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Regulations in emergency medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086760/education-of-pediatric-subspecialty-fellows-in-transport-medicine-a-national-survey
#1
Geoffrey E Mickells, Denise M Goodman, Ranna A Rozenfeld
BACKGROUND: The transport of critically ill patients to children's hospitals is essential to current practice. The AAP Section on Transport Medicine has raised concerns about future leadership in the field as trainees receive less exposure to transport medicine. This study identifies the priorities of pediatric subspecialty fellows, fellowship directors and nursing directors in transport medicine education. METHODS: Internet based surveys were distributed to fellows, fellowship directors and nursing directors of transport teams affiliated with ACGME-approved fellowships in Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine (NPM), Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (PCCM), and Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078374/-anaesthesia-procedures-and-invasive-vascular-access-in-severely-injured-patients-at-trauma-room-admission-in-germany-an-online-survey
#2
M F Struck, P Hilbert-Carius, B Hossfeld, J Hinkelbein, M Bernhard, T Wurmb
BACKGROUND: The continuous monitoring of vital parameters and subsequent therapy belong to the core duties of anaesthetists during acute trauma resuscitation in the trauma room. Important procedures may include placement of arterial lines and central venous catheters (CVCs). Knowledge of indication, performance and localization of invasive catheterisation of trauma care in Germany is scarce. METHODS: After approval of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine we conducted an online survey about arterial and central venous catheterisation of severely injured patients with consideration of common practice used by anaesthetists in German trauma rooms...
January 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059952/atp-citrate-lyase-genetics-molecular-biology-and-therapeutic-target-for-dyslipidemia
#3
Amy C Burke, Murray W Huff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) has re-emerged as a drug target for LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering. We review ACLY as a therapeutic strategy, its genetics, its molecular and cellular biology, and also its inhibition. RECENT FINDINGS: ACLY is a critical enzyme linking glucose catabolism to lipogenesis by providing acetyl-CoA from mitochondrial citrate for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Human genetic variants have been associated with enhanced growth and survival of several cancers, and with attenuated plasma triglyceride responses to dietary fish oil...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041784/in-vitro-neuroprotective-potential-of-lichen-metabolite-fumarprotocetraric-acid-via-intracellular-redox-modulation
#4
Carlos Fernández-Moriano, Pradeep Kumar Divakar, Ana Crespo, M Pilar Gómez-Serranillos
The lichen-forming fungi Cetraria islandica has been largely used in folk medicines, and it has recently showed promising in vitro antioxidant effects in glial-like cells. Current work aimed at investigating the neuroprotective potential of its major isolated secondary metabolite: the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid (FUM). H2O2 was used herein to induce oxidative stress (OS)-mediated cytotoxicity in two models of neurons and astrocytes cells (SH-SY5Y and U373-MG cell lines). We found that a pre-treatment with FUM significantly enhanced cell viability compared to H2O2-treated cells, and we selected the optimal concentrations in each model (1 and 25μg/ml, respectively) for assessing its cytoprotective mechanisms...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029082/probiotics-in-curing-allergic-and-inflammatory-conditions-research-progress-and-futuristic-vision
#5
Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K Latheef, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Hari Abdul Samad, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026128/ets-transcription-factor-etv2-er71-etsrp-in-hematopoietic-and-vascular-development-injury-and-regeneration
#6
REVIEW
Haiyong Zhao, Canxin Xu, Taejin Lee, Fang Liu, Kyunghee Choi
The major goal in regenerative medicine is to repair and restore injured, diseased or aged tissue function, thereby promoting general health. As such, the field of regenerative medicine has great translational potential in undertaking many of the health concerns and needs that we currently face. In particular, hematopoietic and vascular systems supply oxygen and nutrients and thus play critical roles in tissue development and tissue regeneration. Additionally, tissue vasculature serves as a tissue stem cell niche and thus contributes to tissue homeostasis...
