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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453465/screening-of-potential-adipokines-identifies-s100a4-as-a-marker-of-pernicious-adipose-tissue-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Peter Arner, Paul Petrus, David Esteve, Anne Boulomié, Erik Näslund, Anders Thorell, Hui Gao, Ingrid Dahlman, Mikael Rydén
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are peptides secreted from white adipose tissue (WAT), which have been linked to WAT dysfunction and metabolic complications of obesity. We set out to identify novel adipokines in subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) linked to insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Gene expression was determined by microarray and qPCR in obese and non-obese subjects with varying degree of IR. WAT-secreted and circulating protein levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: In sWAT of 80 obese women discordant for IR, 44 genes encoding potential adipose-secreted proteins were differentially expressed...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448523/mimicking-the-synaptic-weights-and-human-forgetting-curve-using-hydrothermally-grown-nanostructured-cuo-memristor-device
#2
T D Dongale, P S Pawar, R S Tikke, N B Mullani, V B Patil, A M Teli, K V Khot, S V Mohite, A A Bagade, V S Kumbhar, K Y Rajpure, P N Bhosale, R K Kamat, P S Patil
In the present investigation, we have fabricated copper oxide (CuO) thin film memristor by employing a hydrothermal method for neuromorphic application. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the films are polycrystalline in nature with the monoclinic crystal structure. The developed devices show analog memory and synaptic property similar to biological neuron. The size dependent synaptic behavior is investigated for as-prepared and annealed CuO memristor. The results suggested that the magnitude of synaptic weights and resistive switching voltages are dependent on the thickness of the active layer...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443436/fitness-costs-of-infection-with-serratia-symbiotica-are-associated-with-greater-susceptibility-to-insecticides-in-the-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#3
Marisa Skaljac, Phillipp Kirfel, Jens Grotmann, Andreas Vilcinskas
BACKGROUND: Aphids are agricultural pests that damage crops by direct feeding and by vectoring important plant viruses. Bacterial symbionts can influence aphid biology, e.g. by providing essential nutrients or facilitating adaptations to biotic and abiotic stress. RESULTS: We investigated the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) and its commonly associated secondary bacterial symbiont Serratia symbiotica to study the effect of this symbiont on host fitness and susceptibility to the insecticides imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos methyl, methomyl, cyantraniliprole and spirotetramat...
February 14, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442680/tensile-thermal-dielectric-and-morphological-properties-of-polyoxymethylene-silica-nanocomposites
#4
Tran Thi Mai, Nguyen Thuy Chinh, Rajesh Baskaran, Nguyen Thi Thu Trang, Vu Viet Thang, Dang Thi Thanh Le, Do Quang Minh, Thai Hoang
This paper presents the tensile, thermal, dielectric and morphological properties of composites based on polyoxymethylene (POM) and nanosilica (NS) prepared by melt mixing method at 190 °C. Based on the torque readings, the processing of POM/NS composites were found to be easier in comparison to only POM. The FT-IR spectra analysis of the POM/NS nanocomposites showed the presence of peak at approximately 910 cm-1, attributed to the Si-O and C-O groups in NS and POM on the POM/NS nanocomposite. The absorption at these peaks increased on gradually increasing the content of NS...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439853/frailty-predicts-incident-urinary-incontinence-among-hospitalized-older-adults-a-1-year-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Edward Chong, Mark Chan, Wee Shiong Lim, Yew Yoong Ding
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between frailty and urinary incontinence (UI) remains highly complex. There is limited data on the impact of frailty on new-onset UI among hospitalized older adults. Thus, we examined the ability of frailty to predict incident UI among them. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Acute geriatric unit at a large teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults hospitalized for an acute medical illness...
February 10, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432326/exercise-improves-physical-activity-and-comorbidities-in-obese-adults-with-asthma
#6
Patrícia Duarte Freitas, Aline Grandi Silva, Palmira Gabriele Ferreira, Analuci da Silva, João Marcos Salge, Regina Maria Carvalho-Pinto, Alberto Cukier, Claudia M Brito, Marcio C Mancini, Celso R F Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: Obese adults with asthma have an increased number of comorbidities and reduced daily life physical activity (DLPA), which may worsen asthma symptoms. Exercise is recommended to improve asthma outcomes; however, the benefits of exercise for psychosocial comorbidities and physical activity levels in obese adults with asthma have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of exercise on DLPA, asthma symptoms and psychosocial comorbidities in obese adults with asthma...
February 9, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425125/on-the-cutting-performance-of-segmented-diamond-blades-when-dry-cutting-concrete
#7
A J Sánchez Egea, V Martynenko, D Martínez Krahmer, L N López de Lacalle, A Benítez, G Genovese
The objective of the present study is to analyze and compare the cutting performance of segmented diamond blades when dry-cutting concrete. A cutting criteria is proposed to characterize the wear of the blades by measuring the variation of the external diameter and the weight loss of the blade. The results exhibit the cutting blade SB-A, which has twice the density of diamonds and large contact area, exhibits less wear even though the material removal rate is higher compared with the other two cutting blades...
