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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220547/impact-of-moderate-alcohol-discontinuation-on-insulin-action-and-secretion-in-latinos-with-and-without-hepatitis-c
#1
Lindsay A Uribe, Peter Bacchetti, Nicholas Gelman, Esteban Burchard, