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Regulations in emergency medicine

Alison T Merryweather-Clarke, Alex J Tipping, Abigail A Lamikanra, Rui Fa, Basel Abu-Jamous, Hoi Pat Tsang, Lee Carpenter, Kathryn J H Robson, Asoke K Nandi, David J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a potentially invaluable resource for regenerative medicine, including the in vitro manufacture of blood products. HiPSC-derived red blood cells are an attractive therapeutic option in hematology, yet exhibit unexplained proliferation and enucleation defects that presently preclude such applications. We hypothesised that substantial differential regulation of gene expression during erythroid development accounts for these important differences between hiPSC-derived cells and those from adult or cord-blood progenitors...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Madhumita Chatterjee, Meinrad Gawaz
Platelet membrane bedecked with a wide array of receptors offers a platform to regulate platelet responsiveness, thrombotic propensity, inflammatory disposition, and immune reactivity under diverse pathophysiological conditions. Ectopic proteolytic cleavage of such receptors irreversibly inactivates receptor-mediated intracellular signaling governing cellular functions, further releases soluble fragments into circulation which might modulate functions of target cells. Glycoprotein VI-(GPVI) is a membrane glycoprotein expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Shan Zhao, W Timothy Garvey
Adipokines are peptides, secreted by adipocytes and other cell types with targets in other tissues, participating in a complex network of humoral factors involved in obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular (CV) disease. This review describes recent information about adipokine effects on the CV system. Rather than simply providing a listing of adipokines and their respective effects, network analysis is used to enhance understanding. Various relationships and emergent processes in the adipokine-CV system network are discussed, with the most significant interactors being responses to hypoxia, regulation of cell migration, effects on blood coagulation, and platelet activation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jeffrey S Stein, A George Wilson, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Michael C Judd, Warren K Bickel
RATIONALE: Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures...
October 11, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Da Hye Kwon, Ji Min Cheon, Eun-Ok Choi, Jin Woo Jeong, Ki Won Lee, Ki Young Kim, Sung Goo Kim, Suhkmann Kim, Su Hyun Hong, Cheol Park, Hye-Jin Hwang, Yung Hyun Choi
BACKGROUND: Immunoregulatory elements have emerged as useful immunotherapeutic agents against cancer. In traditional medicine, Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae), has been used for various medicinal purposes; however, the immunomodulatory effects have not been fully identified. We evaluated the immunoenhancing potential of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF) in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were treated with WEMF for 24 hours and cell viability was detected by an MTT method...
September 2016: Journal of Cancer Prevention
Kabir Sheikh, Mukund Uplekar
BACKGROUND: The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs - India, Tanzania, and Zambia - and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes...
March 9, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Larry J Kricka
Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e...
August 2016: EJIFCC
Eeva Auvinen
Virology is probably the most rapidly developing field within clinical laboratory medicine. Adequate diagnostic methods exist for the diagnostics of most acute viral infections. However, emergence of pathogenic viruses or virus strains and new disease associations of known viruses require the establishment of new diagnostic methods, sometimes very rapidly. In the field of chronic or persistent viral diseases, particularly those involving potential of malignant or fatal development, there is a constant need for improved differential diagnostics, monitoring, prognosis and risk assessment...
September 28, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Mayurbhai R Patel, Stephen D Kozuch, Christopher N Cultrara, Reeta Yadav, Suiying Huang, Uri Samuni, John Koren, Gabriela Chiosis, David Sabatino
The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology has been used to design well-programmed, self-assembled nanostructures for applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine. At the forefront of its utility in cancer is the unrestricted ability to self-assemble multiple siRNAs within a single nanostructure formulation for the RNAi screening of a wide range of oncogenes while potentiating the gene therapy of malignant tumors. In our RNAi nanotechnology approach, V- and Y-shape RNA templates were designed and constructed for the self-assembly of discrete, higher-ordered siRNA nanostructures targeting the oncogenic glucose regulated chaperones...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Carleen M Sabusap, Wei Wang, Carmel M McNicholas, W Joon Chung, Lianwu Fu, Hui Wen, Marina Mazur, Kevin L Kirk, James F Collawn, Jeong S Hong, Eric J Sorscher
Emerging knowledge indicates the difficulty in categorizing unusual cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations, with regard to both pathogenic mechanism and theratype. As case in point, we present data concerning P67L mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a defect carried by a small number of individuals with CF and sometimes attributed to a channel conductance abnormality. Findings from our laboratory and others establish that P67L causes protein misfolding, disrupts maturation, confers gating defects, is thermally stable, and exhibits near normal conductance...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
Christina Hafner, Jing Wu, Akos Tiboldi, Moritz Hess, Goran Mitulovic, Christoph Kaun, Konstantin Alexander Krychtiuk, Johann Wojta, Roman Ullrich, Eva Verena Tretter, Klaus Markstaller, Klaus Ulrich Klein
Supplemental oxygen (O2) is used as adjunct therapy in anesthesia, emergency and intensive care medicine. We hypothesized that excessive O2 levels (hyperoxia) can directly injure human adult cardiac myocytes (HACMs). HACMs obtained from the explanted hearts of transplantation patients were exposed to constant hyperoxia (95% O2), intermittent hyperoxia (alternating 10 min exposures to 5% and 95% O2), constant normoxia (21% O2), or constant mild hypoxia (5% O2) using a bioreactor. Changes in cell morphology, viability as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and trypan blue (TB) staining, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and various pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin, IL; chemokine C-X-C motif ligand, CXC; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, G-CSF; intercellular adhesion molecule, ICAM; chemokine C-C motif ligand, CCL) were compared among treatment groups at baseline (0 h) and after 8 h, 24 h, and 72 h of treatment...