December 27, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006752/regulation-of-mirnas-by-herbal-medicine-an-emerging-field-in-cancer-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Behzad Baradaran
MicroRNAs' expression profiles have recently gained major attention as far as cancer research is concerned. MicroRNAs are able to inhibit target gene expression via binding to the 3' UTR of target mRNA, resulting in target mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. MicroRNAs play significant parts in a myriad of biological processes; studies have proven, on the other hand, that aberrant microRNA expression is, more often than not, associated with the growth and progression of cancers. MicroRNAs could act as oncogenes (oncomir) or tumor suppressors and can also be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer therapy...
December 19, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981234/coordinate-regulation-of-antimycin-and-candicidin-biosynthesis
#8
Thomas C McLean, Paul A Hoskisson, Ryan F Seipke
Streptomyces species produce an incredible array of high-value specialty chemicals and medicinal therapeutics. A single species typically harbors ~30 biosynthetic pathways, but only a few them are expressed in the laboratory; thus, poor understanding of how natural-product biosynthesis is regulated is a major bottleneck in drug discovery. Antimycins are a large family of anticancer compounds widely produced by Streptomyces species, and their regulation is atypical compared to that of most other natural products...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924480/design-of-multimodal-small-molecules-targeting-mirnas-biogenesis-synthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#9
Duc D Vo, Maria Duca
microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as novel biological targets for medicinal chemists to develop chemical tools for intracellular regulation. In this context, the discovery of small-molecule drugs targeting specific miRNAs and modulating their production or function represents a very promising approach that could be further developed for targeted therapy in miRNA-related pathologies. Here, we describe the design of multimodal small molecules as RNA ligands targeting DICER-mediated miRNA maturation. The synthesis and the biochemical evaluation as ligands of stem-loop-structured precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) are reported...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918441/tp53-microrna-interplay-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Daniela Pollutri, Laura Gramantieri, Luigi Bolondi, Francesca Fornari
The role of microRNAs as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes has emerged in several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pivotal tumor suppressive role of p53-axis is indicated by the presence of inactivating mutations in TP53 gene in nearly all cancers. A close interaction between these two players, as well as the establishment of complex p53/miRNAs loops demonstrated the strong contribution of p53-effector miRNAs in enhancing the p53-mediated tumor suppression program. On the other hand, the direct and indirect targeting of p53, as well as the regulation of its stability and activity by specific microRNAs, underlie the importance of the fine-tuning of p53 pathway, affecting the cell fate of damaged/transformed cells...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912816/mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-their-role-in-dental-medicine
#11
REVIEW
Xueli Mao, Yao Liu, Chider Chen, Songtao Shi
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been discovered in almost every organ and tissue. MSCs are a heterogeneous population of cells with the capacity to self-renew and show multilineage differentiation. MSCs possess immunomodulatory properties by regulating multiple types of immune cells. They are emerging as a promising therapeutic agent, and have been widely used for cell-based tissue regeneration and immune therapies. A further understanding of the biological characteristics of MSCs is a prerequisite to develop more efficient MSC-based therapies...
January 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904930/micrornas-in-bone-diseases
#12
REVIEW
L Gennari, S Bianciardi, D Merlotti
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression, with an essential role in vertebrate development and different biological processes. This review highlights the recent advances in the function of miRNAs and their roles in bone remodeling and bone diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small (∼22 nt), noncoding single-stranded RNAs that have emerged as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. They are essential for vertebrate development and play critical roles in different biological processes related to cell differentiation, activity, metabolism, and apoptosis...
