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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228390/altered-brain-morphology-after-focal-radiation-reveals-impact-of-off-target-effects-implications-for-white-matter-development-and-neurogenesis
#1
Kiran G Beera, Yu-Qing Li, Jun Dazai, James Stewart, Shannon Egan, Mashal Ahmed, C Shun Wong, David A Jaffray, Brian J Nieman
Background: Children with brain tumors treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) often exhibit cognitive late effects, commonly associated with reduced white matter (WM) volume and decreased neurogenesis. The impact of radiation damage in particular regions or tissues on brain development as a whole has not been elucidated. Methods: We delivered whole-brain or focal radiation (8 Gy single dose) to infant mice. Focal treatments targeted white matter (anterior commissure), neuronal (olfactory bulbs), or neurogenic (subventricular zone) regions...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228213/contemporary-incidence-of-stroke-focal-infarct-and-or-haemorrhage-determined-by-neuroimaging-and-neurodevelopmental-disability-at-12-months-of-age-in-neonates-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-utilizing-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#2
Charlotte E Verrall, Karen Walker, Alison Loughran-Fowlds, Kristina Prelog, Robert Goetti, Christopher Troedson, Julian Ayer, Jonathan Egan, Robert Halliday, Yishay Orr, Gary F Sholler, Nadia Badawi, David S Winlaw
OBJECTIVES: When evaluated prospectively, acute brain injury is reported in up to 75% of neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), predominantly white matter injury rather than stroke. This study investigates the incidence of stroke (focal infarct and/or haemorrhage) detected by neuroimaging in contemporary clinical practice, whereby magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography routinely occurs in response to clinical events, comparing those undergoing the Norwood procedure with those undergoing other neonatal procedures involving CPB, and defines the relationship between stroke and neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) at 12 months of age...
December 8, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227866/partnerships-for-active-children-in-elementary-schools-paces-first-year-process-evaluation
#3
Cate A Egan, Collin Webster, R Glenn Weaver, Ali Brian, David Stodden, Laura Russ, Danielle Nesbitt, Spyridoula Vazou
Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews...
December 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225193/synthesis-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-p2%C3%A3-7-radioligand-123i-tz6019-and-its-response-to-neuroinflammatory-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease
#4
Hongjun Jin, Junbin Han, Derek Resing, Hui Liu, Xuyi Yue, Rebecca L Miller, Kathleen M Schoch, Timothy M Miller, Joel S Perlmutter, Terrance M Egan, Zhude Tu
The purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2×7 receptor) is a promising imaging target to detect neuroinflammation. Herein, we report development of a potent iodinated labeled radiotracer for P2×7 receptor, [123I]TZ6019. The radiosynthesis of [123I]TZ6019 was accomplished by allylic-tin precursor iodination using [123I]NaI with good radiochemical yield of 85% and high radiochemical purity of > 99%. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cell line stably transfected with the human P2×7 receptor was used to characterize the binding affinity of TZ6019 in fluorescence, radioactive competitive, and saturation binding assays...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224780/a-living-biobank-of-breast-cancer-organoids-captures-disease-heterogeneity
#5
Norman Sachs, Joep de Ligt, Oded Kopper, Ewa Gogola, Gergana Bounova, Fleur Weeber, Anjali Vanita Balgobind, Karin Wind, Ana Gracanin, Harry Begthel, Jeroen Korving, Ruben van Boxtel, Alexandra Alves Duarte, Daphne Lelieveld, Arne van Hoeck, Robert Frans Ernst, Francis Blokzijl, Isaac Johannes Nijman, Marlous Hoogstraat, Marieke van de Ven, David Anthony Egan, Vittoria Zinzalla, Jurgen Moll, Sylvia Fernandez Boj, Emile Eugene Voest, Lodewyk Wessels, Paul Joannes van Diest, Sven Rottenberg, Robert Gerhardus Jacob Vries, Edwin Cuppen, Hans Clevers
Breast cancer (BC) comprises multiple distinct subtypes that differ genetically, pathologically, and clinically. Here, we describe a robust protocol for long-term culturing of human mammary epithelial organoids. Using this protocol, >100 primary and metastatic BC organoid lines were generated, broadly recapitulating the diversity of the disease. BC organoid morphologies typically matched the histopathology, hormone receptor status, and HER2 status of the original tumor. DNA copy number variations as well as sequence changes were consistent within tumor-organoid pairs and largely retained even after extended passaging...
