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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819650/wear-behavior-of-al-7-si-0-3-mg-melon-shell-ash-particulate-composites
#1
M Abdulwahab, R M Dodo, I Y Suleiman, A I Gebi, I Umar
The present study examined wear characteristics of A356/melon shell ash particulate composites. Dry-sliding the stainless steel ball against specimen disc revealed the abrasive wear behavior of the composites under loads of 2 and 5N. The composite showed lower wear rate of 2.182 × 10(-4) mm(3)/Nm at 20 wt% reinforced material under load of 5N. Results showed that wear rate decreased significantly with increasing weight percentage of melon shell ash particles. Microstructural analyses of worn surfaces of the composites reveal evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817373/cabozantinib-as-salvage-therapy-for-patients-with-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-refractory-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-results-of-a-multicenter-phase-ii-international-thyroid-oncology-group-trial
#2
Maria E Cabanillas, Jonas A de Souza, Susan Geyer, Lori J Wirth, Michael E Menefee, Stephen V Liu, Komal Shah, John Wright, Manisha H Shah
Purpose Sorafenib and lenvatinib are oral multikinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and approved for radioiodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, there are no approved second- or third-line therapies. MET is implicated in resistance to VEGFR inhibitors. Cabozantinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor targeting MET in addition to VEGFR and is approved for medullary thyroid cancer. In a phase I study of cabozantinib, five of eight patients with DTC previously treated with a VEGFR-targeted therapy had an objective response to cabozantinib...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816931/effects-of-multicomponent-training-on-lean-and-bone-mass-in-postmenopausal-and-older-women-a-systematic-review
#3
Elena Marín-Cascales, Pedro E Alcaraz, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to update and examine to what extent multicomponent training interventions could improve lean and bone mass at different anatomical regions of the body in postmenopausal and older women. METHODS: A computerized literature search was performed in the following online databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Web of Knowledge. The search was performed to include articles up until February 2017. The methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool...
August 14, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814401/effects-of-protein-supplementation-combined-with-resistance-exercise-on-body-composition-and-physical-function-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Chun-De Liao, Jau-Yih Tsauo, Yen-Tzu Wu, Chin-Pao Cheng, Hui-Chuen Chen, Yi-Ching Huang, Hung-Chou Chen, Tsan-Hon Liou
Background: Overweight and obese older people face a high risk of muscle loss and impaired physical function, which may contribute to sarcopenic obesity. Resistance exercise training (RET) has a beneficial effect on muscle protein synthesis and can be augmented by protein supplementation (PS). However, whether body weight affects the augmentation of muscular and functional performance in response to PS in older people undergoing RET remains unclear.Objective: This study was conducted to identify the effects of PS on the body composition and physical function of older people undergoing RET...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811653/meal-timing-effects-on-insulin-sensitivity-and-intrahepatic-triglycerides-during-weight-loss
#5
R I Versteeg, M T Ackermans, A J Nederveen, E Fliers, M J Serlie, S E la Fleur
BACKGROUND: Several human and rodent studies suggest that in addition to the amount of energy consumed, timing of food intake contributes to body weight regulation. Consuming most energy in the morning has favorable effects on weight loss and weight maintenance. Whether this also affects glucose metabolism and liver fat independently from weight loss is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that during weight loss, consuming most energy in the morning improves insulin sensitivity and reduces hepatic fat content more than consuming most energy in the evening...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811495/low-protein-induced-increases-in-fgf21-drive-ucp1-dependent-metabolic-but-not-thermoregulatory-endpoints
#6
Cristal M Hill, Thomas Laeger, Diana C Albarado, David H McDougal, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
Dietary protein restriction increases adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), energy expenditure and food intake, and these effects require the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Here we test whether the induction of energy expenditure during protein restriction requires UCP1, promotes a resistance to cold stress, and is dependent on the concomitant hyperphagia. Wildtype, Ucp1-KO and Fgf21-KO mice were placed on control and low protein (LP) diets to assess changes in energy expenditure, food intake and other metabolic endpoints...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809927/in-middle-aged-and-old-obese-patients-training-intervention-reduces-leptin-level-a-meta-analysis
#7
Ildikó Rostás, László Pótó, Péter Mátrai, Péter Hegyi, Judit Tenk, András Garami, Anita Illés, Margit Solymár, Erika Pétervári, Ákos Szűcs, Andrea Párniczky, Dániel Pécsi, Zoltán Rumbus, Csaba Zsiborás, Nóra Füredi, Márta Balaskó
BACKGROUND: Leptin is one of the major adipokines in obesity that indicates the severity of fat accumulation. It is also an important etiological factor of consequent cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce leptin resistance and hyperleptinemia. Hyperleptinemia, on the other hand, may promote the development of age-related abnormalities. While major weight loss has been demonstrated to ameliorate hyperleptinemia, obese people show a poor tendency to achieve lasting success in this field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797701/cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-associations-between-different-exercise-types-and-food-cravings-in-free-living-healthy-young-adults
#8
Clemens Drenowatz, Line H Evensen, Linda Ernstsen, John E Blundell, Gregory A Hand, Robin P Shook, James R Hébert, Stephanie Burgess, Steven N Blair
INTRODUCTION: An increase in energy intake due to alterations in hedonic appetite sensations may, at least in part, contribute to lower-than-expected weight loss in exercise interventions. The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between habitual exercise participation and food cravings in free-living young adults. METHODS: A total of 417 adults (49% male, 28 ± 4 years) reported frequency and duration of walking, aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and other exercise at baseline and every 3 months over a 12-month period...
