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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216643/emerging-treatment-options-in-atopic-dermatitis-topical-therapies
#1
Uffe Nygaard, Mette Deleuran, Christian Vestergaard
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting children and adults, with the majority presenting mild to moderate disease severity. The use of topical corticosteroids (TCSs) in combination with emollients has been the mainstay for treating mild to moderate atopic dermatitis since the 1950s, and as a supplement to systemic treatment in severe disease. However, while very effective, TCSs are often accompanied by poor adherence due to corticophobia (fear of using corticosteroids in patients or doctors), unwanted side effects, and in some cases insufficient clinical response...
December 8, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209465/two-component-signal-transduction-systems-in-oral-bacteria
#2
REVIEW
Renata O Mattos-Graner, Margaret J Duncan
We present an overview of how members of the oral microbiota respond to their environment by regulating gene expression through two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to support conditions compatible with homeostasis in oral biofilms or drive the equilibrium toward dysbiosis in response to environmental changes. Using studies on the sub-gingival Gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis and Gram-positive streptococci as examples, we focus on the molecular mechanisms involved in activation of TCS and species specificities of TCS regulons...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182512/global-mapping-of-mtra-binding-sites-links-mtra-to-regulation-of-its-targets-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Ayan Chatterjee, Arun Kumar Sharma, Amar Chandra Mahatha, Srijon Kaushik Banerjee, Manish Kumar, Sudipto Saha, Joyoti Basu, Manikuntala Kundu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs two-component systems (TCSs) for survival within its host. The TCS MtrAB is conserved among mycobacteria. The response regulator MtrA is essential in M. tuberculosis. The genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing performed in this study suggested that MtrA binds upstream of at least 45 genes of M. tuberculosis, including those involved in cell wall remodelling, stress responses, persistence and regulation of transcription. It binds to the promoter regions and regulates the peptidoglycan hydrolases rpfA and rpfC, which are required for resuscitation from dormancy...
November 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164075/disruption-of-two-component-system-lytsr-affects-forespore-engulfment-in-bacillus-thuringiensis
#4
Qi Peng, Jianbo Wu, Xiaomin Chen, Lili Qiu, Jie Zhang, Hongtao Tian, Fuping Song
Two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play pivotal roles in bacteria sensing many different stimuli from environment. Here, we investigated the role of the LytSR TCS in spore formation in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki HD73. lacZ gene fusions revealed that the transcription of the downstream genes, lrgAB, encoding two putative membrane-associated proteins, is regulated by LytSR. The sporulation efficiency of a lytSR mutant was significantly lower than that of wild-type HD73. A confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that LytSR modulates the process of forespore engulfment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163430/pdtas-deficiency-affects-resistance-of-mycobacteria-to-ribosome-targeting-antibiotics
#5
Karolina Dadura, Renata Płocińska, Anna Rumijowska-Galewicz, Przemysław Płociński, Anna Żaczek, Bożena Dziadek, Andrzej Zaborowski, Jarosław Dziadek
Two-component regulatory systems (TCSSs) are key regulatory elements responsible for the adaptation of bacteria to environmental stresses. A classical TCSS is typically comprised of a sensory histidine kinase and a corresponding response regulator. Here, we used homologous recombination to construct a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant defective in the synthesis of cytosolic histidine kinase PdtaS (Msmeg_1918). The resulting ΔpdtaS mutant strain was tested in the Phenotype Microarray screening system, which allowed us to identify aminoglycoside antibiotic sensitivity, tetracyclines antibiotic resistance as well as membrane transport and respiration, as the main processes affected by removal of pdtaS...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137247/the-influence-of-marital-status-on-survival-in-patients-with-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Wei Sun, Zeting Qiu, Wulin Tan, Zhongqi Liu, Zhongxing Wang, Wenqi Huang, Minghui Cao
Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in several cancers. However related researches of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) are still rare. We explored the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and finally identified 14,194 patients with OTSCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression models were used to distinguish risk factors for overall survival (OS) and tumor cause-specific survival (TCSS). Widowed patients had the highest percentage of female, highest average ages and more prevalence with localized SEER Stage significantly, while patients in the single group were younger than other groups...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098331/essential-two-component-systems-regulating-cell-envelope-functions-opportunities-for-novel-antibiotic-therapies
#7
Silvia T Cardona, Matthew Choy, Andrew M Hogan
