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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770207/recent-advances-in-bioreactors-for-cell-based-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Makeda Stephenson, Warren Grayson
Bioreactors have become indispensable tools in the cell-based therapy industry. Various forms of bioreactors are used to maintain well-controlled microenvironments to regulate cell growth, differentiation, and tissue development. They are essential for providing standardized, reproducible cell-based products for regenerative medicine applications or to establish physiologically relevant in vitro models for testing of pharmacologic agents. In this review, we discuss three main classes of bioreactors: cell expansion bioreactors, tissue engineering bioreactors, and lab-on-a-chip systems...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765861/mitochondrial-metabolism-mediated-regulation-of-adult-neurogenesis
#2
REVIEW
Ruth Beckervordersandforth
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell pool. Cellular metabolism is the new kid on the block of adult neurogenesis research and the identity of stage-specific metabolic programs and their impact on neurogenesis turns out to be an emerging research topic in the field. Mitochondrial metabolism is best known for energy production but it contains a great deal more...
November 9, 2017: Brain Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758290/proteome-response-of-dental-pulp-cells-to-exogenous-fgf8
#3
Rozaliya Tsikandelova, Petko Mladenov, Sébastien Planchon, Silvia Kalenderova, Maria Dragneva, Zornitsa Mihaylova, Pavel Stanimirov, Vanyo Mitev, Jenny Renaut, Nikolay Ishkitiev
FGF8 specifies early tooth development by directing the migration of the early tooth founder cells to the site of tooth emergence. To date the effect of the FGF8 in adult dental pulp has not been studied. We have assessed the regenerative potential of FGF8 by evaluating changes in the proteome landscape of dental pulp following short- and long-term exposure to recombinant FGF8 protein. In addition, we carried out qRT PCR analysis to determine extracellular/adhesion gene marker expression and assessed cell proliferation and mineralization in response to FGF8 treatment...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751287/chemical-profiling-in-moutan-cortex-after-sulfuring-and-desulfuring-processes-reveals-further-insights-into-the-quality-control-of-tcms-by-nontargeted-metabolomic-analysis
#4
Zhi-Lai Zhan, Ai-Ping Deng, Li-Ping Kang, Jin-Fu Tang, Tie-Gui Nan, Tong Chen, Ya-Li He, Lan-Ping Guo, Lu-Qi Huang
As a traditional processing method, sulfuring has been used in the processing of many traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Desulfuring, which has emerged in recent years, is a new method applied to sulfured herbs so they can comply with regulations regarding residual SO2 . Due to the chemical transformations and the residual SO2 in the herbs, both sulfuring and desulfuring have negative effects on the safety and therapeutic effects of TCMs, and Moutan Cortex is one of the TCMs most susceptible to these effects...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750923/ion-channel-modulators-in-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Martina Gentzsch, Marcus A Mall
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and remains one of the most common life-shortening genetic diseases affecting the lung and other organs. CFTR functions as a cAMP-dependent anion channel that transports chloride and bicarbonate across epithelial surfaces and disruption of these ion transport processes plays a central role in the pathogenesis of CF. These findings provided the rationale for pharmacological modulation of ion transport, either by targeting mutant CFTR or alternative ion channels that can compensate for CFTR dysfunction, as a promising therapeutic approach...
May 8, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740935/the-european-medicines-agency-s-approval-of-new-medicines-for-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Eberhard Blind, Heidi Janssen, Kristina Dunder, Pieter A de Graeff
Since 2005 more than 40 new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes have been introduced on the market. These consisted of 15 new active substances establishing three new classes of non-insulin products, several new or modified insulin products and combinations. The approval of these products in Europe is regulated via the centralised procedure at the European Medicines Agency. Demonstration of benefit with regard to improved glucose control remains the principal outcome required from confirmatory studies to demonstrate efficacy...
