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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933056/characterization-of-three-novel-sxt-r391-integrating-conjugative-elements-icemfuind1a-and-icemfuind1b-and-icemprchn1-identified-in-the-genomes-of-marinomonas-fungiae-jcm-18476-t-and-marinomonas-profundimaris-strain-d104
#1
Jhasketan Badhai, Subrata K Das
The genus Marinomonas comprises Gram negative bacteria which are widespread in the marine environment and there is no report on the genomic analysis of SXT/R391 ICEs derived from this group of bacteria. This study describes the genomic features of three new SXT/R391 integrating conjugating elements (ICEs) identified in the genome of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476(T) (ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b) and in Marinomonas profundimaris strain D104 (ICEMprChn1). Structural organizations of the three ICEs were similar to the typical SXT/R391 family of ICEs and showed high degree of conservation in the core genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931793/in-vitro-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-a-hollow-fibre-infection-model
#2
Rachel L Soon, Justin R Lenhard, Zackery P Bulman, Patricia N Holden, Pamela Kelchlin, Judith N Steenbergen, Lawrence V Friedrich, Alan Forrest, Brian T Tsuji
The proliferation of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has been exacerbated by a lack of novel agents in current development by pharmaceutical companies. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. In the present study, the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against four isogenic Escherichia coli strains was investigated in a hollow-fibre infection model simulating various clinical dosing regimens...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931690/evaluation-of-the-genotype-mtbdrplus-assay-for-detection-of-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-central-ethiopia
#3
Zufan Bedewi Omer, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen, Adane Worku, Aboma Zewde, Girmay Medhin, Temesgen Mohammed, Rembert Pieper, Gobena Ameni
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is growing globally and becoming a major challenge for national TB control programs. Therefore, rapid identification of MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and monitoring their transmission could contribute significantly to the control of TB. The GenoType MTBDRplus assay has been recommended by the World Health Organization to identify rifampicin (RIF)- and isoniazid (INH)-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus assay for the detection of RIF- and INH-resistant M...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931688/antimycobacterial-mechanism-of-vanillin-involves-disruption-of-cell-surface-integrity-virulence-attributes-and-iron-homeostasis
#4
Sharda Sharma, Rahul Pal, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat, claiming one-third of the population annually. The ever increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is the major impediment to effective anti-TB therapy. Under such circumstances, deciphering the antimycobacterial potential of natural compounds has gained considerable prominence. This study evaluated the antimycobacterial activity of vanillin (Van), a natural food-flavoring agent and preservative, along with its potential mechanisms of action...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931682/fluoroquinolone-consumption-and-resistance-trends-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-other-respiratory-pathogens-ecological-antibiotic-pressure-and-consequences-in-pakistan-2009-2015
#5
S Shakoor, S Tahseen, K Jabeen, R Fatima, F R Malik, A H Rizvi, R Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important anti-tuberculous drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. Resistance to FQs leads to fewer options for treatment of tuberculosis (TB), and infection with such strains may also require longer treatment duration. Trends of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are indicators of MTB-resistance evolution. Drivers of such resistance need to be understood and studied to inform preventive strategies...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931630/infectious-complications-in-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-and-their-prevention
#6
REVIEW
Julia Kovaleva
Gastrointestinal endoscopes are medical devices that have been associated with outbreaks of health care-associated infections. Because of the severity and limited treatment options of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considerable attention has been paid to detection and prevention of these post-endoscopic outbreaks. Endoscope reprocessing involves cleaning, high-level disinfection/sterilization followed by rinsing and drying before storage. Failure of the decontamination process implies the risk of settlement of biofilm producing species in endoscope channels...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931345/factors-associated-with-sputum-culture-conversion-in-multidrug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#7
B Velayutham, D Nair, T Kannan, C Padmapriyadarsini, K S Sachdeva, J Bency, J S Klinton, S Haldar, A Khanna, S Jayasankar, S Swaminathan
INTRODUCTION: Sputum culture conversion in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is important to make treatment-related decisions and prevent transmission of disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with sputum culture conversion, and to determine time to culture conversion and the impact of culture conversion on successful treatment outcomes in MDR-/rifampicin (RMP) resistant TB. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of data from treatment cards and registers of MDR-/RMP-resistant patients initiated on treatment under India's Revised National TB Control Programme in Delhi, West Bengal and Kerala from January 2009 to December 2011...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931149/chrysosplenetin-inhibits-artemisinin-efflux-in-p-gp-over-expressing-caco-2-cells-and-reverses-p-gp-mdr1-mrna-up-regulated-expression-induced-by-artemisinin-in-mouse-small-intestine