August 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795522/assessment-of-carvacrol-for-control-of-avian-aspergillosis-in-intratracheally-challenged-chickens-in-comparison-to-voriconazole-with-a-reference-on-economic-impact
#9
Y H Tartor, F A M Hassan
AIM: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) as an alternative prophylaxis and treatment for avian aspergillosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The in vitro susceptibility of A. fumigatus strains to antifungal drugs and carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, thymoquinone and cinnamon was determined using the macro-diffusion and microdilution methods. Carvacrol has antifungal activity in comparison to voriconazole (VCZ) (MIC 0.5, 0.25μg/ml, respectively)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795443/effect-of-conjugated-linoleic-acids-and-omega-3-fatty-acids-with-or-without-resistance-training-on-muscle-mass-in-high-fat-diet-fed-middle-aged-mice
#10
Sang-Rok Lee, Andy V Khamoui, Edward Jo, Michael C Zourdos, Lynn B Panton, Michael J Ormsbee, Jeong-Su Kim
This study investigated the effects of 20 weeks of combined conjugated linoleic acid/omega-3 fatty acid (n-3) administration independently or combined with resistance exercise training (RET) muscle in middle-aged mice consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine-month-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four experimental groups (H: high-fat diet, HE: H + RET, HCN: H + CLA/n-3, and HECN: H + CLA/n3 + RET). Body composition and functional capacity were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Muscle tissues were collected at 14 months of age...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794207/moderate-walking-enhances-the-effects-of-an-energy-restricted-diet-on-fat-mass-loss-and-serum-insulin-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-in-a-12-week-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Bernadette Kleist, Ursel Wahrburg, Peter Stehle, Ralph Schomaker, Andreas Greiwing, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Sarah Egert
Background: Increased physical activity may be advantageous for weight loss.Objective: We investigated the effects of an energy-restricted diet with and without moderate walking on body weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and endocrine and cardiometabolic risk variables in overweight and obese participants.Methods: A 12-wk, randomized, 2-arm, parallel, controlled, energy-restricted (500-800 kcal/d) dietary intervention study was conducted in 82 men and women [mean baseline characteristics: age, 39...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793923/concurrent-antitumor-and-bone-protective-effects-of-everolimus-in-osteotropic-breast-cancer
#12
Andrew J Browne, Marie L Kubasch, Andy Göbel, Peyman Hadji, David Chen, Martina Rauner, Friedrich Stölzel, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Tilman D Rachner
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus is approved as an antitumor agent in advanced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Surrogate bone marker data from clinical trials suggest effects on bone metabolism, but the mode of action of everolimus in bone biology remains unclear. In this study, we assessed potential bone-protective effects of everolimus in the context of osteotropic tumors. METHODS: The effects of everolimus on cancer cell viability in vitro and on tumor growth in vivo were assessed...
August 9, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790167/chemoprotective-effects-of-butanol-fraction-of-buchholzia-coriacea-capparidaceae-against-type-2-diabetes-and-oxidative-stress-in-male-wistar-rats
#13
Amanda Chikaosolu Okolie, Oluwafemi Ezekiel Kale, Odutola Osilesi
Recent studies have shown that Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in rats can result through a synergy that link obesity to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. This present study achieved T2D via high fructose (20%(w/v), p.o.), streptozotocin single dose (40 mg/kg, i.p.) (HFSTZ) in rats. Also, chemoprotective potential of butanol fraction of buchholzia coriacea (BFBC) was demonstrated. Control normal and diabetic untreated (HFSTZ-induced T2D) rats received carboxymethyl cellulose (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Diabetic rats received intragastric BFBC (20, 200, 400 mg/kg), glibenclamide (0...
