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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938412/renal-metabolic-programming-is-linked-to-the-dynamic-regulation-of-a-leptin-klf15-axis-and-akt-ampk%C3%AE-signaling-in-male-offspring-of-obese-dams
#1
Philipp Kasper, Christina Vohlen, Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Ruth Janoschek, Jessica Köth, Jan Matthes, Sarah Appel, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. We therefore studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity female mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) or standard diet (SD, Co) prior to mating, during gestation and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac)...
July 27, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938123/reconstructing-prehistoric-african-population-structure
#2
Pontus Skoglund, Jessica C Thompson, Mary E Prendergast, Alissa Mittnik, Kendra Sirak, Mateja Hajdinjak, Tasneem Salie, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Alexander Peltzer, Anja Heinze, Iñigo Olalde, Matthew Ferry, Eadaoin Harney, Megan Michel, Kristin Stewardson, Jessica I Cerezo-Román, Chrissy Chiumia, Alison Crowther, Elizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu, Agness O Gidna, Katherine M Grillo, I Taneli Helenius, Garrett Hellenthal, Richard Helm, Mark Horton, Saioa López, Audax Z P Mabulla, John Parkington, Ceri Shipton, Mark G Thomas, Ruth Tibesasa, Menno Welling, Vanessa M Hayes, Douglas J Kennett, Raj Ramesar, Matthias Meyer, Svante Pääbo, Nick Patterson, Alan G Morris, Nicole Boivin, Ron Pinhasi, Johannes Krause, David Reich
We assembled genome-wide data from 16 prehistoric Africans. We show that the anciently divergent lineage that comprises the primary ancestry of the southern African San had a wider distribution in the past, contributing approximately two-thirds of the ancestry of Malawi hunter-gatherers ∼8,100-2,500 years ago and approximately one-third of the ancestry of Tanzanian hunter-gatherers ∼1,400 years ago. We document how the spread of farmers from western Africa involved complete replacement of local hunter-gatherers in some regions, and we track the spread of herders by showing that the population of a ∼3,100-year-old pastoralist from Tanzania contributed ancestry to people from northeastern to southern Africa, including a ∼1,200-year-old southern African pastoralist...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936162/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-transcription-factor-fezf2-in-the-mature-motor-cortex
#3
Alison J Clare, Hollie E Wicky, Ruth M Empson, Stephanie M Hughes
Forebrain embryonic zinc finger (Fezf2) encodes a transcription factor essential for the specification of layer 5 projection neurons (PNs) in the developing cerebral cortex. As with many developmental transcription factors, Fezf2 continues to be expressed into adulthood, suggesting it remains crucial to the maintenance of neuronal phenotypes. Despite the continued expression, a function has yet to be explored for Fezf2 in the PNs of the developed cortex. Here, we investigated the role of Fezf2 in mature neurons, using lentiviral-mediated delivery of a shRNA to conditionally knockdown the expression of Fezf2 in the mouse primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935447/prosocial-effects-of-prolactin-in-male-rats-social-recognition-social-approach-and-social-learning
#4
Mary E Donhoffner, Samar Al Saleh, Olivia Schink, Ruth I Wood
Prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OT) are pituitary hormones essential for lactation, but also promote sexual behavior. OT stimulates social behaviors, such as recognition, approach, and learning, but less is known about PRL in these behaviors. Since PRL and OT have complementary functions in reproduction, we hypothesized that PRL increases social recognition, approach, and learning. Male Long-Evans rats received ovine PRL (oPRL; 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0mg/kg), the PRL antagonist bromocriptine (0.1, 3.0 or 5.0mg/kg) or saline 20 mins before testing for recognition of familiar vs...
September 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935332/surveillance-is-important-after-surgical-excision-of-giant-fibrovascular-polyps-of-the-esophagus
#5
Andrew J Cockbain, Ruth England, Simon P L Dexter, Abeezar I Sarela
Giant fibrovascular polyps of the esophagus are rare benign tumors arising from the cervical esophagus or hypopharynx. Radiologic and endoscopic investigation may struggle to identify a stalk or to delineate the tumor as luminal or submucosal in origin. Excision is advised, although the diagnosis, and therefore the optimal operative approach, may not be apparent until the time of operation. Individual case reports describe the technical success of surgical excision but rarely include follow-up. Our case series highlights the range of approaches for surgical excision and also the importance of long-term follow-up because of the risk of recurrence and potential for airway obstruction...
