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weight loss resistence

Leire Méndez-Giménez, Silvia Ezquerro, Inês V da Silva, Graça Soveral, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The exocrine pancreas, which accounts for 90% of the total pancreas, secretes daily large volumes of a near-isotonic fluid containing digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Véronique Tu, Yacine Abed, Clément Fage, Mariana Baz, Guy Boivin
Neuraminidase (NA) mutations conferring resistance to NA inhibitors (NAIs) are expected to occur at framework or catalytic residues of the NA enzyme. Numerous clinical and in vitro reports already described NAI-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 variants harboring various framework NA substitutions. By contrast, variants with NA catalytic changes remain poorly documented. Herein, we investigated the effect of R152K and R368K NA catalytic mutations on the NA enzyme properties, in vitro replicative capacity and virulence of A(H1N1)pdm09 recombinant viruses...
April 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
Audrin Said Vojciechowski, Simone Biesek, Jarbas Melo Filho, Estela Iraci Rabito, Maryelle Paula do Amaral, Anna Raquel Silveira Gomes
BACKGROUND: Frailty is one of the key geriatric syndromes and is related to the loss of functional independence. However, the practice of physical training (PT) combined with protein supplementation (PS) may improve musculoskeletal function (MF). OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of PT using 'exergames' with or without PS on MF, nutritional status, and risk of falls in pre-frail older women. METHOD: The protocol is for a randomized controlled clinical trial with a sample of pre-frail older women, divided into 5 groups: control group; PT using exergames; PS; PT using exergames combined with PS; PT using exergames combined with isoenergetic supplementation...
May 2018: Maturitas
Jiamei Le, Weiping Jia, Yongning Sun
Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly associated with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. Sennoside A (SA), a commonly used clinical stimulant laxative, is reported to improve energy metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the effect and mechanism of SA on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and mechanism of SA on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. We examined the liver and body weight of mice to evaluate the physical changes in the liver...
April 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Samira Rabiei, Mehdi Hedayati, Bahram Rashidkhani, Navid Saadat, Rahebeh Shakerhossini
It has been shown recently that metabolic syndrome is associated with gut dysbiosis. The gut microbiota may be the main target for prevention or treatment of metabolic syndrome. We investigated the effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic syndrome. In this triple-blinded clinical trial, 46 Iranian patients with metabolic syndrome, from both sexes, aged 25-70 years, who fulfilled inclusion criteria were randomly categorized to receive either the synbiotic or a placebo capsule, twice a day for three months, plus a weight-loss diet using stratified random sampling based on body mass index (BMI)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
A-M Elbe, P Elsborg, S Dandanell, J W Helge
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weight loss during and after a unique type of weight loss intervention, namely, a residential intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), and participants' obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) several years after the intervention. In the residential ILI under investigation, participants attended a 10- to 12-week long course away from their daily living environment, namely, at Ubberup Folk High School located in Denmark...
April 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Asiful H Seikh, El-Sayed M Sherif, Sohail M A Khan Mohammed, Muneer Baig, Mohammad Asif Alam, Nabeel Alharthi
The aim of this study is to find out the microstructure, hardness, and corrosion resistance of Pb-5%Sb spine alloy. The alloy has been produced by high pressure die casting (HPDC), medium pressure die casting (AS) and low pressure die casting (GS) methods, respectively. The microstructure was characterized by using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hardness was also reported. The corrosion resistance of the spines in 0.5M H2SO4 solution has been analyzed by measuring the weight loss, impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization techniques...
2018: PloS One
Domenico Tricò, Sonia Caprio, Giuseppina Rosaria Umano, Bridget Pierpont, Jessica Nouws, Alfonso Galderisi, Grace Kim, Mariana M Mata, Nicola Santoro
AIMS: We conducted a prospective study in a large, multiethnic cohort of obese adolescents to characterize clinical and genetic features associated with pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFL), the most common cause of chronic liver disease in youth. METHODS: A total of 503 obese adolescents were enrolled, including 191 (38.0%) Caucasians, 134 (26.6%) African Americans, and 178 (35.4%) Hispanics. Participants underwent abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify hepatic fat content, an oral glucose tolerance test to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and the genotyping of three SNPs associated with fatty liver (PNPLA3 rs738409, GCKR rs1260326, and TM6SF2 rs58542926)...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Eder Alves Barbosa, Mauro Ferreira Bonfim Junior, Carlos Bloch, Thales Lima Rocha, Gilbert Engler, Janice de Almeida Engler
Nematodes are devastating pests that infect most cultivated plant species and cause considerable agricultural losses worldwide. The understanding of metabolic adjustments induced during plant-nematode interaction is crucial to generate resistant plants or to select more efficient molecules to fight against this pest. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been used herein for in situ detection and mapping endogenous polypeptides and secondary metabolites from nematode-induced gall tissue...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Paloma Ocampo, Juan Manuel Duarte, Ricardo Barcia, Cecilia Arévalo
Diabetes mellitus occurs in nearly 10% of patients with acromegaly and is secondary to insulin resistance caused by high levels of growth hormone. Diabetes ketoacidosis has been described as a rare complication of acromegaly, resulting from a relative insulin deficiency caused by growth hormone excess. We described the case of a 38 year-old man who presented to the emergency room with a 6-week history of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weight loss. He also had nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain from two days before admission...