February 9, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424957/hnf1a-variant-energy-reduced-diets-and-insulin-resistance-improvement-during-weight-loss-the-pounds-lost-and-direct-trials
#8
Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Kerry Ivey, Ronen Durst, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Meir J Stampfer, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Iris Shai, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) gene. A common variant rs7957197 at HNF1A locus for type 2 diabetes was identified. Dietary macronutrients regulate the HNF1A gene expression. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether weight loss diets varying in macronutrients modulate the genetic effect of HNF1A rs7957197 on weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance...
February 9, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412812/intestinal-peptide-changes-after-bariatric-and-minimally-invasive-surgery-relation-to-diabetes-remission
#9
REVIEW
Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James Casella Mariolo, Geltrude Mingrone
Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412387/relationships-between-adiponectin-levels-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-a-literature-review
#10
Anize Delfino von Frankenberg, André F Reis, Fernando Gerchman
Elevated hepatic glucose production, impaired insulin secretion, and insulin resistance - abnormalities of glucose metabolism typically found in subjects with obesity - are major factors underlying the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Adiponectin is a major regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis via its insulin-sensitizing properties, and lower levels seems to be associated with the development of DM2 and MS. The purpose of this review is to clarify the mechanisms whereby adiponectin relates to the development of DM2 and MS and the association between polymorphisms of the adiponectin gene, circulating levels of the hormone, and its relationships with DM2...
December 2017: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410591/effects-of-12-week-circuit-exercise-program-on-obesity-index-appetite-regulating-hormones-and-insulin-resistance-in-middle-aged-obese-females
#11
Seol-Jung Kang, Jong-Hyu Kim, Zhao Gang, Young-Sook Yook, Jea-Ryang Yoon, Gi-Chul Ha, Kwang-Jun Ko
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of circuit exercise on obesity index, appetite regulating hormones and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 obese middle-aged women who were selected among participants in exercise class at K Region Health Promotion Center in South Korea and were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=13; age 50.15 ± 3.82, % body fat 38.79 ± 3.28) and the control group (n=13; age 49.84 ± 2...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410438/chitosan-nanoparticles-having-higher-degree-of-acetylation-induce-resistance-against-pearl-millet-downy-mildew-through-nitric-oxide-generation
#12
Chandra Nayaka Siddaiah, Keelara Veerappa Harish Prasanth, Niranjan Raj Satyanarayana, Venkataramana Mudili, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Naveen Kumar Kalagatur, Tara Satyavati, Xiao-Feng Dai, Jie-Yin Chen, Andrei Mocan, Bhim Pratap Singh, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava
Downy mildew of pearl millet caused by the biotrophic oomycete Sclerospora graminicola is the most devastating disease which impairs pearl millet production causing huge yield and monetary losses. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) were synthesized from low molecular weight chitosan having higher degree of acetylation was evaluated for their efficacy against downy mildew disease of pearl millet caused by Sclerospora graminicola. Laboratory studies showed that CNP seed treatment significantly enhanced pearl millet seed germination percentage and seedling vigor compared to the control...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410348/caloric-restriction-improves-glucose-homeostasis-yet-increases-cardiometabolic-risk-in-caveolin-1-deficient-mice
#13
Korapat Mayurasakorn, Nurul Hasanah, Tsuyoshi Homma, Mika Homma, Isis Katayama Rangel, Amanda E Garza, Jose R Romero, Gail K Adler, Gordon H Williams, Luminita H Pojoga
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The plasma membrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV-1) has been shown to be involved in modulating glucose homeostasis and the actions of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Caloric restriction (CR) is widely accepted as an effective therapeutic approach to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the severity of diabetes. Recent data indicate that polymorphisms of the CAV-1 gene are strongly associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and metabolic abnormalities in non-obese individuals...