#8
Liping Ma, Shijie Wei, Bei Yang, Wei Ma, Xiuli Wu, Hongyan Ji, Hong Sui, Jing Chen
CONTEXT: CYP3A4 and P-gp together form a highly efficient barrier for orally absorbed drugs and always share the same substrates. Our previous work revealed that chrysosplenetin (CHR) significantly augmented the rat plasma level and anti-malarial efficacy of artemisinin (ART), partially due to the uncompetitive inhibition effect of CHR on rat CYP3A. But the impact of CHR on P-gp is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates whether CHR interferes with P-gp-mediated efflux of ART and elucidates the underlying mechanism...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930826/a-molecular-epidemiological-study-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-environmental-contamination-in-railway-stations-and-coach-stations-in-guangzhou-of-china
#9
J L Lin, Y Peng, Q T Ou, D L Lin, Y Li, X H Ye, J L Zhou, Z J Yao
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused a series of public health problems since it was first found in 1961. However, there are few research studies on the MRSA environmental contamination in railway stations and coach stations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine MRSA environmental contamination in public transport stations. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 380 surface samples from three railway stations (180) and four coach stations (200) in Guangzhou were collected to isolate and determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococci strains...
December 8, 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929354/differences-in-mrsa-prevalence-and-resistance-patterns-in-a-tertiary-center-before-and-after-joining-an-international-program-for-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#10
Olivera Djuric, Snezana Jovanovic, Branka Stosovic, Tanja Tosic, Milica Jovanovic, Naomi Nartey, Jovana Todorovic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia...
December 8, 2016: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928966/hot-topics-in-perioperative-antibiotics-for-cataract-surgery
#11
Patrycja Kuklo, Andrzej Grzybowski, Stephen G Schwartz, Harry W Flynn, Avinash Pathengay
BACKGROUND: Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of cataract surgery. Since there are relatively few randomized clinical trials comparing the timing and administration of prophylactic antibiotics, there are wide variations in prevention practices around the world. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Antibiotics may be used before surgery, during surgery, or after surgery in an attempt to decrease the rates of endophthalmitis...
December 7, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928075/detecting-mutations-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-pyrazinamidase-gene-pnca-to-improve-infection-control-and-decrease-drug-resistance-rates-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfection
#12
Matthew Z Dudley, Patricia Sheen, Robert H Gilman, Eduardo Ticona, Jon S Friedland, Daniela E Kirwan, Luz Caviedes, Richard Rodriguez, Lilia Z Cabrera, Jorge Coronel, Louis Grandjean, David A J Moore, Carlton A Evans, Luz Huaroto, Víctor Chávez-Pérez, Mirko Zimic
Hospital infection control measures are crucial to tuberculosis (TB) control strategies within settings caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, as these patients are at heightened risk of developing TB. Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a potent drug that effectively sterilizes persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. However, PZA resistance associated with mutations in the nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase coding gene, pncA, is increasing. A total of 794 patient isolates obtained from four sites in Lima, Peru, underwent spoligotyping and drug resistance testing...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928074/plasmodium-falciparum-resistance-to-artemisinin-derivatives-and-piperaquine-a-major-challenge-for-malaria-elimination-in-cambodia
#13
REVIEW
Valentine Duru, Benoit Witkowski, Didier Ménard
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the cornerstone of current strategies for fighting malaria. Over the last decade, ACTs have played a major role in decreasing malaria burden. However, this progress is being jeopardized by the emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Artemisinin resistance was first detected in western Cambodia in 2008 and has since been observed in neighboring countries in southeast Asia. The problem of antimalarial drug resistance has recently worsened in Cambodia, with reports of parasites resistant to piperaquine, the latest generation of partner drug used in combination with dihydroartemisinin, leading to worrying rates of clinical treatment failure...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927822/clinical-implications-of-the-global-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-epidemic
#14
Kartik Kumar, Ibrahim Abubakar
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is a significant threat to global health estimated to account for nearly half a million new cases and over 200,000 deaths in 2013. The number of MDR TB cases in the UK has risen over the last 15 years, with ever more complex clinical cases and associated challenging public health and societal implications. In this review, we provide an overview of the epidemiology of MDR TB globally and in the UK, outline the clinical management of MDR TB and summarise recent advances in diagnostics and prospects for new treatment...
