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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086952/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogues-an-efficient-therapeutic-option-for-the-severe-insulin-resistance-of-lipodystrophic-syndromes-two-case-reports
#1
Joana Oliveira, Eva Lau, Davide Carvalho, Paula Freitas
BACKGROUND: Lipodystrophic syndromes are uncommon medical conditions which are normally associated with metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver disease. These complications are generally difficult to treat, particularly diabetes, due to severe insulin resistance. We present two case reports of successful treatment of diabetes with glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues in patients with clinical features of lipodystrophic syndromes. CASE PRESENTATION: Two white women aged 49 and 60 years manifested marked central body fat deposition with severe lipoatrophy of their limbs and buttocks and pronounced acanthosis nigricans...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079250/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-safety-and-tolerability
#2
Lindsey Thompson, Erin Fecske, Mohammad Salim, Ara Hall
Drug-resistant epilepsy poses a challenge in neonatal patients, especially those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), who have various secondary comorbidities. We present results of four children with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy for whom a ketogenic diet was initiated and used in the NICU. A nonfasting induction into ketosis over 1-2 weeks was utilized, with gradual increases in the ketogenic ratio every 2-3 days. Data were collected retrospectively from a database, which included medical history, daily progress notes, relevant laboratory data, and imaging and diagnostic information...
January 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073182/over-expression-of-the-molecular-chaperone-hsp104-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-results-in-the-malpartition-of-psi-propagons
#3
Frederique Ness, Brian S Cox, Jintana Wongwigkarn, Wesley R Naeimi, Mick F Tuite
The ability of a yeast cell to propagate [PSI(+) ], the prion form of the Sup35 protein, is dependent on the molecular chaperone Hsp104. Inhibition of Hsp104 function in yeast cells leads to a failure to generate new propagons, the molecular entities necessary for [PSI(+) ] propagation in dividing cells and they get diluted out as cells multiply. Over-expression of Hsp104 also leads to [PSI(+) ] prion loss and this has been assumed to arise from the complete disaggregation of the Sup35 prion polymers. However, in conditions of Hsp104 over-expression in [PSI(+) ] cells we find no release of monomers from Sup35 polymers, no monomerisation of aggregated Sup35 which is not accounted for by the proportion of prion-free [psi(-) ] cells present, no change in the molecular weight of Sup35-containing SDS-resistant polymers and no significant decrease in average propagon numbers in the population as a whole...
January 10, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069654/reduced-chance-of-hearing-loss-associated-with-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-aminoglycosides-in-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#4
R van Altena, J A Dijkstra, M E van der Meer, J F Borjas Howard, J G W Kosterink, D van Soolingen, T S van der Werf, J W C Alffenaar
Hearing loss and nephrotoxicity are associated with prolonged treatment duration and higher dosage of amikacin and kanamycin. In our Tuberculosis Center, we have employed therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) targeting pre-set pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) surrogate endpoints in an attempt to maintain efficacy while preventing (oto-)toxicity. To evaluate this strategy, we retrospectively evaluated medical charts of TB patients treated with amikacin or kanamycin in the period 2000 - 2012.Patients with culture-confirmed multi- or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) receiving amikacin or kanamycin as part of their TB treatment for at least 3 days were eligible for inclusion in this retrospective study...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069536/m2-macrophages-infusion-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-by-remodeling-inflammatory-macrophages-homeostasis-in-obese-mice
#5
Qi Zhang, Haojie Hao, Zongyan Xie, Yu Cheng, Yaqi Yin, Min Xie, Hong Huang, Jieqing Gao, Hongyu Liu, Chuan Tong, Li Zang, Yiming Mu, Weidong Han
OBJECTIVE: The role of M2 macrophages infusion in dealing with obesity is still little known. In this study, the therapeutic effects of M2 macrophages infusion were investigated. METHODS: High fat diet (HFD) was used to induce obesity in C57BL/6N mice. 5 × 10(5) M2 macrophages, derived from the bone marrow, were injected into obese mice through the tail vein twice with an interval of one week. RESULTS: One week after the second injection, weight of inguinal adipose pad was significantly decreased...
