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Wee Loon Ong, Lester Nazareth, Benjamin Hindson, Bronwyn Matheson, Jeremy L Millar
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to review the long-term oncological outcomes and adverse effects of post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) for Stage I/II seminoma patients in an Australian radiation treatment centre. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 125 patients with Stage I/II seminoma treated with PORT at the Alfred Health Radiation Oncology Service between 1992 and 2013. Patients were linked to the Victorian Cancer Registry to enable confirmation of survival and diagnosis of secondary malignancies (SM)...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Belinda Sheary
BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroid (TCS) withdrawal (addiction) is a potential complication of TCS treatment, particularly where there has been an inappropriate long-term use of moderate-to-potent TCS on the face or genital area. TCS addiction and withdrawal is increasingly being discussed in social and mainstream media; however, it has received little attention in medical publications. Australian general practitioners (GPs) may come into contact with patients who have read material or watched videos about this condition...
June 2016: Australian Family Physician
Trung-Kien Tran, Qiang-Qiang Han, Yixin Shi, Lin Guo
In pathogenic bacteria, the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play important roles in signal transduction and regulation of their pathogenesis. Here, we used quantitative proteomic methods to comparatively analyze functional networks under the control of the RstA/RstB system versus the PhoP/PhoQ system in Salmonella typhimurium. By comparing the proteomic profile from a wild-type strain to that from a ΔrstB strain or a ΔphoPQ strain under a condition known to activate these TCSs, we found that the levels of 159 proteins representing 6...
September 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yu L Sasunov, M L Khodachenko, I I Alexeev, E S Belenkaya, E I Gordeev, I V Kubyshkin
The influence of average plasma energy E~ on the half thickness ℓ of a thin current sheet (TCS) is investigated for three cases of TCSs crossings. The value of ℓ was estimated from the magnetic field data by means of Cluster observations. The obtained scaling values for TCSs, Z~=ℓ/ρT, where ρ T is the thermal Larmor radius, were compared with the scaling Zμ=22E~/T, where E~ and T are the average plasma energy and the temperature of plasma, which assumes a specific dynamics (conservation of magnetic flux through the trajectory segment) of the current carriers...
November 28, 2015: Geophysical Research Letters
Özden Erhan Sofuoğlu, Anas Abdallah, Erhan Emel, Ali Ender Ofluoğlu, Müslüm Güneş, Betül Güler
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in adults is rarely diagnosed as well as it is a complex clinicopathological entity that remains poorly understood. In this study, clinical outcomes of 23 consecutive congenital TCSs diagnosed in adults have been evaluated to establish a standard approach to treat congenital TCS diagnosed in adults. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed in 73 cases of tethered cord syndrome whom underwent surgery in our hospital, between the years 2005 and 2014...
October 2, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
Thibaut Boibessot, Christopher P Zschiedrich, Alexandre Lebeau, David Bénimèlis, Catherine Dunyach-Rémy, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Hendrik Szurmant, Zohra Benfodda, Patrick Meffre
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria emphasizes the urgent need for novel antibacterial compounds targeting unique cellular processes. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are commonly used by bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses, are absent in mammals, and are embedded in various pathogenic pathways. To attenuate these signaling pathways, we aimed to target the TCS signal transducer histidine kinase (HK) by focusing on their highly conserved adenosine triphosphate-binding domain...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
J Onofre, Y Baert, K Faes, E Goossens
BACKGROUND: Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans...
August 27, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Ichiro Tatsuno, Kaoru Arii, Takeshi Zendo, Yuichi Oogai, Kazuyuki Noguchi, Tadao Hasegawa, Kenji Sonomoto, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
UNLABELLED: Two-component systems (TCSs) are regulatory systems in bacteria that play important roles in sensing and adapting to the environment. In this study, we systematically evaluated the roles of TCSs in the susceptibility of the group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) SF370 strain to several types of lantibiotics. Using individual TCS deletion mutants, we found that the deletion of srtRK (spy_1081-spy_1082) in SF370 increased the susceptibility to nisin A, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454, but susceptibility to other types of lantibiotics (nukacin ISK-1, produced by Staphylococcus warneri, and staphylococcin C55, produced by Staphylococcus aureus) was not altered in the TCS mutants tested...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yuichi Oogai, Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen and a commensal bacterial species that is found in humans. Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) sense and respond to environmental stresses, which include antimicrobial agents produced by other bacteria. In this study, we analyzed the relation between the TCS SrrAB and susceptibility to the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is produced by Streptococcus sanguinis, which is a commensal oral streptococcus. An srrA-inactivated S. aureus mutant demonstrated low susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S...
