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Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Kpp Abhilash, P R Mannam, K Rajendran, R A John, P Ramasami
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Respiratory system involvement in scrub typhus is seen in 20-72% of patients. In endemic areas, good understanding and familiarity with the various radiologic findings of scrub typhus are essential in identifying pulmonary complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients admitted to a tertiary care center with scrub typhus between October 2012 and September 2013 and had a chest X ray done were included in the analysis. Details and radiographic findings were noted and factors associated with abnormal X-rays were analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hanif Esmail, Tolu Oni, Friedrich Thienemann, Nashreen Omar-Davies, Robert J Wilkinson, Mpiko Ntsekhe
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disorders are common in HIV-1 infected persons in Africa and presentation is often insidious. Development of screening algorithms for cardiovascular disorders appropriate to a resource-constrained setting could facilitate timely referral. Cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) on chest radiograph (CXR) has been suggested as a potential screening tool but little is known about its reproducibility and stability. Our primary aim was to evaluate the stability and the inter-observer variability of CTR in HIV-1 infected outpatients...
2016: PloS One
Hsiu-Fen Lee, Ching-Shiang Chi, Chi-Ren Tsai
INTRODUCTION: Hepatosplenomegaly is often present in infantile Sanshoff disease. However, cardiac involvement is extremely uncommon. CASE REPORT: We describe a 14-month-old female baby who exhibited mitral regurgitation and cardiomegaly at the age of 2months, dilation of the left atrium and left ventricle at age of 6months, followed by regression of developmental milestones after an episode of minor infection at age of 14months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal changes over the bilateral thalami, bilateral cerebral white matter and left putamen...
September 30, 2016: Brain & Development
John A Flanders, Dana A Buoscio, Bonnie A Jacobs, Kathryn C Gamble
Cardiac disease is a common condition in captive primates, and multiple cases in François' langurs ( Trachypithecus francoisi ) were noted on review of the Species Survival Plan studbook. To determine the prevalence of cardiac disease in this species, surveys were distributed to current and previous holding institutions (n = 23) for the U.S. studbook population (n = 216). After exclusion of stillbirths (n = 48), animals less than 1 yr of age (n = 8), and animals housed internationally (n = 2), a study group (n = 158) was identified for this analysis...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Xin Yang, Jin-Mei Yan, Jian Li, Xing-Mei Xie, Jian-Ying Zhou, Yan Li, Dong-Zhi Li
Hb Zurich-Albisrieden [HBA2: c.178G > C; α59(E8)Gly→Arg (α2)] is a rare nondeletional α-thalassemia (α-thal) that results from a nucleotide substitution at codon 59 of the α2-globin gene. In this report, we present a fetus with cardiomegaly, enlarged placenta and increased middle cerebral artery-peak systolic velocity (MCA-PSV) at 25 weeks' gestation. Fetal blood sampling revealed the severe anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) level being 5.5 g/dL] and Hb H (β4) disease-like hematological findings with Hb Bart's (γ4) level of 30...
September 30, 2016: Hemoglobin
Enas A Hamed, Mostafa M El-Saied, Khaled Saad, Hazem Abu-Zeid Yousef, Amany O Mohamed, Dina Sabry
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate fibrosis and elastin destruction in childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) patients. METHODS: Sixty patients and twenty healthy children were recruited. On admission, evaluation of chILD severity was made using Fan chILD score. Participants provided urine and blood samples. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, connective tissue growth factor (CCN2), soluble factor related apoptosis (sFas) and long non-coding RNAs and urinary levels of desmosine/urinary creatinine (UDes/UCr) were measured...
September 21, 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Anishkumar Nair, Chakanalil Govindan Sajeev, Kader Muneer
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: A 50-year-old hypertensive smoker presented with a typical angina of 2 days duration. An urgent ECG revealed extensive anterior wall myocardial infarction. In view of the delayed presentation, the patient was conservatively managed with heparin. In-hospital echocardiogram showed akinesia of entire left anterior descending artery (LAD) territory with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. He was discharged with a plan for early coronary intervention. However, he presented a fortnight later with acute pulmonary oedema...
September 29, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
A Boswood, J Häggström, S G Gordon, G Wess, R L Stepien, M A Oyama, B W Keene, J Bonagura, K A MacDonald, M Patteson, S Smith, P R Fox, K Sanderson, R Woolley, V Szatmári, P Menaut, W M Church, M L O'Sullivan, J-P Jaudon, J-G Kresken, J Rush, K A Barrett, S L Rosenthal, A B Saunders, I Ljungvall, M Deinert, E Bomassi, A H Estrada, M J Fernandez Del Palacio, N S Moise, J A Abbott, Y Fujii, A Spier, M W Luethy, R A Santilli, M Uechi, A Tidholm, P Watson
BACKGROUND: Pimobendan is effective in treatment of dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Its effect on dogs before the onset of CHF is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Administration of pimobendan (0.4-0.6 mg/kg/d in divided doses) to dogs with increased heart size secondary to preclinical MMVD, not receiving other cardiovascular medications, will delay the onset of signs of CHF, cardiac-related death, or euthanasia...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Lykke Schrøder Jakobsen, Sissel Lundemose, Jytte Banner, Niels Lynnerup, Christina Jacobsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in estimating organ sizes and to examine the use of the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). METHODS: We included 45 individuals (19 females), who underwent a medico-legal autopsy. Using the computer software program Mimics(®), we determined in situ heart and liver volumes derived from linear measurements (width, height and depth) on a whole body PMCT-scan, and compared the volumes with ex vivo volumes derived by CT-scan of the eviscerated heart and liver...
