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Angiotensin II stimulates endothelin

Heng-Jing Hu, Zhi-Sheng Jiang, Sheng-Hua Zhou, Qi-Ming Liu
The effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in angiotensin II (AngII)-induced endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression and subsequent cytotoxicity remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that H2S protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against AngII‑stimulated ET‑1 generation and subsequent cytotoxicity‑induced endoplasmic reticulum stress via the NF‑κB signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrated that AngII significantly upregulated the expression levels of ET‑1, glucose‑regulated protein 78, CCAAT‑enhancer‑binding protein homologous protein, phosphorylated (p)‑p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase; stimulated nitric oxide production; suppressed the expression and activity of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), a H2S synthetase; and decreased cell viability...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Ze-Jun Huo, Dong Li, Jia Guo, Sai Li, Ning Ding, Zhi-Xin Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on the expressions of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), endothelin-1 (ET1), and endothelin A receptor (ETAR) mRNA in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) aorta. METHODS: Eighteen male SHRs were randomly divided into three groups, an SHR group, an SHR Baihui (DU 20) and Zusanli (ST 36) acupoint (SHR-AP) group, and an SHR non-acupoint (SHR-NAP) group, with 6 rats in each group...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Zhong Zhang, Kristie Payne, Thomas L Pallone
Using dual-cell electrophysiological recording, we examined the routes for equilibration of membrane potential between the pericytes and endothelia that comprise the descending vasa recta (DVR) wall. We measured equilibration between pericytes in intact vessels, between pericytes and endothelium in intact vessels and between pericytes physically separated from the endothelium. Dual pericyte recording on the abluminal surface of DVR showed that both resting potential and subsequent time-dependent voltage fluctuations after vasoconstrictor stimulation remained closely equilibrated, regardless of the agonist employed (angiotensin II, vasopressin or endothelin 1)...
2016: PloS One
Ying Gao, Jian Yang, Shu Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of radio-telemetry implantation surgery on blood pressure (BP) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in rats. METHODS: Six spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRs) and six WKY rats successfully implanted telemetry were used as experimental group, while six SHRs and six Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats of comparable age, weight and BP free from implantation surgery were used as normal control group...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Otavio Cabral-Marques, Gabriela Riemekasten
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of multiple autoantibodies, including those against angiotensin and endothelin receptors. Patients with SSc can develop heterogeneous clinical manifestations including microvascular damage, the dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and generalized fibrosis of multiple organs. Autoantibodies against angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) and endothelin-1 type A receptor (ETAR) play important roles in the pathogenesis of SSc...
July 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
Vanesa Daniela Ramseyer, Pablo A Ortiz, Oscar A Carretero, Jeffrey L Garvin
In thick ascending limbs (THALs) NO decreases NaCl reabsorption via cGMP-mediated inhibition of Na/K/2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2). In angiotensin (Ang II)-induced hypertension, endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced NO production by THALs is impaired. However, whether this alters NO's natriuretic effects and the mechanisms involved are unknown. In other cell types, Ang II augments phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5)-mediated cGMP degradation. We hypothesized that NO-mediated inhibition of NKCC2 activity and stimulation of cGMP synthesis are blunted via PDE5 in Ang II-induced hypertension...
February 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Judith Rademacher, Angela Kill, Kathrin Mattat, Duska Dragun, Elise Siegert, Jeannine Günther, Gabriela Riemekasten
OBJECTIVE: To assess monocytic expression and ratio of angiotensin and endothelin receptors in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and their functional relevance. METHODS: Receptor expression was measured by flow cytometry. Chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) concentration in supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with immunoglobulin G was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Monocytes of patients with SSc presented an increased angiotensin II Type 1 receptor (AT1R)/AT2R ratio compared with those of healthy donors...
March 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
Sören Otto, Andreas Deussen, Birgit Zatschler, Bianca Müller, Anja Neisser, Kathrin Barth, Henning Morawietz, Irakli Kopaliani
AIMS: Aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for progression of cardiovascular diseases. Degradation of elastic fibres in aorta due to angiotensin II (ANGII)-stimulated overactivation of latent membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1MMP) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is regarded to represent an important cause of aortic stiffness. Therefore, clarification of the causal mechanisms triggering the overactivation of these MMPs is of utmost importance. This study addresses the endothelium as a novel key activator of latent pro-MT1MMP and pro-MMP2 in rat aorta...