November 30, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902410/inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-murraya-koenigii-essential-oil-a-study-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-infectious-model
#13
P Sankar Ganesh, Ravishankar Vittal Rai
The global emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat in both hospital environments and the community. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, and it also infects a wide range of model organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Quorum sensing (QS) mediates cell-to-cell communication in bacteria and has an important role in regulating virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation, which are crucial for establishment of the infection...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890782/bromodomain-histone-readers-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Abhinav K Jain, Michelle C Barton
Lysine acetylation of histone proteins is a fundamental post-translational modification that regulates chromatin structure and plays an important role in gene transcription. Aberrant levels of histone lysine acetylation are associated with the development of several diseases. Acetyl-lysine modifications create docking sites for bromodomains, which are structurally conserved modules present in transcription-associated proteins that are termed "reader" proteins. Bromodomain-containing reader proteins are part of multiprotein complexes that regulate transcription programs, which are often associated with profound phenotypic changes...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879536/mental-health-promotion-for-junior-physicians-working-in-emergency-medicine-evaluation-of-a-pilot-study
#15
Stefanie Mache, Monika Bernburg, Lisa Baresi, David Groneberg
OBJECTIVES: Work-related stress is highly prevalent among physicians working in emergency medicine. Mental health promotion interventions offer the chance to strengthen physicians' health, work ability, and performance. The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate a mental health promotion program for junior physicians working in emergency medicine. METHODS: In total, 70 junior physicians working in emergency medicine were randomized to either the mental health promotion program (n=35) or a waitlist control arm (n=35)...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837555/cryopreservation-in-closed-bag-systems-as-an-alternative-to-clean-rooms-for-preparations-of-peripheral-blood-stem-cells
#16
Silvia Spoerl, Robert Peter, Angela M Krackhardt
Autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents a therapeutic option widely used for hematopoietic malignancies. One important milestone in the development of this treatment strategy was the development of effective cryopreservation technologies resulting in a high quality with respect to cell viability as well as lack of contamination of the graft.Stem cell preparations have been initially performed within standard laboratories as it is routinely still the case in many countries. With the emergence of cleanrooms, manufacturing of stem cell preparations within these facilities has become a new standard mandatory in Europe...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813044/-application-of-the-objective-structured-clinical-examination-osce-in-german-medical-schools-an-inventory
#17
S Müller, U Dahmen, U Settmacher
Introduction: The German medical licensing regulations, as amended by the government in 2002, now require the assessment of clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. As a result, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was introduced as an assessment tool in many medical schools. This article provides a detailed inventory of the current application of the OSCE assessment in Germany. Methods: From June to September 2015, the implementation of the OSCE in all 36 German medical schools was investigated using semi-structured telephone interviews and email correspondence...
November 3, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807271/top-down-models-in-biology-explanation-and-control-of-complex-living-systems-above-the-molecular-level
#18
REVIEW
Giovanni Pezzulo, Michael Levin
It is widely assumed in developmental biology and bioengineering that optimal understanding and control of complex living systems follows from models of molecular events. The success of reductionism has overshadowed attempts at top-down models and control policies in biological systems. However, other fields, including physics, engineering and neuroscience, have successfully used the explanations and models at higher levels of organization, including least-action principles in physics and control-theoretic models in computational neuroscience...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802864/glucokinase-mutation-a-rare-cause-of-recurrent-hypoglycemia-in-adults-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Oluremi N Ajala, David M Huffman, Ibrahim I Ghobrial
BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia occurs frequently in patients both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. While most hypoglycemia unrelated to diabetes treatment results from excessive endogenous insulin action, rare cases involve functional and congenital mutations in glycolytic enzymes of insulin regulation. CASE: A 21-year-old obese woman presented to the emergency department with complaints of repeated episodes of lethargy, syncope, dizziness, and sweating. She was referred from an outside facility on suspicion of insulinoma, with severe hypoglycemia unresponsive to repeated dextrose infusions...
2016: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796590/poisonous-or-non-poisonous-plants-dna-based-tools-and-applications-for-accurate-identification
#20
REVIEW
Valerio Mezzasalma, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Andrea Galimberti, Laura Cornara, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra
Plant exposures are among the most frequently reported cases to poison control centres worldwide. This is a growing condition due to recent societal trends oriented towards the consumption of wild plants as food, cosmetics, or medicine. At least three general causes of plant poisoning can be identified: plant misidentification, introduction of new plant-based supplements and medicines with no controls about their safety, and the lack of regulation for the trading of herbal and phytochemical products. Moreover, an efficient screening for the occurrence of plants poisonous to humans is also desirable at the different stages of the food supply chain: from the raw material to the final transformed product...
January 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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