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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731882/the-effect-on-bone-outcomes-of-home-based-exercise-intervention-for-prostate-cancer-survivors-receiving-androgen-deprivation-therapy-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Soo Hyun Kim, Do Hwan Seong, Sang Min Yoon, Young Deuk Choi, Eunju Choi, Youngkyu Song, Hosook Song
BACKGROUND: Cancer treatment-induced bone loss has important long-term effects in prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but little is known about preventive interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a 6-month home-based exercise intervention in PCSs. METHODS: In this pilot, randomized controlled trial, 51 men (mean age, 70.8 years) were randomized to a 6-month home-based exercise intervention for preventing osteoporosis group (n = 26) or an exercise placebo intervention of stretching exercise group (n = 25)...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721138/the-effect-of-orlistat-versus-metformin-on-body-composition-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-premenopausal-women-3-month-randomized-prospective-open-label-study
#2
Magdalena Kujawska-Łuczak, Katarzyna Musialik, Monika Szulińska, Ewelina Swora-Cwynar, Angelina Kargulewicz, Małgorzata Grzymisławska, Danuta Pupek-Musialik, Paweł Bogdański
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of metformin and orlistat on body composition and glucose-insulin homeostasis in obese premenopausal women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-three obese premenopausal Caucasian women aged 32.4 ±8.3 years were treated with either metformin (1000 mg/day; n = 37) or orlistat (360 mg/day; n = 36). Anthropometric parameters were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Glucose tolerance, using the oral glucose tolerance test; insulin resistance, using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR); and insulin sensitivity, using the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI Matsuda), were assessed at the commencement of the study and after 3 months...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715664/electron-transfer-mediators-accelerated-the-microbiologically-influence-corrosion-against-carbon-steel-by-nitrate-reducing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm
#3
Ru Jia, Dongqing Yang, Dake Xu, Tingyue Gu
Electron transfer is a rate-limiting step in microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) caused by microbes that utilize extracellular electrons. Cross-cell wall electron transfer is necessary to transport the electrons released from extracellular iron oxidation into the cytoplasm of cells. Electron transfer mediators were found to accelerate the MIC caused by sulfate reducing bacteria. However, there is no publication in the literature showing the effect of electron transfer mediators on MIC caused by nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB)...
June 29, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714796/effect-of-bariatric-surgery-on-heart-failure
#4
Marcela Rodriguez Flores, Carlos Aguilar Salinas, Marie-Eve Piché, Audrey Auclair, Paul Poirier
Obesity increases the risk of heart failure (HF), which continues to be a significant proportion of all cardiovascular diseases and affects increasingly younger populations. The cross-talk between adipose and the heart involves insulin resistance, adipokine signaling and inflammation, with the capacity of adipose tissue to mediate hemodynamic signals, promoting progressive cardiomyopathy. Areas covered: From a therapeutic perspective, there is not yet a single obesity-related pathway that when addressed, can ameliorate cardiomyopathy in obese patients and this is a matter of ongoing research...
July 17, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713496/effect-of-denture-cleaning-on-abrasion-resistance-and-surface-topography-of-polymerized-cad-cam-acrylic-resin-denture-base
#5
Lana Ahmed Shinawi
BACKGROUND: The application of computer-aided design computer-aided manufacturing (CAD CAM) technology in the fabrication of complete dentures, offers numerous advantages as it provides optimum fit and eliminates polymerization shrinkage of the acrylic base. Additionally, the porosity and surface roughness of CAD CAM resins is less compared to conventionally processed resins which leads to a decrease in the adhesion of bacteria on the denture base, which is associated with many conditions including halitosis and aspiration pneumonia in elderly denture wearers...
May 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711517/prevention-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Safa Anwar, Nigar Shikalgar
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age, associated with metabolic sequelae which includes increased risk factors for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The adverse effects of DM2 affects a woman throughout her lifespan. Health care expenditure of DM2 highlights the need for prevention through appropriate screening, diagnosis and intervention. Lifestyle modification (LSM) programs that include diet and/or physical activity are suggested for patients characterized as prediabetic to delay the onset of adult DM2...
July 8, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710554/morphofunctional-changes-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-very-low-calorie-diet-in-an-animal-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#7
Eider Talavera-Urquijo, Sarai Rodríguez-Navarro, Marc Beisani, Maria Teresa Salcedo-Allende, Aisha Chakkur, Marc Arús-Avilés, Manel Cremades, Salvador Augustin, María Martell, José M Balibrea
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease and is found in 70% of obese people. The evidence available to date suggests that bariatric surgery could be an effective treatment by reducing weight and also by improving metabolic complications in the long term. This work aimed to compare, in a diet-induced NAFLD animal model, the effect of both sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and very-low calorie diet (VLCD). METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into control rats (n = 7) and obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD)...