Novel therapies are urgently needed to alleviate the current crisis of multiple drug-resistant infections. The bacterial signal transduction mechanisms, known as two-component systems (TCSs), are ideal targets of novel inhibitory molecules. Highly restricted to the bacterial world, TCSs control a diverse set of cellular functions, namely virulence, response to cell envelope stress, and drug efflux. Impaired regulation of any of these aspects could affect the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics, which highlights the potential of TCS as targets of antibiotic adjuvant therapies...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067003/two-component-signal-transduction-systems-of-pathogenic-bacteria-as-targets-for-antimicrobial-therapy-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Sandeep Tiwari, Syed B Jamal, Syed S Hassan, Paulo V S D Carvalho, Sintia Almeida, Debmalya Barh, Preetam Ghosh, Artur Silva, Thiago L P Castro, Vasco Azevedo
The bacterial communities in a wide range of environmental niches sense and respond to numerous external stimuli for their survival. Primarily, a source they require to follow up this communication is the two-component signal transduction system (TCS), which typically comprises a sensor Histidine kinase for receiving external input signals and a response regulator that conveys a proper change in the bacterial cell physiology. For numerous reasons, TCSs have ascended as convincing targets for antibacterial drug design...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039505/characterization-of-acid%C3%A2-tolerance%C3%A2-associated-small-rnas-in-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-mutans-potential-biomarkers-for-caries-prevention
#9
Wenhui Zhu, Shanshan Liu, Peilin Zhuang, Jia Liu, Yan Wang, Huancai Lin
Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic bacterium that contributes to dental caries due to its ability to produce lactic acid, which acidifies the local environment. The potential of S. mutans to respond to environmental stress and tolerate low pH is essential for its survival and predominance in caries lesions. Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) have been reported to be involved in bacterial stress and virulence. Few studies have investigated the sRNAs of S. mutans and the function of these sRNAs remains to be elucidated...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038258/a-single-cell-view-of-the-btssr-ypdab-pyruvate-sensing-network-in-escherichia-coli-and-its-biological-relevance
#10
Cláudia Vilhena, Eugen Kaganovitch, Jae Yen Shin, Alexander Grünberger, Stefan Behr, Ivica Kristoficova, Sophie Brameyer, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Kirsten Jung
Fluctuating environments and individual physiological diversity force bacteria to constantly adapt and optimize the uptake of substrates. Here we focus on two very similar two-component systems (TCSs) of Escherichia coli belonging to the LytS/LytTR family, BtsS/BtsR (formerly YehU/YehT) and YpdA/YpdB. Both TCSs respond to extracellular pyruvate, albeit with different affinity, typically during post-exponential growth, and each system regulates expression of a single transporter gene, yjiY and yhjX, respectively...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994408/conformational-dynamics-of-the-essential-sensor-histidine-kinase-walk
#11
Yongfei Cai, Mingyang Su, Ashfaq Ahmad, Xiaojie Hu, Jiayan Sang, Lingyuan Kong, Xingqiang Chen, Chen Wang, Jianwei Shuai, Aidong Han
Two-component systems (TCSs) are key elements in bacterial signal transduction in response to environmental stresses. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases (SKs) and their cognate response regulators (RRs). Many SKs exhibit autokinase, phosphoryltransferase and phosphatase activities, which regulate RR activity through a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cycle. However, how SKs perform different enzymatic activities is poorly understood. Here, several crystal structures of the minimal catalytic region of WalK, an essential SK from Lactobacillus plantarum that shares 60% sequence identity with its homologue VicK from Streptococcus mutans, are presented...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882470/an-observational-study-of-vitamin-b12-levels-and-peripheral-neuropathy-profile-in-patients-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-metformin-therapy
#12
Kamesh Gupta, Anand Jain, Anurag Rohatgi
METHODS: A descriptive, observational study was completed in a tertiary care hospital between November 2014 and March 2016. Fifty consecutive patients of Type 2-Diabetes Mellitus who had been on metformin therapy for at least three months were included in our study. Several Parameters were compared with vitamin B12 levels and severity of peripheral neuropathy (using Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) and Nerve Conduction Velocity). These included the duration of diabetes, duration of metformin usage, dietary history, and HbA1c levels...
August 25, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868633/a-5-year-randomized-trial-on-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-pimecrolimus-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-critical-appraisal
#13
S Weidinger, H Baurecht, J Schmitt
AIM: The PETITE study (Sigurgeirsson et al.) aimed to compare safety and efficacy of pimecrolimus 1% cream (PIM) and low-to-medium-potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) in children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis (AD). SETTING AND DESIGN: Participants of this 5-year drug-company sponsored multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial were recruited between April 2004 and October 2005. No details are reported regarding the study sites. STUDY EXPOSURE: Infants aged ≥ 3 to < 12 months with mild-to-moderate AD were randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 ratio to receive either PIM or a low- or medium-potency TCS cream/ointment for 5 years...
