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Yajuan Han, Min Wang, Jie Shen, Zhen Zhang, Min Zhao, Jing Huang, Youming Chen, Zhi Chen, Yulan Hu, Yubing Wang
BACKGROUND: Diabetic hyperglycemia damages peripheral nerves by triggering ischemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and methylcobalamin (MC) are known to improve signs of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), possibly by enhancing neural and vascular endothelial cell metabolism and antioxidant capacity. We evaluated differences in efficacy following short-term MC or ALA treatment on DPN symptoms to guide clinical drug selection. METHODS: Forty DPN patients were randomly divided into MC and ALA treatment groups (n=20/20) and assessed by the Toronto Clinical Neuropathy Scoring System (TCSS), total symptom score (TSS), visual analog scale (VAS) of positive symptoms, and easy sensory test (EST) for negative symptoms before and after 2 weeks of treatment...
November 30, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Jenny-Lee Thomassin, Jean-Mathieu Leclerc, Natalia Giannakopoulou, Lei Zhu, Kristiana Salmon, Andrea Portt, France Daigle, Hervé Le Moual, Samantha Gruenheid
Citrobacter rodentium is a murine pathogen used to model intestinal infections caused by the human diarrheal pathogens enterohaemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli During infection bacteria use two-component systems (TCSs) to detect changing environmental cues within the host, allowing for rapid adaptation by altering the expression of specific genes. In this study, 26 TCSs were identified in C. rodentium and qPCR analysis showed that they are all expressed during murine infection. These TCSs were individually deleted and the in vitro and in vivo effects were analyzed to determine the functional consequences...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Karol Szadejko, Krzysztof Dziewiatowski, Krzysztof Szabat, Piotr Robowski, Michał Schinwelski, Emilia Sitek, Jarosław Sławek
Recently published studies show that the prevalence of polyneuropathy (PNP) is higher in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) than in age-matched controls. Its pathogenesis, however is a matter of controversy. The major hypothesis is the toxicity of high concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) possibly related to levodopa (LD) therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of PNP, independent of other etiologies, and to determine the relationship to demographic and clinical factors in LD-treated Parkinson's patients...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Katherine E Bonnington, Meta J Kuehn
: The ability of Gram-negative bacteria to carefully modulate outer membrane (OM) composition is essential to their survival. However, the asymmetric and heterogeneous structure of the Gram-negative OM poses unique challenges to the cell's successful adaption to rapid environmental transitions. Although mechanisms to recycle and degrade OM phospholipid material exist, there is no known mechanism by which to remove unfavorable lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycoforms, except slow dilution through cell growth...
October 18, 2016: MBio
Mu Li, Chen-Yang Dai, Yu-Ning Wang, Tao Chen, Long Wang, Ping Yang, Dong Xie, Rui Mao, Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Although marital status is an independent prognostic factor in many cancers, its prognostic impact on tracheal cancer has not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between marital status and survival in patients with tracheal cancer. RESULTS: Compared with unmarried patients (42.67%), married patients (57.33%) had better 5-year OS (25.64% vs. 35.89%, p = 0.009) and 5-year TCSS (44.58% vs. 58.75%, p = 0.004). Results of multivariate analysis indicated that marital status is an independent prognostic factor, with married patients showing better OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Wee Loon Ong, Lester Nazareth, Benjamin Hindson, Bronwyn Matheson, Jeremy L Millar
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study is to review the long-term oncological outcomes and adverse effects of post-operative radiotherapy (PORT) for Stage I/II seminoma patients in an Australian radiation treatment centre. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 125 patients with Stage I/II seminoma treated with PORT at the Alfred Health Radiation Oncology Service between 1992 and 2013. Patients were linked to the Victorian Cancer Registry to enable confirmation of survival and diagnosis of secondary malignancies (SM)...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Belinda Sheary
BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroid (TCS) withdrawal (addiction) is a potential complication of TCS treatment, particularly where there has been an inappropriate long-term use of moderate-to-potent TCS on the face or genital area. TCS addiction and withdrawal is increasingly being discussed in social and mainstream media; however, it has received little attention in medical publications. Australian general practitioners (GPs) may come into contact with patients who have read material or watched videos about this condition...