July 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710347/effects-of-lipoic-acid-on-high-fat-diet-induced-alteration-of-synaptic-plasticity-and-brain-glucose-metabolism-a-pet-ct-and-13-c-nmr-study
#8
Zhigang Liu, Ishan Patil, Harsh Sancheti, Fei Yin, Enrique Cadenas
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is accompanied by insulin resistance and compromised brain synaptic plasticity through the impairment of insulin-sensitive pathways regulating neuronal survival, learning, and memory. Lipoic acid is known to modulate the redox status of the cell and has insulin mimetic effects. This study was aimed at determining the effects of dietary administration of lipoic acid on a HFD-induced obesity model in terms of (a) insulin signaling, (b) brain glucose uptake and neuronal- and astrocytic metabolism, and (c) synaptic plasticity...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704630/relationship-between-bmi-and-fatigability-is-task-dependent
#9
Ranjana K Mehta, Lora Anne Cavuoto
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on fatigability of three different muscle groups at four different work intensities. METHODS: Forty-nine normal-weight, 50 overweight, and 43 obese adults (32.1 ± 9.2 years; 50% males) performed fatiguing handgrip, shoulder flexion, and trunk extension exertions at 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the associated maximum voluntary contractions. RESULTS: Obese adults demonstrated 22% to 30% shorter endurance times than normal-weight adults, but this was only observed at lower intensities and with larger and more postural muscles of the shoulder and low back...
August 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704095/sarcopenia-an-endocrine-disorder
#10
Alexis McKee, John E Morley, Alvin M Matsumoto, Aaron Vinik
Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test - the SARC-F - is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels and decreased growth hormone and IGF-1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D...
July 13, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697288/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-obesity
#11
Garun S Hamilton, Simon A Joosten
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity are two common conditions affecting the Australian population; obesity is the major risk factor for OSA. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to review the interactions between obesity and OSA, including the increased cardiovascular risk, and highlight the importance of using OSA diagnosis as a critical time to address obesity itself and other cardiovascular risk factors. DISCUSSION: Snoring and symptoms of OSA frequently worsen during periods of rapid weight gain...
2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694840/hepatic-adipocyte-enteric-and-pancreatic-hormones-response-to-dietary-macronutrient-composition-and-relationship-with-metabolism
#12
Bridget M Hron, Cara B Ebbeling, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
BACKGROUND: We sought to characterize the effects of dietary macronutrient composition on various hormones implicated in the regulation of insulin sensitivity (IS) and energy expenditure (EE). METHODS: Following 10-15% weight loss, 21 overweight subjects consumed 3 weight-loss maintenance diets [low fat (LF), low glycemic index (LGI) and very low carbohydrate (VLC)] in random order, each for 4 weeks. At baseline and at the end of each treatment period, fasting samples for fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), chemerin, irisin, secreted frizzle-related protein (SFRP-4), total bile acids, ghrelin, gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP), peptide-Y, and amylin; hepatic and peripheral IS; and EE were obtained...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693498/sirolimus-alters-lung-pathology-and-viral-load-following-influenza-a-virus-infection
#13
Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Junu A George, Saeeda Almarzooqi, Stacey M Hartwig, Steven M Varga, Abdul-Kader Souid
BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of mTOR, such as sirolimus, have been shown to induce thymus involution and inflammatory lung disease in mice. The latter effect supports the role of this serine/threonine kinase in ameliorating lung inflammation. Other studies have shown sirolimus reduces/delays lung disease associated with various strains of influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, the effects of mTOR inhibitors on influenza infection deserve further studies. METHODS: Here, we examined the changes in lung viral copies, pathology and pulmonary function associated with IAV (A/PR/8/34) infection in mice treated with sirolimus...
July 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693216/trifluridine-tipiracil-increases-survival-rates-in-peritoneal-dissemination-mouse-models-of-human-colorectal-and-gastric-cancer
#14
Norihiko Suzuki, Fumio Nakagawa, Teiji Takechi
A number of patients exhibit peritoneal dissemination of gastric or colorectal cancer, which is a predominant cause of cancer-associated mortality. Currently, there is no markedly effective treatment available. The present study was designed to determine the efficacy of trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD), formerly known as TAS-102, which is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer refractory to standard therapies. Four colorectal cancer cell lines and one gastric cancer cell line were intraperitoneally inoculated into nude mice, as models of peritoneal dissemination...