March 1, 2016: Cardiovascular Research
Linmao Lyu, Hui Wang, Bin Li, Qingyun Qin, Lei Qi, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Joseph S Janicki, Xing Li Wang, Taixing Cui
Chronic activation of the myocardial renin angiotensin system (RAS) elevates the local level of angiotensin II (Ang II) thereby inducing pathological cardiac hypertrophy, which contributes to heart failure. However, the precise underlying mechanisms have not been fully delineated. Herein we report a novel paracrine mechanism between cardiac fibroblasts (CF)s and cardiomyocytes whereby Ang II induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy. In cultured CFs, Ang II treatment enhanced exosome release via the activation of Ang II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R), whereas lipopolysaccharide, insulin, endothelin (ET)-1, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)1 or hydrogen peroxide did not...
December 2015: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Renna Luo, Weiru Zhang, Cheng Zhao, Yujin Zhang, Hongyu Wu, Jianping Jin, Wenzheng Zhang, Almut Grenz, Holger K Eltzschig, Lijian Tao, Rodney E Kellems, Yang Xia
Hypertensive chronic kidney disease is one of the most prevalent medical conditions with high morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. However, early events initiating the progression to hypertensive chronic kidney disease are poorly understood. We hypothesized that elevated endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a common early insult triggering initial glomerular injury leading to hypertensive chronic kidney disease. To test our hypothesis, we used an angiotensin II infusion model of hypertensive chronic kidney disease to determine the specific cell type and mechanisms responsible for elevation of HIF-1α and its role in the progression of hypertensive chronic kidney disease...
July 2015: Hypertension
F J Villarreal, N N Kim
The cardiac fibroblast is numerically the most abundant cell in the myocardium and is responsible for the deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The cardiac ECM is a hierarchical, three-dimensional network in the heart, of which fibrillar collagens types I and III are the major structural components. Normal and pathological deposition of fibrillar collagen in the heart appears to rely on the regulation of ECM components such as fibronectin. Many humoral mediators have been noted to modulate the function of cardiac fibroblasts...
May 1998: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Liming Yu, Guang Yang, Xinyu Weng, Peng Liang, Luyang Li, Jianfei Li, Zhiwen Fan, Wenfang Tian, Xiaoyan Wu, Huihui Xu, Minming Fang, Yong Ji, Yuehua Li, Qi Chen, Yong Xu
OBJECTIVE: Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor derived from vascular endothelium. Elevated endothelin-1 levels are observed in a host of cardiovascular pathologies including cardiomyopathy. The epigenetic mechanism responsible for endothelin-1 induction in these pathological processes remains elusive. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We report here that induction of endothelin-1 expression in endothelial cells by angiotensin II (Ang II) was accompanied by the accumulation of histone H3K4 trimethylation, a preeminent histone modification for transcriptional activation, on the endothelin-1 promoter...
May 2015: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Sheng Jun An, Pei Liu, Tie Mei Shao, Zhi Jun Wang, Hai Gang Lu, Zhan Jiao, Xue Li, Jun Qiu Fu
BACKGROUND: Adventitial fibroblasts have been shown to play an important role in vascular remodeling and contribute to neointimal formation in vascular diseases. However, little is known about adventitial fibroblast subpopulations. This study explored the process of isolating rat thoracic aorta adventitial fibroblast subpopulations and characterized their properties following stimulation with angiotensin II (ANG II), a critical factor involved in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xinyu Weng, Liming Yu, Peng Liang, Luyang Li, Xin Dai, Bisheng Zhou, Xiaoyan Wu, Huihui Xu, Mingming Fang, Qi Chen, Yong Xu
Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in part by stimulating endothelin (ET-1) transcription. The involvement of the epigenetic machinery in this process is largely undefined. In the present study, we examined the epigenetic maneuvering underlying cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis following ET-1 transactivation by Ang II. In response to Ang II stimulation, core components of the mammalian chromatin remodeling complex (Brahma-related gene 1, or Brg1, and Brahma or Brm) and histone H3K4 methylation complex (Ash2, absent, small, or homeotic discs 2, or Ash2 and WD domain repeat 5, or Wdr5) were recruited to the ET-1 promoter region in endothelial cells...
