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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802899/a-species-dependent-response-to-the-pro-epileptic-drug-pentylentetrazole-in-birds
#1
Faiq Amin, Asim H Dar, Khan Osama, Faezah Khan, Rida Mitha, Arsal Tharwani, Ghulam Haider, Prem Chand, Fazal M Arain
Epilepsy is common disorder that affects over 50 million people worldwide. Birds remain a promising yet largely under-explored model of epilepsy. This study reports the comparison of the response of two species of birds, Australian Parrots (APs) and Sparrows (SPs), to a pro-epileptic drug, Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). PTZ injections caused myoclonic jerks (MCJs) and tonic clonic seizures (TCSs) in both species. The frequency of MCJs in APs was greater at the dose of 75mg/kg compared to both 50mg/kg and 25mg/kg while it was not significantly different in SPs...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794569/cortisol-homeostasis-in-the-epidermis-is-influenced-by-topical-corticosteroids-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#2
Mototsugu Fukaya
BACKGROUND: The skin produces cortisol by itself and regulates its own proliferation and differentiation. There is a possibility that topical corticosteroids (TCSs) influence the cortisol homeostasis in the skin. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The author described the density and distribution of cortisol and its parties in the epidermis after application of topical steroids immunohistologically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The forearm skin was biopsied before and after 2 weeks' application of clobetasol propionate 0...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789855/a-new-method-for-stabilizing-the-columellar-strut-used-in-rhinoplasty-the-trans-septal-columellar-stabilizing-suture
#3
Jae Yong Jeong, Hyeokjae Kwon, Yibo Piao, Sang-Ha Oh
PURPOSE: Minimal deformity or instability after columellar strut graft (CSG) placement can be solved by placing a suture between the columella strut and the caudal septum, such as a medial crura anchor suture or a projection control suture. However, this is very tedious. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A trans-septal columellar stabilizing suture (TCSS) was developed for the management of final tip projection and location and increasing stability after CSG placement. RESULTS: Tip projection and rotation could be carefully controlled by changing the position of the TCSS...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743208/bacterial-signal-transduction-networks-via-connectors-and-development-of-the-inhibitors-as-alternative-antibiotics
#4
Ryutaro Utsumi
Bacterial cells possess a signal transduction system that differs from those described in higher organisms, including human cells. These so-called two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) consist of a sensor (histidine kinase, HK) and a response regulator, and are involved in cellular functions, such as virulence, drug resistance, biofilm formation, cell wall synthesis, cell division. They are conserved in bacteria across all species. Although TCSs are often studied and characterized individually, they are assumed to interact with each other and form signal transduction networks within the cell...
September 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736523/sub-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-of-rhubarb-water-extracts-inhibit-streptococcus-suis-biofilm-formation
#5
Wen-Ya Ding, Yan-Hua Li, He Lian, Xiao-Yu Ai, Yu-Lin Zhao, Yan-Bei Yang, Qiang Han, Xin Liu, Xue-Ying Chen, Zhonggui He
Streptococcus suis is one of the most important swine pathogens, which can cause persistent infection by forming biofilms. In this study, sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of rhubarb water extracts were found to inhibit biofilm formation. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), transcriptional regulators, and DNA binding proteins were compared under two conditions: (1) cells treated with sub-MIC rhubarb water extracts and (2) untreated cells. Using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) strategy, we found that TCSs constituent proteins of histidine kinase and response regulator were significantly down-regulated...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726051/serum-methylmalonic-acid-correlates-with-neuropathic-pain-in-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park, Pan-Woo Ko, Kyunghun Kang, Ho-Won Lee
Recent studies have shown a relatively higher prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The hypothesis is that prolonged levodopa exposure causes vitamin B12 deficiency, which leads to peripheral neuropathy. The aim of our study was to find the relationship between vitamin B12 and its precursor methylmalonic acid (MMA) in IPD patients with neuropathic pain. We performed a cross-sectional study by enrolling consecutive 43 patients who were clinically tested positive for F-18 FP-CIT PET and 15 patients were diagnosed with peripheral neuropathy according to the Toronto clinical scoring system (TCSS)...