December 5, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223760/down-the-local-a-qualitative-case-study-of-daytime-drinking-spaces-in-the-london-borough-of-islington
#6
Claire Thompson, Sarah Milton, Matt Egan, Karen Lock
BACKGROUND: Recognising the lack of research on daytime drinking practices in areas with managed night-time economies (NTEs), this qualitative study explores the phenomena in the London Borough of Islington; a rapidly gentrifying area with a highly regulated night-time economy (NTE). The objectives were to (i) Characterise the daytime drinking spaces of the local alcohol environment and (ii) Theorise the ways in which these spaces, and the practices and performativities within them, are situated within broader social and economic trends...
December 7, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215165/transcriptional-response-of-nautella-italica-r11-towards-its-macroalgal-host-uncovers-new-mechanisms-of-host-pathogen-interaction
#7
Jennifer Hudson, Melissa Gardiner, Nandan Deshpande, Suhelen Egan
Macroalgae (seaweeds) are essential for the functioning of temperate marine ecosystems, but there is increasing evidence to suggest that their survival is under threat from anthropogenic stressors and disease. Nautella italica R11 is recognised as an etiological agent of bleaching disease in the red alga, Delisea pulchra. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge surrounding the molecular mechanisms involved in this model host-pathogen interaction. Here we report that mutations in the gene encoding for a LuxR-type quorum sensing transcriptional regulator, RaiR, render N...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214461/co-ingestion-of-protein-or-a-protein-hydrolysate-with-carbohydrate-enhances-anabolic-signaling-but-not-glycogen-resynthesis-following-recovery-from-prolonged-aerobic-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#8
Karl E Cogan, Mark Evans, Enzo Iuliano, Audrey Melvin, Davide Susta, Karl Neff, Giuseppe De Vito, Brendan Egan
PURPOSE: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO), or CHO supplemented with either sodium caseinate protein (CHO-C) or a sodium caseinate protein hydrolysate (CHO-H) on the recovery of skeletal muscle glycogen and anabolic signaling following prolonged aerobic exercise was determined in trained male cyclists [n = 11, mean ± SEM age 28.8 ± 2.3 years; body mass (BM) 75.0 ± 2.3 kg; VO2peak 61.3 ± 1.6 ml kg-1 min-1]. METHODS: On three separate occasions, participants cycled for 2 h at ~ 70% VO2peak followed by a 4-h recovery period...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212716/a-randomized-controlled-safety-efficacy-trial-of-therapeutic-vaccination-in-hiv-infected-individuals-who-initiated-antiretroviral-therapy-early-in-infection
#9
Michael C Sneller, J Shawn Justement, Kathleen R Gittens, Mary E Petrone, Katherine E Clarridge, Michael A Proschan, Richard Kwan, Victoria Shi, Jana Blazkova, Eric W Refsland, Daryl E Morris, Kristen W Cohen, M Juliana McElrath, Rong Xu, Michael A Egan, John H Eldridge, Erika Benko, Colin Kovacs, Susan Moir, Tae-Wook Chun, Anthony S Fauci
Despite substantial clinical benefits, complete eradication of HIV has not been possible using antiretroviral therapy (ART) alone. Strategies that can either eliminate persistent viral reservoirs or boost host immunity to prevent rebound of virus from these reservoirs after discontinuation of ART are needed; one possibility is therapeutic vaccination. We report the results of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a therapeutic vaccine regimen in patients in whom ART was initiated during the early stage of HIV infection and whose immune system was anticipated to be relatively intact...