May 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740540/signaling-pathways-regulating-redox-balance-in-cancer-metabolism
#7
REVIEW
Maria Chiara De Santis, Paolo Ettore Porporato, Miriam Martini, Andrea Morandi
The interplay between rewiring tumor metabolism and oncogenic driver mutations is only beginning to be appreciated. Metabolic deregulation has been described for decades as a bystander effect of genomic aberrations. However, for the biology of malignant cells, metabolic reprogramming is essential to tackle a harsh environment, including nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen withdrawal. Besides the well-investigated glycolytic metabolism, it is emerging that several other metabolic fluxes are relevant for tumorigenesis in supporting redox balance, most notably pentose phosphate pathway, folate, and mitochondrial metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739980/systematic-analysis-of-demeter-like-dna-glycosylase-genes-shows-lineage-specific-smi-mir7972-involved-in-smdml1-regulation-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#8
Jiang Li, Caili Li, Shanfa Lu
DEMETER-like DNA glycosylases (DMLs) initiate the base excision repair-dependent DNA demethylation to regulate a wide range of biological processes in plants. Six putative SmDML genes, termed SmDML1-SmDML6, were identified from the genome of S. miltiorrhiza, an emerging model plant for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies. Integrated analysis of gene structures, sequence features, conserved domains and motifs, phylogenetic analysis and differential expression showed the conservation and divergence of SmDMLs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736939/effects-of-silymarin-on-the-metabolic-syndrome-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Maryam Vahabzadeh, Nafise Amiri, Gholamreza Karimi
BACKGROUND: The metabolic syndrome is one of the rising global health problems and medical challenges due to several clinical complications it may cause, for example increasing the risk of myocardial infarction and hypertension. On the other hand, great attention has been directed toward determining the worthiness of herbal medicines. There are emerging studies on preventive and therapeutic effects of silymarin on different components of the metabolic syndrome. Extracted from the dried seeds of milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum L...
May 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732653/the-regenerative-journey-of-pericytes-towards-clinical-translation
#10
REVIEW
William Cathery, Ashton Faulkner, Davide Maselli, Paolo Madeddu
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the single leading cause of death worldwide. Advances in treatment and management have significantly improved patient outcomes. On the other hand, although mortality rates have decreased, more people are left with sequelae that require additional treatment and hospitalization. Moreover, patients with severe nonrevascularizable CAD remain with the only option of heart transplantation, which is limited by the shortage of suitable hearts. In recent years, cell-based regenerative therapy has emerged as a possible alternative treatment, with several regenerative medicinal products already in the clinical phase of development and other emerging as competitive preclinical solutions...
May 7, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698523/urine-mercury-levels-correlate-with-dna-methylation-of-imprinting-gene-h19-in-the-sperm-of-reproductive-aged-men
#11
Zhaoxu Lu, Yufeng Ma, Linying Gao, Yingjun Li, Qiang Li, Mei Qiang
BACKGROUND: Mercury (Hg) is a well-recognized environmental pollutant known by its toxicity of development and neurotoxicity, which results in adverse health outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the teratogenic effects of Hg are not well understood. Imprinting genes are emerging regulators for fetal development subjecting to environmental pollutants impacts. In this study, we examined the association between preconceptional Hg exposure and the alteration of DNA methylation of imprinting genes H19, Meg3, and Peg3 in human sperm DNA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697486/ets-transcription-factor-etv2-er71-etsrp-in-haematopoietic-regeneration
#12
Kyunghee Choi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have established that haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remain quiescent in homeostatic conditions, and minimally contribute to haematopoietic homeostasis. However, they undergo extensive cell cycle and expansion upon bone marrow transplantation or haematopoietic injury to reestablish the haematopoietic system. Molecular basis for the HSC activation and expansion is not completely understood. Here, we review the recent study elucidating the role of the developmentally critical Ets transcription factor Etv2 in reestablishing haematopoietic system upon injury through promoting HSC regeneration...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696020/extracellular-vesicles-packages-sent-with-complement
#13
REVIEW
Ebru Karasu, Steffen U Eisenhardt, Julia Harant, Markus Huber-Lang
Cells communicate with other cells in their microenvironment by transferring lipids, peptides, RNA, and sugars in extracellular vesicles (EVs), thereby also influencing recipient cell functions. Several studies indicate that these vesicles are involved in a variety of critical cellular processes including immune, metabolic, and coagulatory responses and are thereby associated with several inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, EVs also possess anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to immune regulation, thus encouraging an emerging interest in investigating and clarifying mechanistic links between EVs and innate immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692250/critical-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-a-therapeutic-target-for-cancer-diabetes
#14
Priyankar Paira, S K Ashok Kumar, Sourav De, Subhasis Banerjee
Dipeptidyl Peptidase is one of the novel targets for antidiabetic and anticancer drugs. The dipeptidyl amminopeptidase IV, expressed in mammalian, releases X-Pro/Ala dipeptides from the N-terminus of peptides. It is responsible for the degradation of the incretin hormones which regulate blood glucose level. At present several DPP-IV inhibitors are approved for type-2 diabetes mellitus. These enzymes are also expressed in dimeric form on the surface of different cells (mature thymocytes, activated T cells, B cells, NK cells, macrophages, renal, prostate, liver and small intestinal epithelium, biliary canaliculae, and splenic sinus lining cells)...