September 28, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Hyeon Kyeong Yeon, Mi-Young Lee, Sun-Young Yoon, Hee Jung Jung, Ji Eun Park, Jae-Yoon Shim, Hye-Sung Won, Pil-Ryang Lee, Ahm Kim
We describe a case of absent aortic and pulmonary valves, diagnosed at 16.4 weeks of gestation. Fetal echocardiography showed cardiomegaly with dilated both ventricles. No valve leaflets were observed in the aorta and pulmonary artery, and a typical to-and-fro flow pattern was noted in both great arteries on color Doppler imaging. Fetal hydrops was also detected. Follow-up ultrasonographic evaluation at 19 weeks demonstrated intrauterine fetal death. Postmortem autopsy revealed the absence of both aortic and pulmonary valve leaflets...
September 2016: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Yang Yang, Yuyao Feng, Xiaowei Zhang, Takero Nakajima, Naoki Tanaka, Eiko Sugiyama, Yuji Kamijo, Toshifumi Aoyama
Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the first reaction in the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. VLCAD deficiency is associated with the accumulation of fat in multiple organs and tissues, which results in specific clinical features including cardiomyopathy, cardiomegaly, muscle weakness, and hepatic dysfunction in infants. We speculated that the abnormal fatty acid metabolism in VLCAD-deficient individuals might cause cell necrosis by fatty acid toxicity. The accumulation of fatty acids may activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a master regulator of fatty acid metabolism and a potent nuclear receptor for free fatty acids...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Hae-Young Lee, Chan-Soon Park, Sang-Hoon Na, Kyung-Jin Kim, Chan Joo Lee, Sungha Park
A 47-year-old woman was admitted via emergency department due to dyspnea NYHA Fc II-III aggravated for 2 months after upper respiratory infection. Her height and body weight were 161 cm / 67 kg. Initial vital signs were 110/70 mmHg - 112 BPM - 24/min - 36.5°C. Chest PA showed cardiomegaly and pulmonary congestion (Figure 1). B-natriuretic peptide level was markedly increased (2002 pg/mL, normal range ≤ 100 pg/mL). The echocardiographic examination showed severely dilated LV cavity (61/72 mm) and severe LV systolic dysfunction (EF 28%) with normal left ventricular wall thickness (9/11 mm) (Figure 2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jane Jackie David, Smilu Mohanlal, Punam Sankhe, Radha Ghildiyal
We report a 2.5-year-old girl who presented with hoarseness of voice since 3 months of age and failure to thrive. Chest X-ray showed cardiomegaly with a deviation of the trachea and mediastinum to the right side. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed decreased flow across the right pulmonary artery, a small atrial septal defect (ASD) with a right-to-left shunt, and a dilated right atrium and right ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation suggestive of severe pulmonary hypertension. A silent large patent ductus arteriosus was also seen...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Idit Diamant, Eyal Klang, Michal Amitai, Eli Konen, Jacob Goldberger, Hayit Greenspan
OBJECTIVE: We present a novel variant of the Bagof- Visual-Words (BoVW) method for automated medical image classification. METHODS: Our approach improves the BoVW model by learning a task driven dictionary of the most relevant visual words per task using a mutual information based criterion. Additionally, we generate relevance maps to visualize and localize the decision of the automatic classification algorithm. These maps demonstrate how the algorithm works and show the spatial layout of the most relevant words...
September 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Dalal Lambatten, Sanaa Hammi, Yasmina Rhofir, Jamal Eddine Bourkadi
We report the case of a 50-year old patient with a left ventricular tumor whose evolution was marked by impaired general condition and fever. This mass was objectified by echocardiography performed to explore a radiological cardiomegaly. The imaging (MRI) appearance was suggestive of an intra-myocardial tuberculoma Based on our observations, we propose a review of the literature on this unusual location of tuberculosis.
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Daniel Hall, David New, Teresa Kelly
A 32-year-old Caucasian woman presented with shortness of breath four weeks postpartum. She was known to suffer from systemic lupus erythematosus with cutaneous, joint and minor renal involvement. During pregnancy, the patient had developed nephrotic syndrome for which she was managed with prophylactic anticoagulation and corticosteroid therapy. A leg deep vein thrombosis had arisen following caesarean section following antepartum haemorrhage. Examination revealed a heart murmur, and pulmonary signs. Computed tomography pulmonary angiogram showed cardiomegaly and bilateral pleural effusions but no pulmonary embolus...
September 2011: Obstetric Medicine
Alexander N Gabrovsky, Kelsey D O'Neill, Enrique Gerszten
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as the world's leading cause of death in the last century. An epidemiological focus of this disease that extends not only beyond the developed world but also far back into antiquity asks new questions about associated risk factors. Ancient mummies found in the Atacama desert are well preserved and show signs of cardiovascular disease as early as 1000B.C. in Peru and Chile. METHOD AND RESULTS: Gross and histopathological examination of specimens shows atherosclerosis, cardiomegaly, endocarditis, and myocardial fibrosis...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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