December 6, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210724/anesthetic-management-of-a-pacemaker-with-a-rate-drop-response-setting-a-case-report
#10
Alex K Saltzman, Peter J Fu, Brian Egan
Permanent pacemakers are used for a variety of conditions and are commonly encountered in the perioperative period. This report describes the anesthetic management of a patient with a permanent pacemaker with a rate drop response (RDR) who presented for a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. The RDR setting is a novel pacemaker mode often used in patients with a history of vasovagal syncope. There are no previous reports describing the anesthetic management of such a pacemaker. This case report describes the features of the RDR setting with the goal of educating clinicians who may encounter patients with this type of pacemaker...
November 27, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202850/objectively-assessed-physical-activity-and-weight-change-in-young-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Jessica L Unick, Wei Lang, Samantha E Williams, Dale S Bond, Caitlin M Egan, Mark A Espeland, Rena R Wing, Deborah F Tate
BACKGROUND: Reductions in physical activity (PA) are common throughout young adulthood and low PA is associated with weight gain. The SNAP Trial previously reported that two self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention reduced weight gain over a 2-year period in 18-35 year olds. Presented here are secondary analyses examining changes in PA and the relationship between PA and weight change over 2 years. METHODS: 599 young adults (age: 27.4 ± 4.4 yrs...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198489/opiate-use-disorders-and-overdose-medical-students-experiences-satisfaction-with-learning-and-attitudes-toward-community-naloxone-provision
#12
H Tobin, J Klimas, T Barry, M Egan, G Bury
INTRODUCTION: Opiate use disorder is a common condition in healthcare services in Ireland, where over 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually. There is limited addiction medicine education at undergraduate level and medical graduates may not be adequately prepared to diagnose and manage opioid use disorders and emergency drug overdose presentations. Therefore, we examined final-year medical students' learning experiences and attitudes toward opioid use disorder, overdose and community naloxone provision as an emerging overdose treatment...
November 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196317/an-image-based-mirna-screen-identifies-mirna-135s-as-regulators-of-cns-axon-growth-and-regeneration-by-targeting-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4
#13
Eljo Y van Battum, Marieke G Verhagen, Vamshidhar R Vangoor, Yuki Fujita, Alwin A H A Derijck, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Giuliano Giuliani, Thijs de Gunst, Youri Adolfs, Daphne Lelieveld, David Egan, Roel Q J Schaapveld, Toshihide Yamashita, R Jeroen Pasterkamp
During embryonic development, axons extend over long distances to establish functional connections. In contrast, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is limited, in part by a reduced intrinsic capacity for axon growth. Therefore, insight into the intrinsic control of axon growth may provide new avenues for enhancing CNS regeneration. Here, we performed one of the first miRNome-wide functional miRNA screens to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) with robust effects on axon growth. High-content screening identified miR-135a and miR-135b as potent stimulators of axon growth and cortical neuron migration in vitro and in vivo in male and female mice...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185748/4-aminoquinoline-antimalarials-containing-a-benzylmethylpyridylmethylamine-group-are-active-against-drug-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum-and-exhibit-oral-activity-in-mice
#14
Mukesh C Joshi, John Okombo, Samkele Nsumiwa, Jeffrey Ndove, Dale Taylor, Lubbe Wiesner, Roger Hunter, Kelly Chibale, Timothy J Egan
Emergence of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum including artemisinin-tolerant parasites highlights the need for new antimalarials. We have previously shown that dibemequines, 4-amino-7-chloroquinolines with dibenzylmethylamine (dibemethin) side chains, are efficacious. In this study, analogues in which the terminal phenyl group of the dibemethin was replaced with a 2-pyridyl group and the 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline was either maintained or replaced with a 4-aminoquinoline-7-carbonitrile were synthesized in an effort to improve drug-likeness...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184854/oncolytic-virus-delivery-from-nano-pharmacodynamics-to-enhanced-oncolytic-effect
#15
REVIEW
Raquel Yokoda, Bolni M Nagalo, Brent Vernon, Rahmi Oklu, Hassan Albadawi, Thomas T DeLeon, Yumei Zhou, Jan B Egan, Dan G Duda, Mitesh J Borad
With the advancement of a growing number of oncolytic viruses (OVs) to clinical development, drug delivery is becoming an important barrier to overcome for optimal therapeutic benefits. Host immunity, tumor microenvironment and abnormal vascularity contribute to inefficient vector delivery. A number of novel approaches for enhanced OV delivery are under evaluation, including use of nanoparticles, immunomodulatory agents and complex viral-particle ligands along with manipulations of the tumor microenvironment...