2018: Medicina
M Babják, A Königová, M Urda Dolinská, J Vadlejch, M Várady
Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a serious threat to animal health and has a major economic impact worldwide due to production and financial losses. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of AR on 30 goat farms in Slovakia during the pasturing seasons and to compare three widely used in vitro and in vivo methods for detecting AR in field conditions. A three-year survey was conducted during the pasturing seasons of 2014-2016. Goats on each farm were split into treated and control groups and were treated by recommended (5 mg/kg body weight) and double doses (10 mg/kg b...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Jingjing Liu, Zhuanzhuan Zhang, Qi Guo, Yanhong Dong, Qipeng Zhao, Xueqin Ma
BACKGROUND: Syringin, also called eleutheroside B, is a main bioactive phenolic glycoside in Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms. Based on the "kidney dominates bone" theory of TCM, A. senticosus can strengthen bone and Syringin may be one of the responsibilities. PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to estimate the osteoporotic activity of Syringin and reveal the possible molecular mechanisms in vivo. METHODS: Sixty female ICR mice were randomly assigned into sham operated group (SHAM, treated with vehicle) and five ovariectomized subgroups (n = 10 each), treated with vehicle as OVX group, estradiol valerate (EV, 1 mg/kg/day) as positive group, and Syringin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day) as low, moderate and high dosage groups...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
David H Wasserman, Thomas J Wang, Nancy J Brown
The frequency of prediabetes is increasing as the prevalence of obesity rises worldwide. In prediabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation and metabolic derangements associated with concomitant obesity cause endothelial vasodilator and fibrinolytic dysfunction, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Importantly, the microvasculature affects insulin sensitivity by affecting the delivery of insulin and glucose to skeletal muscle; thus, endothelial dysfunction and extracellular matrix remodeling promote the progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus...
April 13, 2018: Circulation Research
Shin J Lee, Graciela Sanchez-Watts, Jean-Philippe Krieger, Angelica Pignalosa, Puck N Norell, Alyssa Cortella, Klaus G Pettersen, Dubravka Vrdoljak, Matthew R Hayes, Scott Kanoski, Wolfgang Langhans, Alan G Watts
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. METHODS: We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Zhen Li, Qixian Chen, Yan Qi, Zhihao Liu, Tangna Hao, Xiaoxin Sun, Mingxi Qiao, Xiaodong Ma, Ting Xu, Xiuli Zhao, Chunrong Yang, Dawei Chen
A multifunctional nanoparticulate system composed of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-histidine)-d-α-Vitamin E succinate (MPEG-PLH-VES) copolymers for encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX) was elaborated with the aim of circumventing the multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer treatment. The MPEG-PLH-VES nanoparticles (NPs) were subsequently functionalized with biotin motif for targeted drug delivery. The MPEG-PLH-VES copolymer exert no obvious effect on the P-gp expression level of MCF-7/ADR but exhibited a significant influence on the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the reduction of intracellular ATP level and the inhibition of P-gp ATPase activity of MCF-7/ADR cells...
April 4, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Christine Unterweger, Ursula Ruczizka, Joachim Spergser, Christoph Georg Baums, Isabel Hennig-Pauka
In newborn piglets treatment with long-acting ceftiofur is a common approach to reduce losses due to streptococcal diseases on farms, even if problems start after weaning. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a single early-life treatment on Streptococcus (S.) suis colonization, transmission, immunoreaction, and drug resistance over an observation period of 14 weeks. In a farm with a history of streptococcal disease and isolation of a S. suis cps 7 mrp +, arc A+ isolate from diseased piglets, half of each litter was treated with a long-acting ceftiofur on day 1...
March 29, 2018: Pathogens
Maria Fernandez-Del-Valle, Joaquin U Gonzales, Shelby Kloiber, Sunanda Mitra, Jon Klingensmith, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
AIM: To date, few studies have analyzed the effects of exercise on cardiac adipose tissue. Overall, exercise programs did not meet the recommendations for significant weight loss, the utilization of resistance training was minimal, and the conclusions derived from these studies have diminished exercise as a strategy for cardiac fat loss. PURPOSE: The objective of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of 3-week high-intensity, moderate-volume muscular endurance resistance training (RT) on cardiac fat and arterial stiffness...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Hongyan Liu, Yi Yang, Yunbing Wang, Hong Tang, Fan Zhang, Yong Zhang, Yong Zhao
The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for children with drug-resistant epilepsy and has been widely used in young children. Adult patients with intractable epilepsy would also benefit from this dietary treatment. However, only a few studies have been published, and the use of the KD in intractable epilepsy in adults has been limited. This meta-analysis summarized the findings of the relevant published studies to identify the efficacy of the KD for the treatment of intractable epilepsy in adults...
March 2018: Epilepsia Open
Kim L Dittus, Jean R Harvey, Janice Y Bunn, Nathan D Kokinda, Karen M Wilson, Jeff Priest, Richard E Pratley
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors with excess weight are more likely to have negative breast cancer outcomes. Biomarkers related to insulin resistance may help explain this negative association. Weight loss is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Our goal was to identify the impact of a behaviorally based weight loss intervention on indices of insulin resistance. METHODS: Overweight, early stage breast cancer survivors who completed initial cancer therapy were enrolled in a 6 month behaviorally based weight loss intervention that included calorie reduction, exercise and behavior modification...
March 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
Mitchell Fung, John G Bowsher, Douglas W Van Citters
Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the current gold standard for bearing materials used in total joint arthroplasty. High-dose radiation is commonly used to crosslink UHMWPE, thereby improving its wear resistance. A subsequent remelting step eliminates trapped residual free radicals to promote oxidative stability on the shelf, and to prevent material degradation over the long term. Assessment of clinically retrieved, highly crosslinked UHMWPE devices shows signs of unanticipated oxidation occurring in vivo, despite the absence of free radicals prior to implantation...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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