October 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934926/irs-1-py612-and-akt-1-pkb-pt308-phosphorylation-and-antiinflammatory-effect-of-diindolylmethane-in-adipocytes-cocultured-with-macrophages
#6
Lopez-Vazquez Alfonso, Garcia B J Javier, Gonzalez G A Sofía, Urzua L P Ernesto, Del T A Susana, Bueno T M Ruth, Sanchez E Sergio, Munoz V J Francisco, Jave S L Felipe, Armendariz B J Socorro, Bastidas R B Estela
BACKGROUND: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, a glucosinolate naturally occurring in Brassica genus vegetables. The antiinflammatory properties of DIM through the inhibition of NF-κB, as well as its ameliorating effects on glucose tolerance and hyperglicemic states, have been described. A subclinical proinflammatory profile resultant from the interaction of adipocytes and macrophages have been reported in obesity, affecting the insulin signaling pathway, contributing to insulin resistance...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934590/the-relationship-between-the-human-genome-and-microbiome-comes-into-view
#7
Julia K Goodrich, Emily R Davenport, Andrew G Clark, Ruth E Ley
The body's microbiome, composed of microbial cells that number in the trillions, is involved in human health and disease in ways that are just starting to emerge. The microbiome is assembled at birth, develops with its host, and is greatly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and other exposures. Recently, a role for human genetic variation has emerged as also influential in accounting for interpersonal differences in microbiomes. Thus, human genes may influence health directly or by promoting a beneficial microbiome...
September 20, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934339/bacterial-toxins-offensive-defensive-or-something-else-altogether
#8
REVIEW
Justine K Rudkin, Rachel M McLoughlin, Andrew Preston, Ruth C Massey
The secretion of proteins that damage host tissue is well established as integral to the infectious processes of many bacterial pathogens. However, recent advances in our understanding of the activity of toxins suggest that the attributes we have assigned to them from early in vitro experimentation have misled us into thinking of them as merely destructive tools. Here, we will discuss the multifarious ways in which toxins contribute to the lifestyle of bacteria and, by considering their activity from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrate how this extends far beyond their ability to destroy host tissue...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934204/how-can-computation-advance-microbiome-research
#9
EDITORIAL
Ruth Nussinov, Jason A Papin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933889/codevelopment-of-well-being-and-self-esteem-in-romantic-partners-disentangling-the-effects-of-mutual-influence-and-shared-environment
#10
Ulrich Orth, Ruth Yasemin Erol, Thomas Ledermann, Alexander Grob
Common sense suggests that romantic partners tend to be interdependent in their well-being and self-esteem. The authors tested the degree to which codevelopment in romantic partners (i.e., development in similar directions) is due to mutual influence between partners or due to the effects of shared environment, using longitudinal data from 5 samples of couples (N = 4,116 participants). The samples included dating, cohabiting, and married couples, with a broad age range covering young adulthood to old age. The authors used a longitudinal version of the actor-partner interdependence model and examined measures of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, and depression) and self-esteem...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933678/medicine-madness-and-murderers-the-context-of-english-forensic-psychiatric-hospitals
#11
Ruth McDonald, Vivek Furtado, Birgit Völlm
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of context by shedding light on the relationship between context and organisational actors' abilities to resolve ongoing challenges. Design/methodology/approach The authors used qualitative data collection (interviews and focus groups with staff and site visits to English forensic psychiatry hospitals) and the analysis was informed by Lefebvre's writings on space. Findings Responses to ongoing challenges were both constrained and facilitated by the context, which was negotiated and co-produced by the actors involved...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933032/the-effect-of-dumping-on-weight-loss-in-conversion-of-failed-restrictive-surgery-a-cross-sectional-pilot-study
#12
Ruth Van Looveren, Yannick Mandeville, Pieter Logghe, Katrien Vandendriessche, Xander Verbeke, Patrick Vuylsteke, Paul Pattyn, Bart Smet
PURPOSE: Dumping is currently seen as a negative side effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, it may help patients to comply with their prescribed diet. In this study, we assess the role of dumping on weight loss in patients who have undergone conversion of failed restrictive surgery into RYGB. METHODS: An analysis was performed of 100 consecutive patients who underwent revisional RYGB (rRYGB) between 2006 and 2011 due to inadequate weight loss or band intolerance after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)...
September 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932966/regorafenib-in-advanced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc-considerations-for-treatment
#13
Kyung Kim, Reena Jha, Petra A Prins, Hongkun Wang, Monica Chacha, Marion L Hartley, Aiwu Ruth He
PURPOSE: We report our institutional observations of ten patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (seven and three were Child-Pugh class A and B, respectively) who received compassionate regorafenib therapy between June 2016 and January 2017. These patients did not fit the rigid criteria of a clinical trial and represented the use of regorafenib in an everyday clinic situation. METHODS: Regorafenib (160 mg P.O. daily) was administered to patients on a 4-week cycle (3 weeks on, 1 week off) until disease progression (assessed using mRECIST criteria) or discontinuation secondary to toxicity (assessed using CTCAE criteria)...