January 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069211/effect-of-micro-particles-on-cavitation-erosion-of-ti6al4v-alloy-in-sulfuric-acid-solution
#6
D G Li, Y Long, P Liang, D R Chen
The influences of micro-particles on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1M H2SO4 solution were investigated using mass loss weight, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer. Mass loss results revealed that the cavitation erosion damage obviously decreased with increasing particle size and mass concentration. Open circuit potential recorded during cavitation erosion shifted to positive direction with the decreased mass loss. Meanwhile, the mass loss sharply decreased with applying a positive potential during the entire ultrasonic cavitation erosion, and the relationship between the open circuit potential and the cavitation erosion resistance was discussed...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069120/effect-of-repeated-cycled-crystallization-on-digestibility-and-molecular-structure-of-glutinous-bora-rice-starch
#7
Pallab Kumar Borah, Sankar Chandra Deka, Raj Kumar Duary
The effects of repeated cycled crystallization on the digestibility and molecular structure of glutinous Bora rice starch were investigated. Temperature cycle 4/45°C; cycle duration 5d; time interval of cycles 24h; and starch to water ratio 1:2 were found to be optimum for SDS (slow digestible starch) product development. The SDS content increased from 18.01±2.11% to 82.81±2.34%. An increase in the resistance to digestion, crystallinity, molecular weight, polydispersity and molecular order was observed in the optimal SDS product...
May 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064539/treating-the-binge-or-the-fat-body-representations-of-fatness-in-a-gold-standard-psychological-treatment-manual-for-binge-eating-disorder
#8
Amy Brown-Bowers, Ashley Ward, Nicole Cormier
This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention...
January 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064279/the-rs1862513-variant-in-resistin-gene-modified-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-levels-after-weight-loss-secondary-to-hypocaloric-diet
#9
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, Beatriz de la Fuente, Ines Mulero, Rocío Aller
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Polymorphisms of a single nucleotide in RETN have been associated with indexes of insulin resistance. Our aim was to analyze the effects of the rs1862513 RETN gene polymorphism on insulin resistance, insulin levels, and resistin levels changes after 3 months of a low-fat hypocaloric diet. DESIGN: A Caucasian population of 133 obese patients was analyzed before and after 3 months on a low-fat hypocaloric diet. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (42...
January 7, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064148/community-weight-loss-to-combat-obesity-and-disability-in-at-risk-older-adults
#10
W Jack Rejeski, Walter T Ambrosius, Jonathan H Burdette, Michael P Walkup, Anthony P Marsh
BACKGROUND: Among older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or the metabolic syndrome, reduced mobility and loss of leg strength are important risk factors for morbidity, disability, and mortality. It is unclear whether community-based approaches to weight loss may be an effective solution to this public health challenge. METHODS: An 18-month three-site, randomized controlled trial conducted by YMCA staff, with blinded assessors, enrolled 249 older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome with randomization to three interventions: weight loss alone (WL), weight loss + aerobic training (WL + AT), and weight loss + resistance training (WT + RT)...
January 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060600/influence-of-energy-balance-and-glycemic-index-on-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-healthy-men
#11
Nicolle Breusing, Merit Lagerpusch, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim, Manfred J Mueller, Anja Bosy-Westphal
OBJECTIVE: Overfeeding with a high-fat and/or high-carbohydrate (CHO) diet is known to increase plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) that may lead to metabolic disturbances like insulin resistance. The impact of CHO quality (i.e., the glycemic index [GI]) independent of fat intake on metabolic endotoxemia remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of changes in energy balance and GI on plasma endotoxin were studied. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young men overconsumed diets containing 65% CHO and 20% fat for 1 week (OF; +50% of energy requirement) followed by 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR; -50% of energy requirement) and were then randomized to 2 weeks hypercaloric refeeding (RF, +50% of energy requirement) with either a low- or high-GI (40 vs 74) diet...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057911/guanosine-5-monophosphate-chelated-calcium-and-iron-feed-additives-maintains-egg-production-and-prevents-salmonella-gallinarum-in-experimentally-infected-layers
#12
Hye-Ji Noh, HeeKyong Kim, Su Jeong Heo, Hyang Hyun Cho, Hong Bum Koh
We evaluated the effects of guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) -chelated calcium and iron (CaFe-GMP) on the health and egg quality in layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum. In this study, CaFe-GMP feed additives was fed with commercial layer feed to layer over four weeks and all were inoculated with Salmonella Gallinarum. Body weight, mortality, clinical symptoms, and poultry production including feed intake, egg production, egg loss, and feed conversion rate were observed and Salmonella Gallinarum was re-isolated from the liver, spleen, and cecum of the layers...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056932/in-vivo-antimalarial-activity-of-crude-extracts-and-solvent-fractions-of-leaves-of-strychnos-mitis-in-plasmodium-berghei-infected-mice
#13
Selamawit Fentahun, Eyasu Makonnen, Tesfaye Awas, Mirutse Giday
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in the world which is responsible for death of millions particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Today, the control of malaria has become gradually more complex due to the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Medicinal plants are the unquestionable source of effective antimalarials. The present study aimed to evaluate antiplasmodial activity and acute toxicity of the plant Strychnos mitis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. METHODS: Standard procedures were employed to investigate acute toxicity and 4-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and hydro-methanolic extracts of the leaves of Strychnos mitis against P...
