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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351425/source-of-dietary-sucrose-influences-development-of-leptin-resistance-in-male-and-female-rats
#1
Ruth B S Harris
Male rats offered 30% sucrose solution in addition to chow develop leptin resistance without increasing energy intake or body fat. Here we tested whether the leptin resistance was dependent upon the physical form of the sucrose. Sprague Dawley rats were offered a sucrose-free diet (NS), a 66.6% energy as sucrose diet (HS), or NS diet and 30% sucrose solution (LS). Sucrose intake of LS rats equaled that of HS rats, but total carbohydrate intake exceeded that of HS rats. After 33 days male and female LS rats were resistant to the inhibitory effect of peripherally administered leptin on food intake...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349755/adjuvant-endocrine-therapy
#2
Rena Shah, Ruth M O'Regan
The use of hormonal therapy in breast cancer has improved the overall outcome for patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive disease. The choice of hormone therapy is related to multiple factors, including menopausal state, patient preference, and potential side effects. Molecular profiling has allowed therapy to be tailored for an individual patient to some extent. However, further molecular studies are needed to individualize the choice and length of adjuvant hormone therapy. Ongoing studies are evaluating the role of additional targeted therapies, such as CDK4/6 inhibitors, to further improve outcome for patients with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349114/evaluation-of-a-new-venous-catheter-blood-draw-device-and-its-impact-on-specimen-hemolysis-rates
#3
Ruth Natali, Cara Wand, Kelly Doyle, Jaime H Noguez
Objectives: Blood collections from peripheral intravenous catheters offer several benefits to patients, including reduced needle punctures and patient discomfort, but they risk reducing the quality of blood specimens analyzed by the laboratory. In an effort to balance analytical quality of test results with patient-centered care initiatives, a needle-less blood collection device called PIVO™ was evaluated at two institutions. The primary objective of this study was to assess the ability of the PIVO™ device to provide high-quality blood specimens for laboratory testing compared to current blood collection methods...
March 2018: Practical Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348681/impact-of-a-five-dimensional-framework-on-r-d-productivity-at-astrazeneca
#4
REVIEW
Paul Morgan, Dean G Brown, Simon Lennard, Mark J Anderton, J Carl Barrett, Ulf Eriksson, Mark Fidock, Bengt Hamrén, Anthony Johnson, Ruth E March, James Matcham, Jerome Mettetal, David J Nicholls, Stefan Platz, Steve Rees, Michael A Snowden, Menelas N Pangalos
In 2011, AstraZeneca embarked on a major revision of its research and development (R&D) strategy with the aim of improving R&D productivity, which was below industry averages in 2005-2010. A cornerstone of the revised strategy was to focus decision-making on five technical determinants (the right target, right tissue, right safety, right patient and right commercial potential). In this article, we describe the progress made using this '5R framework' in the hope that our experience could be useful to other companies tackling R&D productivity issues...
January 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348603/comprehensive-list-of-sumo-targets-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-its-implication-for-evolutionary-conservation-of-sumo-signaling
#5
Krzysztof Drabikowski, Jacqueline Ferralli, Michal Kistowski, Jacek Oledzki, Michal Dadlez, Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann
Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a key regulator of cell physiology, modulating protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Recently, SUMO modifications were postulated to be involved in response to various stress stimuli. We aimed to identify the near complete set of proteins modified by SUMO and the dynamics of the modification in stress conditions in the higher eukaryote, Caenorhabditis elegans. We identified 874 proteins modified by SUMO in the worm. We have analyzed the SUMO modification in stress conditions including heat shock, DNA damage, arsenite induced cellular stress, ER and osmotic stress...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348479/prime-boost-vaccination-with-recombinant-protein-and-adenovirus-vector-expressing-plasmodium-vivax-circumsporozoite-protein-csp-partially-protects-mice-against-pb-pv-sporozoite-challenge
#6
Tarsila Mendes de Camargo, Elisângela Oliveira de Freitas, Alba Marina Gimenez, Luciana Chagas Lima, Karina de Almeida Caramico, Kátia Sanches Françoso, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Chiara Andolina, François Nosten, Laurent Rénia, Hildegund C J Ertl, Ruth S Nussenzweig, Victor Nussenzweig, Mauricio M Rodrigues, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval, Irene S Soares