April 22, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684787/the-body-electric-2-0-recent-advances-in-developmental-bioelectricity-for-regenerative-and-synthetic-bioengineering
#15
REVIEW
Juanita Mathews, Michael Levin
Breakthroughs in biomedicine and synthetic bioengineering require predictive, rational control over anatomical structure and function. Recent successes in manipulating cellular and molecular hardware have not been matched by progress in understanding the patterning software implemented during embryogenesis and regeneration. A fundamental capability gap is driving desired changes in growth and form to address birth defects and traumatic injury. Here we review new tools, results, and conceptual advances in an exciting emerging field: endogenous non-neural bioelectric signaling, which enables cellular collectives to make global decisions and implement large-scale pattern homeostasis...
April 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682548/electric-stimulation-of-ear-reduces-the-effect-of-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-pathway-on-kainic-acid-induced-epileptic-seizures-in-rats
#16
En-Tzu Liao, Yi-Wen Lin, Chun-Ping Huang, Nou-Ying Tang, Ching-Liang Hsieh
Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or of little benefit in 30% of epileptic patients and usually cause severe side effects. Emerging evidence indicates the crucial role of inflammatory mediators in epilepsy. The current study investigates the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its underlying mechanisms in kainic acid- (KA-) induced epileptic seizures in rats...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673137/herb-induced-liver-injuries-in-developing-nations-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Cecilia Nwadiuto Amadi, Orish Ebere Orisakwe
The last few decades have seen a rise in the use of herbal supplements, natural products, and traditional medicines. However, there are growing concerns related to the safety and toxicities of these medicines. These herbal medicines are associated with complications such as liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic cases with abnormal liver functions tests to sudden and severe liver failure necessitating liver transplantation. This work aimed to review the etiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and selected clinical case reports of herbal hepatotoxicity in developing nations...
April 17, 2018: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666946/pharmaceutical-products-as-emerging-contaminant-in-water-relevance-for-developing-nations-and-identification-of-critical-compounds-for-indian-environment
#18
Prakash Chinnaiyan, Santosh G Thampi, Mathava Kumar, K M Mini
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are contaminants of emerging concern and have been detected worldwide in water bodies in trace concentrations. Most of these emerging contaminants are not regulated in water quality standards except a few in the developed countries. In the case of developing countries, research in this direction is at a nascent stage. For the effective management of Pharmaceutical contaminants (PC) in developing countries, the relevance of PCs as an emerging contaminant has to be analyzed followed by regular monitoring of the environment...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662491/regulatory-t-cells-potential-regulator-of-tissue-repair-and-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Jiatao Li, Jean Tan, Mikaël M Martino, Kathy O Lui
The identification of stem cells and growth factors as well as the development of biomaterials hold great promise for regenerative medicine applications. However, the therapeutic efficacy of regenerative therapies can be greatly influenced by the host immune system, which plays a pivotal role during tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, understanding how the immune system modulates tissue healing is critical to design efficient regenerative strategies. While the innate immune system is well known to be involved in the tissue healing process, the adaptive immune system has recently emerged as a key player...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651112/behavioural-medicine-and-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-promise-of-positive-psychology
#20
REVIEW
Laurie Keefer
Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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