2016: PloS One
Monisha Gopalani, Alisha Dhiman, Amit Rahi, Divya Kandari, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Two component systems (TCSs) can be envisaged as complex molecular devices that help the bacteria to sense its environment and respond aptly. 41 TCSs are predicted in Bacillus anthracis, a potential bioterrorism agent, of which only four have been studied so far. Thus, the intricate signaling network contributed by TCSs remains largely unmapped in B. anthracis and needs comprehensive exploration. In this study, we functionally characterized one such system composed of BAS0540 (Response regulator) and BAS0541 (Histidine kinase)...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan M Burgos, Michael P Schmitt
UNLABELLED: Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes heme and hemoglobin (Hb) as iron sources for growth in low-iron environments. In C. diphtheriae, the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) ChrSA and HrrSA are responsive to Hb levels and regulate the transcription of promoters for hmuO, hrtAB, and hemA ChrSA and HrrSA activate transcription at the hmuO promoter and repress transcription at hemA in an Hb-dependent manner. In this study, we show that HrrSA is the predominant repressor at hemA and that its activity results in transcriptional repression in the presence and absence of Hb, whereas repression of hemA by ChrSA is primarily responsive to Hb...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Stephani C Page, Robert M Immormino, Thane H Miller, Robert B Bourret
UNLABELLED: Plants and microorganisms use two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to mediate responses to environmental stimuli. TCSs mediate responses through phosphotransfer from a conserved histidine on a sensor kinase to a conserved aspartate on the receiver domain of a response regulator. Typically, signal termination occurs through dephosphorylation of the receiver domain, which can catalyze its own dephosphorylation. Despite strong structural conservation between receiver domains, reported autodephosphorylation rate constants (kdephos) span a millionfold range...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Joseph S Boyd, Ryan R Cheng, Mark L Paddock, Cigdem Sancar, Faruck Morcos, Susan S Golden
UNLABELLED: Two-component systems (TCS) that employ histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR) are critical mediators of cellular signaling in bacteria. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, TCSs control global rhythms of transcription that reflect an integration of time information from the circadian clock with a variety of cellular and environmental inputs. The HK CikA and the SasA/RpaA TCS transduce time information from the circadian oscillator to modulate downstream cellular processes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Andry Andriamananjara, Lilia Rabeharisoa, Loïc Prud'homme, Christian Morel
Urban sewage sludge is a potential source of phosphorus (P) for agriculture and represents an alternative way to recycle P as fertilizer. However, the use of thermally conditioned sewage sludge (TCSS) required an accurate assessment of its value as P-fertilizer. This work aimed at assessing the plant-availability of P from TCSS. Uptake of P by a mixture of ryegrass and fescue from TCSS and triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers was studied using (32)P-labeling technique in a greenhouse experiment. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 50 mg P kg(-1)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Altan Kara, Martin Vickers, Martin Swain, David E Whitworth, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes
MOTIVATION: Two-component systems (TCS) are the main signalling pathways of prokaryotes, and control a wide range of biological phenomena. Their functioning depends on interactions between TCS proteins, the specificity of which is poorly understood. RESULTS: The MetaPred2CS web-server interfaces a sequence-based meta-predictor specifically designed to predict pairing of the histidine kinase and response-regulator proteins forming TCSs. MetaPred2CS integrates six sequence-based methods using a support vector machine classifier and has been intensively tested under different benchmarking conditions: (i) species specific gene sets; (ii) neighbouring versus orphan pairs; and (iii) k-fold cross validation on experimentally validated datasets...
July 4, 2016: Bioinformatics
Adrian F Alvarez, Carlos Barba-Ostria, Hortencia Silva-Jiménez, Dimitris Georgellis
Two-component system (TCS) signaling circuits regulate numerous cellular processes in response to environmental cues in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. These signaling circuits are all based on phosphoryl-group transfers between histidine and aspartate containing modules of sensor kinase and response regulator proteins. Curiously, the architecture and organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic two-component systems reveal notable variations, raising the question of whether the input-response specificity that governs the majority of prokaryotic TCSs also governs the eukaryotic ones...
May 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Srijon Kaushik Banerjee, Manish Kumar, Reshma Alokam, Arun Kumar Sharma, Ayan Chatterjee, Ranjeet Kumar, Sanjaya Kumar Sahu, Kuladip Jana, Ramandeep Singh, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
The genome of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes eleven paired two component systems (TCSs) consisting of a sensor kinase (SK) and a response regulator (RR). The SKs sense environmental signals triggering RR-dependent gene expression pathways that enable the bacterium to adapt in the host milieu. We demonstrate that a conserved motif present in the C-terminal domain regulates the DNA binding functions of the OmpR family of Mtb RRs. Molecular docking studies against this motif helped to identify two molecules with a thiazolidine scaffold capable of targeting multiple RRs, and modulating their regulons to attenuate bacterial replication in macrophages...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jonathan I Silverberg, Diane B Nelson, Gil Yosipovitch
Atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting children and adults, presents as mild-to-moderate disease in the majority of patients. Pruritus, one of the key diagnostic criteria for AD, is associated with reduced quality of life and disease aggravation. Current treatments include emollients and topical pharmaceutical agents. Topical corticosteroids (TCSs) are commonly used, but are associated with safety concerns with cutaneous and systemic side effects. Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) inhibit T-lymphocyte activation, but their use is limited because of application-site infections and a boxed warning for potential malignancy risk...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Ruchi Agrawal, Bikash Kumar Sahoo, Deepak Kumar Saini
Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are composed of two proteins, sensor kinases and response regulators, which can cross-talk and integrate information between them by virtue of high-sequence conservation and modular nature, to generate concerted and diversified responses. However, TCSs have been shown to be insulated, to facilitate linear signal transmission and response generation. Here, we discuss various mechanisms that confer specificity or cross-talk among TCSs. The presented models are supported with evidence that indicate the physiological significance of the observed TCS signaling architecture...
May 2016: Future Microbiology
Prabha Ramakrishnan, Jeffrey J Tabor
We have previously engineered green/red and red/far red photoreversible E. coli phytochrome and cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) two-component systems (TCSs) and utilized them to program tailor-made gene expression signals for gene circuit characterization. Here, we transport the UV-violet/green photoreversible CBCR TCS UirS-UirR from Synechocystis PCC6803 to E. coli. We demonstrate that the promoter of the small RNA csiR1, previously shown to be activated by inorganic carbon stress, is a UirS-UirR output. Additionally, in contrast to a recently proposed sequestration model, we show that the sensor histidine kinase UirS phosphorylates the response regulator UirR to activate PcsiR1 transcription in response to UV-violet light...
July 15, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
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