August 8, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790027/increased-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-adipocytes-underlies-mitochondrial-alterations-associated-with-insulin-resistance
#14
Lauren E Wright, Denis Vecellio Reane, Gabriella Milan, Anna Terrin, Giorgia di Bello, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Francesca Favaretto, Anna Raffaello, Cristina Mammucari, Donato Nitti, Roberto Vettor, Rosario Rizzuto
Intracellular calcium influences an array of pathways and affects cellular processes. With the rapidly progressing research investigating the molecular identity and the physiological roles of the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) complex, we now have the tools to understand the functions of mitochondrial Ca(2+) in the regulation of pathophysiological processes. Herein, we describe the role of key MCU complex components in insulin resistance in mouse and human adipose tissue. Adipose tissue gene expression was analysed from several models of obese and diabetic rodents and in obese patients, as well as in vitro insulin-resistant adipocytes...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773140/microstructures-and-properties-of-plasma-sprayed-ni-based-coatings-reinforced-by-tin-c1-xnxti-generated-from-in-situ-solid-gas-reaction
#15
Wenquan Wang, Wenmo Li, Hongyong Xu
The strengthening hard phases TiN/C1-xNxTi were generated by in-situ solid-gas reaction in Ni-based composite coatings prepared using a plasma spray welding process to reinforce the wear resistance of the coatings. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were investigated. The results showed that the coatings mainly consisted of phases such as TiN, C1-xNxTi, TiC, etc. A small amount of CrB, M₇C₃, and M23C₆ were also detected in the coatings by micro-analysis method. Compared with the originally pure NiCrBSi coatings, the hardness of the NiCrBSi coatings reinforced by in-situ solid-gas reaction was 900 HV0...
July 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773132/mechanical-behavior-of-stainless-steel-fiber-reinforced-composites-exposed-to-accelerated-corrosion
#16
Caitlin O'Brien, Amanda McBride, Arash E Zaghi, Kelly A Burke, Alex Hill
Recent advancements in metal fibers have introduced a promising new type of stainless steel fiber with high stiffness, high failure strain, and a thickness < 100 μm (<0.00394 in.) that can be utilized in a steel fiber-reinforced polymer. However, stainless steel is known to be susceptible to pitting corrosion. The main goal of this study is to compare the impact of corrosion on the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced composites with those of conventional types of stainless steel. By providing experimental evidences, this study may promote the application of steel fiber-reinforced composite as a viable alternative to conventional metals...
July 8, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772682/study-of-the-corrosion-resistance-of-austenitic-stainless-steels-during-conversion-of-waste-to-biofuel
#17
Marina Cabrini, Sergio Lorenzi, Tommaso Pastore, Simone Pellegrini, Mauro Burattini, Roberta Miglio
The paper deals with the corrosion behavior of stainless steels as candidate materials for biofuel production plants by liquefaction process of the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Corrosion tests were carried out on AISI 316L and AISI 304L stainless steels at 250 °C in a batch reactor during conversion of raw material to bio-oil (biofuel precursor), by exposing specimens either to water/oil phase or humid gas phase. General corrosion rate was measured by weight loss tests. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was evaluated by means of U-bend specimens and slow stress rate tests at 10(-6) or 10(-5) s(-1) strain rate...
March 22, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772547/stress-corrosion-cracking-susceptibility-of-304l-substrate-and-308l-weld-metal-exposed-to-a-salt-spray
#18
Chia-Hao Hsu, Tai-Cheng Chen, Rong-Tan Huang, Leu-Wen Tsay
304 stainless steels (SS) were considered as the materials for a dry storage canister. In this study, ER (Electrode Rod) 308L was utilized as the filler metal for the groove and overlay welds of a 304L stainless steel substrate, which was prepared via a gas tungsten arc-welding process in multiple passes. The electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) map was used to identify the inherent microstructures in distinct specimens. U-bend and weight-loss tests were conducted by testing the 304L substrates and welds in a salt spray containing 5 wt % NaCl at 80 °C to evaluate their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC)...
February 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770183/antidiabetic-effects-of-gastric-banding-surgery-in-morbidly-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Yu-Jeng Kim, Ha-Neul Choi, Hong-Chan Lee, Jung-Eun Yim
This study was performed to investigate the effect of gastric banding surgery on the improvement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of morbidly obese (MO) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the consideration that obesity was associated with insulin resistance and T2DM. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 38 MO with T2DM patients and 50 MO patients. Pre-surgery and post-surgery data were analyzed a year later. The medical data from these patients, including sex, age, height, weight, body composition, HbA1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured...
July 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769122/modulation-of-gr1-low-monocytes-subset-impacts-insulin-sensitivity-and-weight-gain-upon-high-fat-diet-in-female-mice
#20
S Béliard, W Le Goff, F Saint-Charles, L Poupel, V Deaswerte, L Boucharechas, T Huby, P Lesnik
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Blood monocytes are expanded during obesity. However, the differential contribution of monocytes subsets in obesity-related metabolic disorders remains unknown. The aim of the study was to define the role of the Gr1(low) monocytes subset upon high-fat-diet (HFD). METHODS: We used transgenic female mouse models allowing the modulation of circulating Gr1(low) monocytes number (decreased number in CX3CR1(-/-) mice, increased number in CD11c-hBcl2 mice) and studied obesity upon HFD...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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