May 2015: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
W-W Chen, X-Q Xiong, Q Chen, Y-H Li, Y-M Kang, G-Q Zhu
Persistent excessive sympathetic activation greatly contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF) and hypertension. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is a sympathoexcitatory reflex with positive feedback characteristics. Humoral factors such as bradykinin, adenosine and reactive oxygen species produced in myocardium due to myocardial ischaemia stimulate cardiac sympathetic afferents and thereby reflexly increase sympathetic activity and blood pressure. The CSAR is enhanced in myocardial ischaemia, CHF and hypertension...
April 2015: Acta Physiologica
M Cecilia Ortiz-Capisano
Renin is the rate-limiting step in the production of angiotensin II: a critical element in the regulation of blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Renin release from the juxtaglomerular (JG) cell is stimulated by the second messenger cAMP and inhibited by increases in calcium (Ca). Endothelins (ETs) inhibit renin release in a Ca-dependent manner. JG cells contain multiple isoforms of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) Ca-permeable channels. The proposed hypothesis is that endothelin inhibits renin release by activating TRPC store-operated Ca channels...
December 1, 2014: Physiological Reports
Xinyu Weng, Liming Yu, Peng Liang, Dewei Chen, Xian Cheng, Yuyu Yang, Luyang Li, Ting Zhang, Bisheng Zhou, Xiaoyan Wu, Huihui Xu, Mingming Fang, Yuqi Gao, Qi Chen, Yong Xu
Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates endothelin (ET-1) transcription, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. We have previously reported that myocardin related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) is indispensable for ET-1 transcription in vascular endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions, indicating that MRTF-A might mediate Ang II-induced pathological hypertrophy. Here we report that Ang II augmented the expression of MRTF-A in cultured endothelial cells and in the lungs of mice with cardiac hypertrophy...
March 2015: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Mike O Becker, Angela Kill, Marissa Kutsche, Jeannine Guenther, Angelika Rose, Christoph Tabeling, Martin Witzenrath, Anja A Kühl, Harald Heidecke, Hossein A Ghofrani, Henning Tiede, Ralph T Schermuly, Nils Nickel, Marius M Hoeper, Ivo Lukitsch, Maik Gollasch, Wolfgang M Kuebler, Sebastian Bock, Gerd R Burmester, Duska Dragun, Gabriela Riemekasten
RATIONALE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) portends worse outcome than other forms of PAH. Vasoconstrictive and vascular remodeling actions of endothelin (ET) 1 and angiotensin (Ang) II via endothelin receptor type A (ETAR) and Ang receptor type-1 (AT1R) activation are implicated in PAH pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that stimulating autoantibodies (Abs) targeting and activating AT1R and ETAR may contribute to SSc-PAH pathogenesis, and tested their functional and biomarker relevance...
October 1, 2014: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Kedra Wallace, Krystal Chatman, Justin Porter, Jeremy Scott, Venessia Johnson, Janae Moseley, Babbette LaMarca
OBJECTIVE: To determine a role for endothelin (ET) in progression of uterine fibroids. DESIGN: An in vitro model of fibroid and myometrium cultivation. PATIENTS: A total of 32 women undergoing hysterectomies for uterine fibroids and 11 women undergoing hysterectomies for abnormal uterine bleeding (control population). RESULTS: Women with uterine fibroids were hypertensive and displayed significantly greater circulating ET-1 compared to control patients...
September 2014: Reproductive Sciences
Anke C Fender, Goran Pavic, Grant R Drummond, Gregory J Dusting, Rebecca H Ritchie
Activators of protease-activated receptors PAR-1 and PAR-2 such as thrombin and synthetic hexapeptides promote hypertrophy of isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes at pathological concentrations. Since PAR-activating proteases often show dual actions at low vs. high concentrations, the potential hypertrophic effects of low-level PAR activation were examined. In H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the hypertrophic marker atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was significantly increased only by higher concentrations of thrombin, trypsin or the synthetic PAR-2 agonist SLIGRL...
October 2014: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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