July 19, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725299/role-of-streptococcus-mutans-two-component-systems-in-antimicrobial-peptide-resistance-in-the-oral-cavity
#7
REVIEW
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Approximately 100 trillion microorganisms exist in the oral cavity. For the commensal bacteria of the oral cavity, it is important to adapt to environmental stimuli, including human- or bacteria-derived antimicrobial agents. Recently, bacterial-specific signal transduction regulatory systems, called two-component systems (TCSs), which appear to be focused on sensing and adapting to the environment, were discovered. Streptococcus mutans is an oral commensal bacteria and is also known as a cariogenic bacteria...
August 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724128/topical-corticosteroid-phobia-in-atopic-dermatitis-a-systematic-review
#8
Alvin W Li, Emily S Yin, Richard J Antaya
Importance: Topical corticosteroid (TCS) phobia refers to the negative feelings and beliefs related to TCSs experienced by patients and patients' caregivers. This phenomenon may be a major contributing factor in treatment failure in patients with atopic dermatitis, yet it has been sparsely described in the literature. Objective: To systematically assess the nomenclature, prevalence, origins, and effect on treatment adherence of TCS phobia in atopic dermatitis. Evidence Review: A literature search was conducted using specific eligibility criteria across electronic databases, including Ovid (MEDLINE, EMBASE), PubMed, and Web of Science, for articles published from January 1, 1946, to October 31, 2016...
July 19, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677390/quantitative-proteomics-reveals-potential-crosstalk-between-a-small-rna-coar-and-a-two-component-regulator-slr1037-in-synechocystis-sp-pcc6803
#9
Tao Sun, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) and two-component systems (TCSs) were two vital regulatory mechanisms employed by microorganisms to respond to environmental changes and stresses. As a promising "autotrophic cell factory", photosynthetic cyanobacteria have attracted a lot of attention these years. Although most studies focused on studying the roles of sRNAs or TCS regulators in stress response in photosynthetic cyanobacteria, limited work has elucidated their potential crosstalk. Our previous work has identified a negative sRNA regulator CoaR and a positive response regulator Slr1037 both related to 1-butanol stress regulation in Synechocystis sp...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674072/counterbalancing-regulation-in-response-memory-of-a-positively-autoregulated-two-component-system
#10
Rong Gao, Katherine A Godfrey, Mahir A Sufian, Ann M Stock
Fluctuations in nutrient availability often result in recurrent exposures to the same stimulus condition. The ability to memorize the past event and use the "memory" to make adjustments to current behaviors can lead to more efficient adaptation to the recurring stimulus. A short-term phenotypic memory can be conferred via carry-over of the response proteins to facilitate the recurrent response but the additional accumulation of response proteins can lead to deviation from response homeostasis. We used the Escherichia coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS) as a model system to study how cells cope with the recurrence of Pi starvation conditions...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663824/towards-the-complete-proteinaceous-regulome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#11
Leila G Casella, Andy Weiss, Ernesto Pérez-Rueda, J Antonio Ibarra, Lindsey N Shaw
The emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii strains, with broad multidrug-resistance phenotypes and novel virulence factors unique to hypervirulent strains, presents a major threat to human health worldwide. Although a number of studies have described virulence-affecting entities for this organism, very few have identified regulatory elements controlling their expression. Previously, our group has documented the global identification and curation of regulatory RNAs in A. baumannii. As such, in the present study, we detail an extension of this work, the performance of an extensive bioinformatic analysis to identify regulatory proteins in the recently annotated genome of the highly virulent AB5075 strain...
March 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657425/the-regulatory-network-controlling-ethanol-induced-expression-of-alcohol-dehydrogenase-in-the-endophyte-azoarcus-sp-strain-bh72
#12
Andrea Krause, Henrike Julich, Manasee Mankar, Barbara Reinhold-Hurek
The habitat of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is grass roots grown under waterlogged conditions that produce, under these conditions, ethanol. Strain BH72 is well equipped to metabolize ethanol, with eight alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), of which ExaA2 and ExaA3 are the most relevant ones. exaA2 and exaA3 cluster and are surrounded by genes encoding two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) termed ExaS-ExaR and ElmS-GacA. Functional genomic analyses revealed that i) expression of the corresponding genes was induced by ethanol, ii) the genes were also expressed in the rhizoplane or even inside of rice roots, iii) both TCSs were indispensable for growth on ethanol, and iv) they were important for competitiveness during rice root colonization...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636983/the-influence-of-marital-status-on-survival-in-patients-with-oral-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Wei Sun, Zeting Qiu, Wulin Tan, Zhongqi Liu, Zhongxing Wang, Wenqi Huang, Minghui Cao
Marital status was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival in several cancers. However related researches of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) are still rare. We explored the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and finally identified 14,194 patients with OTSCC. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression models were used to distinguish risk factors for overall survival (OS) and tumor cause-specific survival (TCSS). Widowed patients had the highest percentage of female, highest average ages and more prevalence with localized SEER Stage significantly, while patients in the single group were younger than other groups...