Vaccine development against Plasmodium vivax malaria lags behind that for Plasmodium falciparum. To narrow this gap, we administered recombinant antigens based on P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP) to mice. We expressed in Pichia pastoris two chimeric proteins by merging the three central repeat regions of different CSP alleles (VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like). The first construct (yPvCSP-AllFL) contained the fused repeat regions flanked by N- and C-terminal regions. The second construct (yPvCSP-AllCT) contained the fused repeat regions and the C-terminal domain, plus RI region...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348247/scot-matkovich-keep-on-keeping-on
#7
Ruth Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#8
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347352/simple-scaling-laws-for-the-evaporation-of-droplets-pinned-on-pillars-transfer-rate-and-diffusion-limited-regimes
#9
Ruth Hernandez-Perez, José L García-Cordero, Juan V Escobar
The evaporation of droplets can give rise to a wide range of interesting phenomena in which the dynamics of the evaporation are crucial. In this work, we find simple scaling laws for the evaporation dynamics of axisymmetric droplets pinned on millimeter-sized pillars. Different laws are found depending on whether evaporation is limited by the diffusion of vapor molecules or by the transfer rate across the liquid-vapor interface. For the diffusion-limited regime, we find that a mass-loss rate equal to 3/7 of that of a free-standing evaporating droplet brings a good balance between simplicity and physical correctness...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-a-retrospective-review
#10
David S Xu, Tsinsue Chen, Randall J Hlubek, Ruth E Bristol, Kris A Smith, Francisco A Ponce, John F Kerrigan, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare lesions associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open surgery results in modest seizure control (about 50%) but has a significant associated morbidity. Radiosurgery is limited to a subset of patients due to latent therapeutic effects. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) offers a novel minimally invasive option. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single center's outcomes for the LITT treatment of HH...
January 13, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346569/controlled-antenatal-thyroid-screening-ii-effect-of-treating-maternal-sub-optimal-thyroid-function-on-child-cognition
#11
Charlotte Hales, Peter N Taylor, Sue Channon, Ruth Paradice, Kirsten McEwan, Lei Zhang, Michael Gyedu, Ameen Bakhsh, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Ilaria Muller, Mohd S Draman, John W Gregory, Colin Dayan, John H Lazarus, D Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate
Context & Objective: The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment for suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in IQ at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5-years and included children from normal-GTF mothers. Design, Setting & Participants: One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children's IQ (WISC-IV), long-term memory and motor function (NEPSY-II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346467/modification-of-the-associations-between-duration-of-oral-contraceptive-use-and-ovarian-endometrial-breast-and-colorectal-cancers
#12
Kara A Michels, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Louise A Brinton, Britton Trabert
Importance: Although oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, the influence of OC use on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. A recent Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality report identified a need to understand the consistency of OC use and cancer associations across subpopulations, including smokers and obese women. Objective: To determine whether associations between duration of OC use and risk of specific cancers were modified by lifestyle characteristics...
January 18, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346353/the-burden-of-cancer-in-25-29-year-olds-in-new-zealand-a-case-for-a-wider-adolescent-and-young-adult-age-range
#13
Kirsten R Ballantine, Victoria Utley, Heidi Watson, Michael J Sullivan, Ruth Spearing
AIMS: New Zealand currently defines the adolescent and young adult (AYA) group for cancer services as young people 12-24 years of age, while other countries favour a designation of 15-29 years. This study was undertaken to compare cancer incidence and survival among 25-29 year olds to New Zealand's younger AYA population and to assess survival for our 15-29 year population against international benchmarks. METHODS: Diagnostic and demographic information for cancer registrations between 2000 and 2009 for 25-29 year olds was obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346015/treatment-of-a-textile-effluent-by-adsorption-with-cork-granules-and-titanium-dioxide-nanomaterial
#14
Margarida Castro, Verónica Nogueira, Isabel Lopes, Maria N Vieira, Teresa Rocha-Santos, Ruth Pereira
This study aimed to explore the efficiency of two adsorbents, cork granules with different granulometry and titanium dioxide nanomaterial, in the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and toxicity from a textile effluent. The adsorption assays with cork were unsatisfactory in the removal of chemical parameters however they eliminated the acute toxicity of the raw effluent to Daphnia magna. The assay with TiO2 NM did not prove to be efficient in the removal of colour and COD even after 240 min of contact; nevertheless it also reduced the raw effluent toxicity...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346005/ethical-issues-in-social-media-research-for-public-health