2017: Oncolytic Virotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179659/dyrk1a-is-a-regulator-of-s-phase-entry-in-hepatic-progenitor-cells
#16
Hedwig Suzanne Kruitwagen, Bart Westendorp, Cornelia S Viebahn, Krista Post, Monique E van Wolferen, Loes A Oosterhoff, David A Egan, Jean-Maurice Delabar, Mathilda Jm Toussaint, Baukje A Schotanus, Alain de Bruin, Jan Rothuizen, Louis C Penning, Bart Spee
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are adult liver stem cells that act as second line of defense in liver regeneration. They are normally quiescent, but in case of severe liver damage HPC proliferation is triggered by external activation mechanisms from their niche. Although several important pro-proliferative mechanisms have been described, it is not known which key intracellular regulators govern the switch between HPC quiescence and active cell cycle. We performed a high throughput kinome siRNA screen in HepaRG cells, a HPC-like cell line, and evaluated the effect on proliferation with a 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay...
November 28, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176463/primary-ewing-sarcoma-of-the-mastoid-a-novel-case-mimicking-acute-mastoiditis
#17
Grace Egan, Joanna Pierro, Pillai Pallavi Madhusoodhan, Ghulam Ilyas, Benjamin Cohen, Teena Bhatla
Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in bone or soft tissue. It is the second most common primary bone malignancy of children and adolescents, with a peak incidence in the second decade of life. It most often arises in the long bones of the extremities and pelvis. Here, we present a novel case of EWS arising from the mastoid bone in a 5-year-old African American male who presented with symptoms of acute mastoiditis. This unique presentation highlights the importance of considering EWS in a patient who presents with atypical mastoiditis or a rapidly growing mass in the postauricular region...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175626/modeling-the-pathology-immune-responses-and-kinetics-of-hsv-1-replication-in-the-lip-scarification-model
#18
Kevin P Egan, Alexander G Allen, Brian Wigdahl, Stephen R Jennings
The lip scarification model of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection can be used to study acute infection in the orofacial tissue and the establishment of viral latency. In this study, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 and tissue harvested during the acute phase of infection. Clinical presentation of classical open sores on the lip of infected mice was observed. We defined the histopathology, disease scores, and immune infiltration of the lower lip during the formation and resolution of the clinical lesions...
November 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172619/differential-effects-of-state-and-trait-mindfulness-on-the-late-positive-potential
#19
Ryan P Egan, Kaylin E Hill, Dan Foti
Mindfulness is an effective emotion regulation strategy, and its principles have formed the basis for several psychotherapies. Of interest is how a mindful perspective changes not only the subjective experience of emotion, but also neural activity involved in emotional processing. In a previous event-related potential (ERP) study, trait mindfulness was linked with reduced neural activity in response to affective stimuli, as measured by the late positive potential (LPP). Building on this result, we investigated how both state (i...
November 27, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172261/knowledge-of-evidence-based-cancer-risk-factors-remains-low-among-new-zealand-adults-findings-from-two-cross-sectional-studies-2001-and-2015
#20
Rosalina Richards, Bronwen McNoe, Ella Iosua, Anthony I Reeder, Richard Egan, Louise Marsh, Lindsay Robertson, Brett Maclennan, Anna TF Latu, Robin Quigg, Anne-Cathrine Petersen
Objective: Cancer risk reduction messages are a part of cancer control efforts around the world. The complex reality is that risk factors differ for different types of cancer, making clear communication of desired behavioural changes more difficult. This study aims to describe awareness of risk factors for breast, bowel, cervical, prostate and lung cancer and cutaneous melanoma among New Zealanders in 2014/15 and identify changes in awareness since 2001. Methods: Two national telephone surveys, the first (CAANZ01) conducted in 2001, included 438 adults (231 females and 207 males, 64% response rate)...
November 26, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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