September 4, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826769/prevention-of-oprd-regulated-antibiotic-resistance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm
#14
Raavi, Swechha Mishra, Sangeeta Singh
In P.aeruginosa biofilms, the issue of antibiotic resistance is of particular importance due to increasing number of infections being reported in medical implants. The current study is focused on CzcR and CopR proteins which are part of two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) - CzcR-CzcS and CopR-CopS respectively in P.aeruginosa. They both negatively regulate OprD porin expression which affects the intake of antibiotics like carbapenems. These two proteins can be treated as targets to combat antibiotic resistance in P...
August 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802899/a-species-dependent-response-to-the-pro-epileptic-drug-pentylentetrazole-in-birds
#15
Faiq Amin, Asim H Dar, Khan Osama, Faezah Khan, Rida Mitha, Arsal Tharwani, Ghulam Haider, Prem Chand, Fazal M Arain
Epilepsy is common disorder that affects over 50 million people worldwide. Birds remain a promising yet largely under-explored model of epilepsy. This study reports the comparison of the response of two species of birds, Australian Parrots (APs) and Sparrows (SPs), to a pro-epileptic drug, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PTZ injections caused myoclonic jerks (MCJs) and tonic clonic seizures (TCSs) in both species. The frequency of MCJs in APs was greater at the dose of 75mg/kg compared to both 50mg/kg and 25mg/kg while it was not significantly different in SPs...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794569/cortisol-homeostasis-in-the-epidermis-is-influenced-by-topical-corticosteroids-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#16
Mototsugu Fukaya
BACKGROUND: The skin produces cortisol by itself and regulates its own proliferation and differentiation. There is a possibility that topical corticosteroids (TCSs) influence the cortisol homeostasis in the skin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The author described the density and distribution of cortisol and its parties in the epidermis after application of topical steroids immunohistologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The forearm skin was biopsied before and after 2 weeks' application of clobetasol propionate 0...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789855/a-new-method-for-stabilizing-the-columellar-strut-used-in-rhinoplasty-the-trans-septal-columellar-stabilizing-suture
#17
Jae Yong Jeong, Hyeokjae Kwon, Yibo Piao, Sang-Ha Oh
PURPOSE: Minimal deformity or instability after columellar strut graft (CSG) placement can be solved by placing a suture between the columella strut and the caudal septum, such as a medial crura anchor suture or a projection control suture. However, this is very tedious. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A trans-septal columellar stabilizing suture (TCSS) was developed for the management of final tip projection and location and increasing stability after CSG placement. RESULTS: Tip projection and rotation could be carefully controlled by changing the position of the TCSS...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743208/bacterial-signal-transduction-networks-via-connectors-and-development-of-the-inhibitors-as-alternative-antibiotics
#18
REVIEW
Ryutaro Utsumi
Bacterial cells possess a signal transduction system that differs from those described in higher organisms, including human cells. These so-called two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) consist of a sensor (histidine kinase, HK) and a response regulator, and are involved in cellular functions, such as virulence, drug resistance, biofilm formation, cell wall synthesis, cell division. They are conserved in bacteria across all species. Although TCSs are often studied and characterized individually, they are assumed to interact with each other and form signal transduction networks within the cell...
September 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736523/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rhubarb-water-extracts-inhibit-streptococcus-suis-biofilm-formation
#19
Wen-Ya Ding, Yan-Hua Li, He Lian, Xiao-Yu Ai, Yu-Lin Zhao, Yan-Bei Yang, Qiang Han, Xin Liu, Xue-Ying Chen, Zhonggui He
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important swine pathogens, which can cause persistent infection by forming biofilms. In this study, sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of rhubarb water extracts were found to inhibit biofilm formation. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), transcriptional regulators, and DNA binding proteins were compared under two conditions: (1) cells treated with sub-MIC rhubarb water extracts and (2) untreated cells. Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) strategy, we found that TCSs constituent proteins of histidine kinase and response regulator were significantly down-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726051/serum-methylmalonic-acid-correlates-with-neuropathic-pain-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park, Pan-Woo Ko, Kyunghun Kang, Ho-Won Lee
Recent studies have shown a relatively higher prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The hypothesis is that prolonged levodopa exposure causes vitamin B12 deficiency, which leads to peripheral neuropathy. The aim of our study was to find the relationship between vitamin B12 and its precursor methylmalonic acid (MMA) in IPD patients with neuropathic pain. We performed a cross-sectional study by enrolling consecutive 43 patients who were clinically tested positive for F-18 FP-CIT PET and 15 patients were diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy according to the Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS)...
July 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
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