#15
Ruth F Hunter, Aisling Gough, Niamh O'Kane, Gary McKeown, Aine Fitzpatrick, Tom Walker, Michelle McKinley, Mandy Lee, Frank Kee
Social media (SM) offer huge potential for public health research, serving as a vehicle for surveillance, delivery of health interventions, recruitment to trials, collection of data, and dissemination. However, the networked nature of the data means they are riddled with ethical challenges, and no clear consensus has emerged as to the ethical handling of such data. This article outlines the key ethical concerns for public health researchers using SM and discusses how these concerns might best be addressed. Key issues discussed include privacy; anonymity and confidentiality; authenticity; the rapidly changing SM environment; informed consent; recruitment, voluntary participation, and sampling; minimizing harm; and data security and management...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345395/patient-carer-and-public-involvement-in-major-system-change-in-acute-stroke-services-the-construction-of-value
#16
Christopher McKevitt, Angus I G Ramsay, Catherine Perry, Simon J Turner, Ruth Boaden, Charles D A Wolfe, Naomi J Fulop
BACKGROUND: Patient and public involvement is required where changes to care provided by the UK National Health Service are proposed. Yet involvement is characterized by ambiguity about its rationales, methods and impact. AIMS: To understand how patients and carers were involved in major system changes (MSCs) to the delivery of acute stroke care in 2 English cities, and what kinds of effects involvement was thought to produce. METHODS: Analysis of documents from both MSC projects, and retrospective in-depth interviews with 45 purposively selected individuals (providers, commissioners, third-sector employees) involved in the MSC...
January 18, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345150/an-initial-assessment-of-the-utility-of-validated-alcohol-and-drug-screening-tools-in-predicting-30-day-readmission-to-adult-general-medicine-wards
#17
Steven P Gerke, Jon D Agley, Cynthia Wilson, Ruth A Gassman, Philip Forys, David W Crabb
Previous studies have identified drug and alcohol use as risk factors for readmission using claims data, but not by using substance use screening scores. This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that prevalence of 30-day readmission would be higher among patients screening positive on the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-10) or the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) tools at intake than among the general patient population. Social workers screened 4708 adult inpatients using prescreening questions followed by the AUDIT-10 and/or DAST-10...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344577/a-practical-approach-to-using-trend-arrows-on-the-dexcom-g5-cgm-system-for-the-management-of-adults-with-diabetes
#18
Grazia Aleppo, Lori M Laffel, Andrew J Ahmann, Irl B Hirsch, Davida F Kruger, Anne Peters, Ruth S Weinstock, Dennis R Harris
After reviewing previously published methods, we developed a practical approach to adjusting insulin doses based on insulin sensitivity for adult patients with diabetes using rtCGM trend arrow data.
December 1, 2017: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344429/pathway-analysis-of-gene-expression-of-e14-versus-e18-fetal-fibroblasts
#19
Michael S Hu, Mimi R Borrelli, Michael Januszyk, Anna Luan, Samir Malhotra, Graham G Walmsley, Wan Xing Hong, Ruth Tevlin, Geoffrey C Gurtner, Michael T Longaker, Hermann P Lorenz
Objective: Fetuses early in gestation heal skin wounds without forming scars. The biological mechanisms behind this process are largely unknown. Fibroblasts, however, are cells known to be intimately involved in wound healing and scar formation. We examined fibroblasts in different stages of development to characterize differences in gene expression that may result in the switch from regenerative wound repair to repair with scarring. Approach: Fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from the back skin of BALB/c wild-type mouse fetuses at embryonic day (E)14 and E18 (n = 10)...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344105/optimal-duration-of-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-how-to-apply-the-newest-data
#20
REVIEW
Kerstin Wimmer, Stephanie Strobl, Michael Bolliger, Yelena Devyatko, Belgin Korkmaz, Ruth Exner, Florian Fitzal, Michael Gnant
Background: The benefit of 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) is beyond discussion. Nevertheless, the risk of recurrence of luminal BC persists for 15 years or more after diagnosis. Consequently, approaches of extended adjuvant therapy have been investigated in large clinical trials, with the ultimate aim of further reducing the risk of recurrence in patients with HR+ BC. Methods: A review of recently published trial data is presented to provide a solid basis for discussion...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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