June 2016: Australian Family Physician
Trung-Kien Tran, Qiang-Qiang Han, Yixin Shi, Lin Guo
In pathogenic bacteria, the two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) play important roles in signal transduction and regulation of their pathogenesis. Here, we used quantitative proteomic methods to comparatively analyze functional networks under the control of the RstA/RstB system versus the PhoP/PhoQ system in Salmonella typhimurium. By comparing the proteomic profile from a wild-type strain to that from a ΔrstB strain or a ΔphoPQ strain under a condition known to activate these TCSs, we found that the levels of 159 proteins representing 6...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yu L Sasunov, M L Khodachenko, I I Alexeev, E S Belenkaya, E I Gordeev, I V Kubyshkin
The influence of average plasma energy E~ on the half thickness ℓ of a thin current sheet (TCS) is investigated for three cases of TCSs crossings. The value of ℓ was estimated from the magnetic field data by means of Cluster observations. The obtained scaling values for TCSs, Z~=ℓ/ρT, where ρ T is the thermal Larmor radius, were compared with the scaling Zμ=22E~/T, where E~ and T are the average plasma energy and the temperature of plasma, which assumes a specific dynamics (conservation of magnetic flux through the trajectory segment) of the current carriers...
November 28, 2015: Geophysical Research Letters
Özden Erhan Sofuoğlu, Anas Abdallah, Erhan Emel, Ali Ender Ofluoğlu, Müslüm Güneş, Betül Güler
OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in adults is rarely diagnosed as well as it is a complex clinicopathological entity that remains poorly understood. In this study, clinical outcomes of 23 consecutive congenital TCSs diagnosed in adults have been evaluated to establish a standard approach to treat congenital TCS diagnosed in adults. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed in 73 cases of tethered cord syndrome whom underwent surgery in our hospital, between the years 2005 and 2014...
October 2, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
Thibaut Boibessot, Christopher P Zschiedrich, Alexandre Lebeau, David Bénimèlis, Catherine Dunyach-Rémy, Jean-Philippe Lavigne, Hendrik Szurmant, Zohra Benfodda, Patrick Meffre
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria emphasizes the urgent need for novel antibacterial compounds targeting unique cellular processes. Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) are commonly used by bacteria to couple environmental stimuli to adaptive responses, are absent in mammals, and are embedded in various pathogenic pathways. To attenuate these signaling pathways, we aimed to target the TCS signal transducer histidine kinase (HK) by focusing on their highly conserved adenosine triphosphate-binding domain...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
J Onofre, Y Baert, K Faes, E Goossens
BACKGROUND: Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans...
August 27, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Ichiro Tatsuno, Kaoru Arii, Takeshi Zendo, Yuichi Oogai, Kazuyuki Noguchi, Tadao Hasegawa, Kenji Sonomoto, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
UNLABELLED: Two-component systems (TCSs) are regulatory systems in bacteria that play important roles in sensing and adapting to the environment. In this study, we systematically evaluated the roles of TCSs in the susceptibility of the group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) SF370 strain to several types of lantibiotics. Using individual TCS deletion mutants, we found that the deletion of srtRK (spy_1081-spy_1082) in SF370 increased the susceptibility to nisin A, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454, but susceptibility to other types of lantibiotics (nukacin ISK-1, produced by Staphylococcus warneri, and staphylococcin C55, produced by Staphylococcus aureus) was not altered in the TCS mutants tested...