February 1, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407090/long-term-prognostic-significance-of-urinary-sodium-concentration-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure
#14
Satoshi Honda, Toshiyuki Nagai, Kunihiro Nishimura, Michikazu Nakai, Yasuyuki Honda, Hiroki Nakano, Naotsugu Iwakami, Yasuo Sugano, Yasuhide Asaumi, Takeshi Aiba, Teruo Noguchi, Kengo Kusano, Hiroyuki Yokoyama, Hisao Ogawa, Satoshi Yasuda, Toshihisa Anzai
BACKGROUND: Lower urinary sodium concentration (UNa) may reflect impaired renal perfusion, higher neurohormonal activity and diuretic resistance. However, the prognostic impact of UNa in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) has not been fully elucidated. METHODS: We investigate the association between UNa and clinical outcomes in 669 patients admitted with AHF in our prospective registry. Patients were stratified into tertiles based on UNa in a spot urine sample on admission...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404484/the-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-delta-agonist-seladelpar-reverses-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-pathology-by-abrogating-lipotoxicity-in-diabetic-obese-mice
#15
Fahrettin Haczeyni, Hans Wang, Vanessa Barn, Auvro R Mridha, Matthew M Yeh, W Geoffrey Haigh, George N Ioannou, Yun-Jung Choi, Charles A McWherter, Narcissus C-H Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Lipotoxicity associated with insulin resistance is central to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) pathogenesis. To date, only weight loss fully reverses NASH pathology, but mixed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha/delta (PPAR-α/δ) agonists show some efficacy. Seladelpar (MBX-8025), a selective PPAR-δ agonist, improves atherogenic dyslipidemia. We therefore used this agent to test whether selective PPAR-δ activation can reverse hepatic lipotoxicity and NASH in an obese, dyslipidemic, and diabetic mouse model...
September 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402647/frailty-screening-frail-nh-and-mortality-in-french-nursing-homes-results-from-the-incidence-of-pneumonia-and-related-consequences-in-nursing-home-residents-study
#16
Thanuja R De Silva, Olga Theou, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari, Renuka Visvanathan
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of the fatigue, resistance, ambulation, incontinence or illness, loss of weight, nutritional approach, and help with dressing (FRAIL-NH) tool to predict mortality. DESIGN: The Incidence of Pneumonia and Related Consequences in Nursing Home Residents (INCUR) study database was used. This was an observational cohort study in French nursing homes conducted over 12 months in 2012. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 788 residents aged 60 years or older, from 13 randomly selected French nursing homes...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401505/inflammatory-markers-the-tryptophan-kynurenine-pathway-and-vitamin-b-status-after-bariatric-surgery
#17
Monika H E Christensen, Dag J Fadnes, Therese H Røst, Eva R Pedersen, John R Andersen, Villy Våge, Arve Ulvik, Øivind Midttun, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård, Gunnar Mellgren
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with increased inflammation and insulin resistance. In conditions with chronic immune activation, low plasma vitamin B6-levels are described, as well as an increased kynurenine:tryptophan-ratio (KTR). We investigated circulating tryptophan, kynurenine and its metabolites, neopterin, B-vitamins, CRP, and HbA1c in individuals with obesity before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This longitudinal study included 37 patients with severe obesity, scheduled for bariatric surgery...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401269/chronic-hyperandrogenemia-and-western-style-diet-beginning-at-puberty-reduces-fertility-and-increases-metabolic-dysfunction-during-pregnancy-in-young-adult-female-macaques
#18
C V Bishop, R L Stouffer, D L Takahashi, E C Mishler, M C Wilcox, O D Slayden, C A True
STUDY QUESTION: What are the impacts of elevated testosterone (T) and an obesogenic western-style diet (WSD), either independently or together, on fertility and metabolic adaptations of pregnancy in primates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Testosterone increases the time to achieve pregnancy, while a WSD reduces overall fertility, and the combination of testosterone and WSD additionally impairs glucose tolerance and causes pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both hyperandrogenemia and obesity are hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a leading cause of infertility among women worldwide...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398616/hypothalamic-mir-219-regulates-individual-metabolic-differences-in-response-to-diet-induced-weight-cycling
#19
Mariana Schroeder, Yonat Drori, Yair J Ben-Efraim, Alon Chen
Consumption of a low calorie diet is the most common approach to lose weight. While generally effective at first, it is frequently followed by a relapse where the pre-diet weight is regained, and often exceeded. This pattern of repeated weight loss/regain is referred to as weight cycling and the resulting metabolic response varies greatly between individuals. OBJECTIVE: We attempted to address the issue of individual differences in the response to weight cycling in male mice. METHODS: We first exposed adult wild type mice to repeated cycles of high/low fat food...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398254/intensive-lifestyle-modifications-with-or-without-liraglutide-3mg-vs-sleeve-gastrectomy-a-three-arm-non-randomised-controlled-pilot-study
#20
E Capristo, S Panunzi, A De Gaetano, M Raffaelli, C Guidone, A Iaconelli, L L'Abbate, A L Birkenfeld, R Bellantone, S R Bornstein, G Mingrone
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: As only 1% of clinically eligible subjects choose to undergo surgical treatment for obesity, other options should be investigated. This study aimed to assess the effects of intensive lifestyle modification (ILM) with or without 3-mg liraglutide daily vs. sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on BMI after 1 year. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this study performed at an Italian university hospital, non-diabetic patients eligible for bariatric surgery were recruited from a weight-loss clinic and had the option to choose from three possible weight-loss programmes up to an allocation of 25 subjects in each arm matched by BMI and age...
December 29, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
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