July 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684138/novel-3d-ultrasound-system-for-midline-single-operator-epidurals-a-feasibility-study-on-a-porcine-model
#15
J Stone, P Beigi, R Rohling, V Lessoway, A Dube, V Gunka
BACKGROUND: We developed a real-time 3D ultrasound thick slice rendering technique and innovative Epiguide needle-guide as an adjunct to single-operator midline epidural needle insertions. Study goals were to determine feasibility of the technique in a porcine model and compare the visibility of standard and echogenic needles. METHODS: Thirty-four lumbar needle insertions were performed on six intact porcine spines ex vivo. Ultrasound scanning identified the insertion site and, using an Epiguide, the needle was guided into the epidural space through the ligamentum flavum in the midline plane, watched in real-time on the 3D ultrasound...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683287/the-sense-of-smell-impacts-metabolic-health-and-obesity
#16
Celine E Riera, Eva Tsaousidou, Jonathan Halloran, Patricia Follett, Oliver Hahn, Mafalda M A Pereira, Linda Engström Ruud, Jens Alber, Kevin Tharp, Courtney M Anderson, Hella Brönneke, Brigitte Hampel, Carlos Daniel de Magalhaes Filho, Andreas Stahl, Jens C Brüning, Andrew Dillin
Olfactory inputs help coordinate food appreciation and selection, but their role in systemic physiology and energy balance is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that mice upon conditional ablation of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are resistant to diet-induced obesity accompanied by increased thermogenesis in brown and inguinal fat depots. Acute loss of smell perception after obesity onset not only abrogated further weight gain but also improved fat mass and insulin resistance. Reduced olfactory input stimulates sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in activation of β-adrenergic receptors on white and brown adipocytes to promote lipolysis...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681646/sleeve-gastrectomy-efficacy-on-metabolic-and-cardiovascular-dysfunction-with-a-focus-on-the-role-of-comorbidities
#17
Maria Anastasia Ricci, Stefano Ministrini, Stefano De Vuono, Matteo Camilli, Alessandra Gentili, Giulia Daviddi, Marcello Boni, Graziana Lupattelli
We evaluated the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on metabolic/cardiovascular parameters according to weight loss, visceral fat area (VFA), and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance index; we also assessed the influence of SG on comorbidities (diabetes/hypertension). At baseline and 10 to 12 months after SG, we assessed anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bioimpedentiometry, ultrasonographic VFA, liver steatosis, flow-mediated dilation, and echocardiography in 110 patients with obesity...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679946/independent-tissue-contributors-to-obesity-associated-insulin-resistance
#18
Yvo Ham Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Alfons Jhm Houben, M Eline Kooi, Lucas Lindeboom, Jos Op 't Roodt, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Eugene J Barrett, Coen DA Stehouwer
BACKGROUND: Induction of insulin resistance is a key pathway through which obesity increases risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular events. Although the detrimental effects of obesity on insulin sensitivity are incompletely understood, accumulation of visceral, subcutaneous, and liver fat and impairment of insulin-induced muscle microvascular recruitment (MVR) may be involved. As these phenotypic changes often coincide in obesity, we aimed to unravel whether they independently contribute to insulin resistance and thus constitute separate targets for intervention...
July 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674771/a-review-of-the-physiology-of-a-survival-expert-of-big-freeze-deep-snow-and-an-empty-stomach-the-boreal-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides
#19
REVIEW
Anne-Mari Mustonen, Petteri Nieminen
The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is an invasive canid originating from eastern Asia. Here, we review its physiological adaptations to wintering, with an emphasis on northern Europe, where the raccoon dog spends the coldest part of the year in winter sleep. The timing of physiological changes related to wintering is connected to photoperiod by melatonin. In preparation to winter, raccoon dogs display autumnal hyperphagia and fattening probably regulated by the interaction of several peptide hormones...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673586/potential-therapeutic-effect-of-alkaline-reduced-water-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#20
Jesmin Ara, Selikem Abla Nuwormegbe, Ma Easter Joy Sajo, Soo-Ki Kim, Kwang-Yong Shim, Kyu-Jae Lee
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by hormonal disturbances including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia culminating into obesity, multiple ovarian cysts and anovulatory infertility in women. There has been no effective medication against PCOS and its complication. However, weight loss can reduce insulin resistance, which in turn helps to restore hormonal balance and ovulation resulting to improved fertility. Previously, we reported that alkaline reduced water (ARW) could significantly reduce obesity by alleviating adiposity, regulating the levels of adipokines/pro-inflammatory cytokines and by inducing cholesterol homeostasis...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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