December 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927087/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-new-zealand-a-current-perspective
#15
L J Toombs-Ruane, J Benschop, S Burgess, P Priest, D R Murdoch, N P French
In this article we review mechanisms and potential transmission pathways of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, with an emphasis on extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production. This provides background to better understand challenges presented by this important group of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and inform measures aimed at prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance in general. Humans and animals interact at various levels; household pets cohabit with humans, and other animals interact with people through direct contact, as well as through the food chain and the environment...
December 7, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926430/insights-in-waste-management-bioprocesses-using-genomic-tools
#16
H J Purohit, A Kapley, A Khardenavis, A Qureshi, N A Dafale
Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending on the environmental conditions, these communities select the appropriate partners so as to maintain the desired functional capacities...
2016: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925266/marine-mollusk-derived-agents-with-antiproliferative-activity-as-promising-anticancer-agents-to-overcome-chemotherapy-resistance
#17
REVIEW
Maria Letizia Ciavatta, Florence Lefranc, Marianna Carbone, Ernesto Mollo, Margherita Gavagnin, Tania Betancourt, Ramesh Dasari, Alexander Kornienko, Robert Kiss
The chemical investigation of marine mollusks has led to the isolation of a wide variety of bioactive metabolites, which evolved in marine organisms as favorable adaptations to survive in different environments. Most of them are derived from food sources, but they can be also biosynthesized de novo by the mollusks themselves, or produced by symbionts. Consequently, the isolated compounds cannot be strictly considered as "chemotaxonomic markers" for the different molluscan species. However, the chemical investigation of this phylum has provided many compounds of interest as potential anticancer drugs that assume particular importance in the light of the growing literature on cancer biology and chemotherapy...
December 7, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925198/cancer-cell-plasticity-rapid-reversal-of-chemosensitivity-and-expression-of-stemness-markers-in-lung-and-breast-cancer-tumorspheres
#18
Juan Sebastian Yakisich, Neelam Azad, Vivek Kaushik, Anand Krishnan V Iyer
In cancer cells, the reversible nature of the stemness status in terms of chemoresistance has been poorly characterized. In this study, we have simulated on cycle of environmental conditions to study such reversibility by first generating floating tumorspheres (FTs) from lung and breast cancer cells by culturing them in serum-free media without the addition of any external mitogenic stimulation, and subsequently (after two weeks) re-incubating them back in serum-containing media to simulate routine culture conditions (RCCs)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924809/global-molecular-epidemiology-and-genetic-diversity-of-fusarium-a-significant-emerging-group-of-human-opportunists-from-1958-to-2015
#19
Abdullah Ms Al-Hatmi, Ferry Hagen, Steph Bj Menken, Jacques F Meis, G Sybren de Hoog
Fusarium is a rapidly emerging, multidrug-resistant genus of fungal opportunists that was first identified in 1958 and is presently recognized in numerous cases of fusariosis each year. The authors examined trends in global Fusarium distribution, clinical presentation and prevalence since 1958 with the assumption that their distributions in each region had remained unaltered. The phylogeny and epidemiology of 127 geographically diverse isolates, representing 26 Fusarium species, were evaluated using partial sequences of the RPB2 and TEF1 genes, and compared with AFLP fingerprinting data...
December 7, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924322/a-cu-ii-complex-targeting-the-translocator-protein-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antitumor-potential-and-mechanistic-insights
#20
D Montagner, B Fresch, K Browne, V Gandin, A Erxleben
A new Cu-based anticancer metallodrug which targets the translocator protein is reported. [CuBr2(TZ6)] elicits a remarkable in vitro cytotoxicity in sensitive and multidrug resistant cell lines and induces a 98% reduction of tumor mass in a murine tumor model. Target binding was studied by experimental and computational methods.
December 7, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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