September 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931580/the-biosocial-genome-interdisciplinary-perspectives-on-environmental-epigenetics-health-and-society
#14
Ruth Müller, Clare Hanson, Mark Hanson, Michael Penkler, Georgia Samaras, Luca Chiapperino, John Dupré, Martha Kenney, Christopher Kuzawa, Joanna Latimer, Stephanie Lloyd, Astrid Lunkes, Molly Macdonald, Maurizio Meloni, Brigitte Nerlich, Francesco Panese, Martyn Pickersgill, Sarah Richardson, Joëlle Rüegg, Sigrid Schmitz, Aleksandra Stelmach, Paula-Irene Villa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 20, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931448/further-stabilization-and-even-decrease-in-the-prevalence-rates-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-german-children-and-adolescents-from-2005-to-2015-a-cross-sectional-and-trend-analysis
#15
Annette Keß, Ulrike Spielau, Christoph Beger, Ruth Gausche, Mandy Vogel, Tobias Lipek, Antje Körner, Roland Pfäffle, Wieland Kiess
OBJECTIVE: Recently several industrialized countries reported a stabilization or even a decrease in childhood overweight and obesity prevalence rates. In Germany, this trend started in 2004. The present study therefore aimed to evaluate whether this trend has continued or even leads in a clear direction. Design/Setting/Subjects BMI (>90th percentile (overweight), >97th percentile (obesity)) from the CrescNet database was analysed in 326 834 children and adolescents according to three age groups (4-7·99, 8-11·99 and 12-16 years), gender and between time points (2005-2015)...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931436/structural-analysis-of-health-relevant-policy-making-information-exchange-networks-in-canada
#16
Damien Contandriopoulos, François Benoît, Denise Bryant-Lukosius, Annie Carrier, Nancy Carter, Raisa Deber, Arnaud Duhoux, Trisha Greenhalgh, Catherine Larouche, Bernard-Simon Leclerc, Adrian Levy, Ruth Martin-Misener, Katerina Maximova, Kimberlyn McGrail, Candace Nykiforuk, Noralou Roos, Robert Schwartz, Thomas W Valente, Sabrina Wong, Evert Lindquist, Carolyn Pullen, Anne Lardeux, Melanie Perroux
BACKGROUND: Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework...
September 20, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931315/the-liver-toxicity-knowledge-base-lktb-and-drug-induced-liver-injury-dili-classification-for-assessment-of-human-liver-injury
#17
Shraddha Thakkar, Weida Tong, Minjun Chen, Hong Fang, Zhichao Liu, Ruth Roberts
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is challenging drug development, clinical practice and regulation. The Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base (LTKB) provides essential data for DILI study. Areas Covered: The LTKB provided various types of data that can be used to assess and predict DILI. Among much information available, several reference drug lists with annotated human DILI risk are of important. The LTKB DILI classification data include DILI severity concern determined by the FDA drug labeling, DILI severity score from the NIH LiverTox database, and other DILI classification schemes from the literature...
September 21, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931140/infection-with-echinostoma-sp-in-a-group-of-travellers-to-lake-tanganyika-tanzania-in-january-2017
#18
Ruth N Chunge, Charles N Chunge
A small group of travellers became infected with Echinostoma sp. after ingesting raw fish which they caught in Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, in January 2017. The infection was diagnosed by finding the characteristic eggs in stool samples collected over a 2-week period following their return to Kenya. Echinostoma is a genus of parasitic flukes normally known to infect humans in southeast Asia and the Far East. This appears to be the first report of echinostomiasis in East Africa which can be attributed clearly to ingestion of locally caught raw fish...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930940/the-relationship-between-women-s-intention-to-request-a-labor-epidural-analgesia-actually-delivering-with-labor-epidural-analgesia-and-postpartum-depression-at-6-weeks-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Sharon Orbach-Zinger, Ruth Landau, Avi Ben Harousch, Oren Ovad, Liron Caspi, Evgeniya Kornilov, Alexander Ioscovich, Danielle Bracco, Atara Davis, Shlomo Fireman, Moshe Hoshen, Leonid A Eidelman
BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with pain during and after delivery, with studies showing reduced rates among women delivering with labor epidural analgesia (LEA). We hypothesized that women who intend to deliver with LEA but do not receive it are at higher risk for PPD at 6 weeks due to the combined experience of untreated labor pain and unmatched expectations during labor, and evaluated the interaction between labor plans related to LEA, satisfaction with pain control when actually delivering with LEA, and PPD at 6 weeks after delivery...
September 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930062/single-motherhood-alcohol-dependence-and-smoking-during-pregnancy-a-propensity-score-analysis
#20
Mary Waldron, Kathleen K Bucholz, Min Lian, Christina N Lessov-Schlaggar, Ruth Huang Miller, Michael T Lynskey, Valerie S Knopik, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath
OBJECTIVE: Few studies linking single motherhood and maternal smoking during pregnancy consider correlated risk from problem substance use beyond history of smoking and concurrent use of alcohol. In the present study, we used propensity score methods to examine whether the risk of smoking during pregnancy associated with single motherhood is the result of potential confounders, including alcohol dependence. METHOD: Data were drawn from mothers participating in a birth cohort study of their female like-sex twin offspring (n = 257 African ancestry; n = 1,711 European or other ancestry)...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
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