal activation in stress-regulatory brain regions in male rats. However, women may be more prone to 'comfort feeding' behaviors than men, and stress-related eating may vary across the menstrual cycle...
May 28, 2018: Neuroscience
Thomas W LeBlanc, Pamela C Egan, Adam J Olszewski
Hospice provides high-quality end-of-life care, but patients with leukemias use hospice services less frequently than those with solid tumors. Transfusion dependence (TD) may hinder or delay enrollment, as hospice organizations typically disallow transfusions. We examined the association between TD and end-of-life outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries with leukemia. From the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, we selected beneficiaries with acute and chronic leukemias, who died in 2001-2011...
May 30, 2018: Blood
Gianluca Ursini, Giovanna Punzi, Qiang Chen, Stefano Marenco, Joshua F Robinson, Annamaria Porcelli, Emily G Hamilton, Marina Mitjans, Giancarlo Maddalena, Martin Begemann, Jan Seidel, Hidenaga Yanamori, Andrew E Jaffe, Karen F Berman, Michael F Egan, Richard E Straub, Carlo Colantuoni, Giuseppe Blasi, Ryota Hashimoto, Dan Rujescu, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Alessandro Bertolino, Daniel R Weinberger
Defining the environmental context in which genes enhance disease susceptibility can provide insight into the pathogenesis of complex disorders. We report that the intra-uterine environment modulates the association of schizophrenia with genomic risk (in this study, genome-wide association study-derived polygenic risk scores (PRSs)). In independent samples from the United States, Italy, and Germany, the liability of schizophrenia explained by PRS is more than five times greater in the presence of early-life complications (ELCs) compared with their absence...
May 28, 2018: Nature Medicine
Jack Johnston, Chloe Y Shu, Kimberley J Hoiles, Patrick J F Clarke, Hunna J Watson, Patrick D Dunlop, Sarah J Egan
OBJECTIVE: The link between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established in adults, however little research has been conducted in children and adolescents. The aim was to examine if perfectionism was a predictor of eating disorder symptoms at intake assessment, and 6 and 12 month review. METHOD: There were 175 children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (M = 14.47 years, SD = 1.31) who were assessed using the Eating Disorders Inventory-3 perfectionism subscale and the child adapted Eating Disorders Examination at intake, 6 and 12 months review...
May 18, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Barry Kevane, Seamus Allen, Kevin Walsh, Karl Egan, Patricia B Maguire, Marie C Galligan, Damien Kenny, Rhona Savage, Esther Doran, Áine Lennon, E Laine Neary, Fionnuala Ní Áinle
AIMS: The mechanisms underlying the competing thrombotic and hemorrhagic risks in Eisenmenger syndrome are poorly understood. We aimed to characterise derangements of blood coagulation and to assess the effect of dual endothelin-1 receptor antagonism in modulating hemostasis in this rare disorder. METHODS: In a 10 month recruitment period at a tertiary cardiology referral centre during which time there were over 14,000 out-patient consultations, consecutive subjects with Eisenmenger syndrome being considered for macitentan therapy (n=9) and healthy volunteers (n=9) were recruited...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Tony Benson, Fiona Lavelle, Tamara Bucher, Amanda McCloat, Elaine Mooney, Bernadette Egan, Clare E Collins, Moira Dean
Nutrition and health claims on foods can help consumers make healthier food choices. However, claims may have a 'halo' effect, influencing consumer perceptions of foods and increasing consumption. Evidence for these effects are typically demonstrated in experiments with small samples, limiting generalisability. The current study aimed to overcome this limitation through the use of a nationally representative survey. In a cross-sectional survey of 1039 adults across the island of Ireland, respondents were presented with three different claims (nutrition claim = "Low in fat"; health claim = "With plant sterols...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
Meredith M Doellman, Gregory J Ragland, Glen R Hood, Peter J Meyers, Scott P Egan, Thomas H Q Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Mary M Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Daniel A Hahn, Stewart H Berlocher, James J Smith, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L Feder
A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand how variation within populations gets partitioned into differences between reproductively isolated species. Here, we examine the degree to which diapause life history timing, a critical adaptation promoting population divergence, explains geographic and host-related genetic variation in ancestral hawthorn and recently derived apple-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella . Our strategy involved combining experiments on two different aspects of diapause (initial diapause intensity and adult eclosion time) with a geographic survey of genomic variation across four sites where apple and hawthorn flies co-occur from north to south in the Midwestern USA...
May 18, 2018: Genes
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