June 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607158/the-two-component-signal-transduction-system-vxrab-positively-regulates-vibrio-cholerae-biofilm-formation
#14
Jennifer K Teschler, Andrew T Cheng, Fitnat H Yildiz
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and encodes for 52 RR genes. Using in frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm-genes in V...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544098/crystal-structure-of-the-sensor-domain-of-baes-from-serratia-marcescens-fs14
#15
Ya Zhang, Shenshen Qiu, Shanshan Jia, Dongqing Xu, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang
The sensor histidine kinases of two-component signal-transduction systems (TCSs) are essential for bacteria to adapt to variable environmental conditions. The two-component regulatory system BaeS/R increases multidrug and metal resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In this study, we report the X-ray structure of the periplasmic sensor domain of BaeS from Serratia marcescens FS14. The BaeS sensor domain (34-160) adopts a mixed α/β-fold containing a central four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet flanked by a long N-terminal α-helix and additional loops and a short C-terminal α-helix on each side...
May 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536675/an-overview-of-two-component-signal-transduction-systems-implicated-in-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-e-coli-infections
#16
REVIEW
Erin J Breland, Allison R Eberly, Maria Hadjifrangiskou
Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC), neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC), and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512092/quantitative-kinetic-analyses-of-shutting-off-a-two-component-system
#17
Rong Gao, Ann M Stock
Cells rely on accurate control of signaling systems to adapt to environmental perturbations. System deactivation upon stimulus removal is as important as activation of signaling pathways. The two-component system (TCS) is one of the major bacterial signaling schemes. In many TCSs, phosphatase activity of the histidine kinase (HK) is believed to play an essential role in shutting off the pathway and resetting the system to the prestimulus state. Two basic challenges are to understand the dynamic behavior of system deactivation and to quantitatively evaluate the role of phosphatase activity under natural cellular conditions...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510688/two-component-systems-required-for-virulence-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Vanessa I Francis, Emma C Stevenson, Steven L Porter
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen capable of infecting a broad range of hosts, in addition to thriving in a broad range of environmental conditions outside of hosts. With this versatility comes the need to tightly regulate its genome to optimise its gene expression and behaviour to the prevailing conditions. Two-component systems (TCSs) comprising sensor kinases and response regulators play a major role in this regulation. This minireview discusses the growing number of TCSs that have been implicated in the virulence of P...
June 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461451/a-novel-two-component-system-glur-k-involved-in-glutamate-sensing-and-uptake-in-streptomyces-coelicolor
#19
Lei Li, Weihong Jiang, Yinhua Lu
Two-component systems (TCSs), the predominant signal transduction pathways employed by bacteria, play important roles in physiological metabolism in Streptomyces Here, a novel TCS GluR-K (encoded by SCO5778-5779), which is located divergently from the gluABCD operon encoding a glutamate uptake system, was identified being involved in glutamate sensing and uptake as well as antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor Under the minimal medium (MM) supplemented with different concentrations of glutamate, deletion of gluR-K resulted in enhanced ACT but reduced RED and yCPK production, suggesting GluR-K plays a differential role in antibiotic biosynthesis...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438266/physiological-role-of-two-component-signal-transduction-systems-in-food-associated-lactic-acid-bacteria
#20
Vicente Monedero, Ainhoa Revilla-Guarinos, Manuel Zúñiga
Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity, usually as transcriptional regulators. In this review we present the current knowledge on the physiological role of TCSs in species of the families Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae of the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
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