October 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yuichi Oogai, Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen and a commensal bacterial species that is found in humans. Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) sense and respond to environmental stresses, which include antimicrobial agents produced by other bacteria. In this study, we analyzed the relation between the TCS SrrAB and susceptibility to the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) that is produced by Streptococcus sanguinis, which is a commensal oral streptococcus. An srrA-inactivated S. aureus mutant demonstrated low susceptibility to the H2O2 produced by S...
2016: PloS One
Monisha Gopalani, Alisha Dhiman, Amit Rahi, Divya Kandari, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Two component systems (TCSs) can be envisaged as complex molecular devices that help the bacteria to sense its environment and respond aptly. 41 TCSs are predicted in Bacillus anthracis, a potential bioterrorism agent, of which only four have been studied so far. Thus, the intricate signaling network contributed by TCSs remains largely unmapped in B. anthracis and needs comprehensive exploration. In this study, we functionally characterized one such system composed of BAS0540 (Response regulator) and BAS0541 (Histidine kinase)...
2016: PloS One
Jonathan M Burgos, Michael P Schmitt
UNLABELLED: Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes heme and hemoglobin (Hb) as iron sources for growth in low-iron environments. In C. diphtheriae, the two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) ChrSA and HrrSA are responsive to Hb levels and regulate the transcription of promoters for hmuO, hrtAB, and hemA ChrSA and HrrSA activate transcription at the hmuO promoter and repress transcription at hemA in an Hb-dependent manner. In this study, we show that HrrSA is the predominant repressor at hemA and that its activity results in transcriptional repression in the presence and absence of Hb, whereas repression of hemA by ChrSA is primarily responsive to Hb...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Stephani C Page, Robert M Immormino, Thane H Miller, Robert B Bourret
UNLABELLED: Plants and microorganisms use two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs) to mediate responses to environmental stimuli. TCSs mediate responses through phosphotransfer from a conserved histidine on a sensor kinase to a conserved aspartate on the receiver domain of a response regulator. Typically, signal termination occurs through dephosphorylation of the receiver domain, which can catalyze its own dephosphorylation. Despite strong structural conservation between receiver domains, reported autodephosphorylation rate constants (kdephos) span a millionfold range...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Joseph S Boyd, Ryan R Cheng, Mark L Paddock, Cigdem Sancar, Faruck Morcos, Susan S Golden
UNLABELLED: Two-component systems (TCS) that employ histidine kinases (HK) and response regulators (RR) are critical mediators of cellular signaling in bacteria. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, TCSs control global rhythms of transcription that reflect an integration of time information from the circadian clock with a variety of cellular and environmental inputs. The HK CikA and the SasA/RpaA TCS transduce time information from the circadian oscillator to modulate downstream cellular processes...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Andry Andriamananjara, Lilia Rabeharisoa, Loïc Prud'homme, Christian Morel
Urban sewage sludge is a potential source of phosphorus (P) for agriculture and represents an alternative way to recycle P as fertilizer. However, the use of thermally conditioned sewage sludge (TCSS) required an accurate assessment of its value as P-fertilizer. This work aimed at assessing the plant-availability of P from TCSS. Uptake of P by a mixture of ryegrass and fescue from TCSS and triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers was studied using (32)P-labeling technique in a greenhouse experiment. Phosphorus was applied at the rate of 50 mg P kg(-1)...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Altan Kara, Martin Vickers, Martin Swain, David E Whitworth, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes
MOTIVATION: Two-component systems (TCS) are the main signalling pathways of prokaryotes, and control a wide range of biological phenomena. Their functioning depends on interactions between TCS proteins, the specificity of which is poorly understood. RESULTS: The MetaPred2CS web-server interfaces a sequence-based meta-predictor specifically designed to predict pairing of the histidine kinase and response-regulator proteins forming TCSs. MetaPred2CS integrates six sequence-based methods using a support vector machine classifier and has been intensively tested under different benchmarking conditions: (i) species specific gene sets; (ii) neighbouring versus orphan pairs; and (iii) k-fold cross validation on experimentally validated datasets...
July 4, 2016: Bioinformatics
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