January 5, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054295/maladaptive-eating-behaviors-and-metabolic-profile-in-patients-submitted-to-bariatric-surgery-a-longitudinal-study
#14
Mara Pinto, Eva Conceição, Isabel Brandão, Diogo Pestana, Li Cao, Filipa Arrojado, Ana Rita Vaz, Ana Pinto-Bastos
PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate relations between maladaptive eating behaviors (MEB) and metabolic profile in patients submitted to bariatric surgery. METHODS: Longitudinal study including 70 patients before (T0), in the first year after surgery assessment (T1), and the second year after surgery assessment (T2). A face-to-face clinical interview assessed MEB at T0 and T2. Blood samples were collected at T0, T1, and T2 to assess fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, insulin resistance (IR), and triglycerides (TG)...
January 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054255/evaluation-of-resistance-training-to-improve-muscular-strength-and-body-composition-in-cancer-patients-undergoing-neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-therapy-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Camila S Padilha, Poliana Camila Marinello, Daniel A Galvão, Robert U Newton, Fernando H Borges, Fernando Frajacomo, Rafael Deminice
PURPOSE: Muscle atrophy and strength decline are two of the most prominent characteristics in cancer patients undergoing cancer therapy, leading to decreased functional ability and reduced quality of life. Therefore, the aim is to systematically review research evidence of the effects of resistance exercise (RE) on lower-limb muscular strength, lean body mass (LBM), and body fat (BF) in cancer patients undertaking neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy. METHODS: This research was conducted using the following online database: Clinical Trial Register, Cochrane Trial Register, PubMed, SPORT Discus, and SciELO, from September 2014 until May 2015...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053823/global-metabolic-profiling-of-plasma-shows-that-three-year-mild-caloric-restriction-lessens-an-age-related-increase-in-sphingomyelin-and-reduces-l-leucine-and-l-phenylalanine-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#16
Minjoo Kim, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Lee
The effect of weight loss from long-term, mild-calorie diets (MCD) on plasma metabolites is unknown. This study was to examine whether MCD-induced weight reduction caused changes in the extended plasma metabolites. Overweight and obese subjects aged 40-59 years consumed a MCD (approximately 100 kcal/day deficit, n=47) or a weight-maintenance diet (control, n=47) in a randomized, controlled design with a three-year clinical intervention period and plasma samples were analyzed by using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052999/a-causal-role-for-hyperinsulinemia-in-obesity
#17
Nicole M Templeman, Søs Skovsø, Melissa M Page, Gareth E Lim, James D Johnson
Insulin modulates the biochemical pathways controlling lipid uptake, lipolysis and lipogenesis at multiple levels. Elevated insulin levels are associated with obesity, and conversely, dietary and pharmacological manipulations that reduce insulin have occasionally been reported to cause weight loss. However, the causal role of insulin hypersecretion in the development of mammalian obesity remained controversial in the absence of direct loss-of-function experiments. Here, we discuss theoretical considerations around the causal role of excess insulin and obesity, as well as recent studies employing mice that are genetically incapable of the rapid and sustained hyperinsulinemia that normally accompanies a high fat diet...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049662/gut-permeability-is-related-to-body-weight-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-individuals-undergoing-weight-reduction
#18
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034669/pioglitazone-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-reduces-weight-loss-in-walker-256-tumor-bearing-rats
#19
Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Winny Beatriz de Souza Galia, Priscila Cassolla, Maria Fernanda Rodrigues Graciano, Cassia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia, Dimas Zaia, Ângelo Rafael Carpinelli, Francemilson Goulart da Silva, Helenir Medri de Souza
AIM: The lipogenic effect of pioglitazone (PGZ), an insulin (INS) sensitizer, is well established. However, few studies have evaluated PGZ effects in preventing weight loss in cancer. We investigated PGZ effects, alone or associated with INS, on INS resistance, cachexia and metabolic abnormalities induced by Walker-256 tumor in rats MAIN METHODS: PGZ (5.0mg·kg(-1), oral) or PGZ+INS (NPH, 1.0UI·kg(-1), sc), were once-daily administered during 12days, starting on the day inoculation of Walker-256 tumor cells...
December 26, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027950/dietfits-study-diet-intervention-examining-the-factors-interacting-with-treatment-success-study-design-and-methods
#20
Michael Stanton, Jennifer Robinson, Susan Kirkpatrick, Sarah Farzinkhou, Erin Avery, Joseph Rigdon, Lisa Offringa, John Trepanowski, Michelle Hauser, Jennifer Hartle, Rise Cherin, Abby C King, John P A Ioannidis, Manisha Desai, Christopher D Gardner
Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25kg weight loss to ~5kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status...
December 24, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
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