September 19, 2016: Shock
Chunming Gu, Tianfu Li, Zhao Yin, Shengting Chen, Jia Fei, Jianping Shen, Yuan Zhang
Berberine (BBR), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine compound, has emerged as a novel class of anti-tumor agent. Our previous microRNA (miRNA) microarray demonstrated that miR-106b/25 was significantly down-regulated in BBR-treated multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, systematic integration showed that miR-106b/25 cluster is involved in multiple cancer-related signaling pathways and tumorigenesis. MiREnvironment database revealed that multiple environmental factors (drug, ionizing radiation, hypoxia) affected the miR-106b/25 cluster expression...
September 19, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Lixia Wang, Yingying Hou, Xuyuan Yin, Jingna Su, Zhe Zhao, Xiantao Ye, Xiuxia Zhou, Li Zhou, Zhiwei Wang
Rottlerin, isolated from a medicinal plant Mallotus phillippinensis, has been demonstrated to inhibit cellular growth and induce cytoxicity in glioblastoma cell lines through inhibition of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III. Emerging evidence suggests that rottlerin exerts its antitumor activity as a protein kinase C inhibitor. Although further studies revealed that rottlerin regulated multiple signaling pathways to suppress tumor cell growth, the exact molecular insight on rottlerin-mediated tumor inhibition is not fully elucidated...
September 12, 2016: Oncotarget
Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Da Hye Kim, Mayakrishnan Vijayakumar, Srisesharam Srigopalram, Sang Gun Roh, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Jong Suk Lee, Ki Choon Choi
BACKGROUND: From ancient times, marine algae have emerged as alternative medicine and foods, contains the rich source of natural products like proteins, vitamins, and secondary metabolites, especially Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) contains numerous anti-inflammatory, antioxidants and wound healing substances. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is closely associated with adipogenesis and their factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the chemical constituents and adipogenic modulatory properties of C...
2016: Biological Research
Biao Cheng, Shuliang Lu, Xiaobing Fu
Regenerative medicine (RM) is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research. Its clinical application focuses on the repair, replacement, and regeneration of cells, tissues, and organs by approaches including cell reprogramming, stem cell transplantation, tissue engineering, activating factors, and clone treatment. RM has become a hot point of research in China and other countries. China's main and local governments have attached great importance to RM and given strong support in relevant policies and funding...
2016: Burns and trauma
Nidhi Jariwala, Devanand Sarkar
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for the second largest number of cancer related deaths globally with limited management options for the advanced disease. Although substantial research has identified molecular targets, with strong validation in pre-clinical in vivo studies, translation of therapeutics to clinics has shown modest success. In a recent manuscript in Hepatology, Zhou and Yang et al. unravel a novel p53 associated long non-coding RNA (PRAL) as a potential prognostic marker and molecular target in HCC...
August 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Elena De Mattia, Erika Cecchin, Rossana Roncato, Giuseppe Toffoli
Great research effort has been focused on elucidating the contribution of host genetic variability on pharmacological outcomes in cancer. Nuclear receptors have emerged as mediators between environmental stimuli and drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors have been reported to regulate transcription of genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Altered nuclear receptor expression has been shown to affect the metabolism and pharmacological profile of traditional chemotherapeutics and targeted agents...
September 2016: Pharmacogenomics
Lois Margaret Nora, Sylvia Fonte McGreal, Samantha Guastella Nugent
The authors present snapshots of board certification in 1916, the year that the American Board of Ophthalmology was founded, 60 years later in 1976 as periodic recertification emerged, and speculation about what certification might look like in 2036. The concept of board certification and continuous certification in the medical specialties took shape at the beginning of the 20th century with the convergence of a new system of assessment, the emergence of certifying boards, and the creation of the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS)...
September 2016: Ophthalmology
Biao Cheng, Shu-Liang Lu, Xiao-Bing Fu
Regenerative medicine (RM) is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research and China has developed the research quickly and impressed the world with numerous research findings in stem cells, tissue engineering, active molecules and gene therapy. Important directions are induced differentiation of induced pluripotent stem and embryo stem cells as well as somatic stem cell differentiation potential and their application in trauma, burns, diseases of aging and nerve regeneration. The products ActivSkin and bone repair scaffolds have been approved and are applied in the clinic, and similar products are being studied...
2016: Military Medical Research
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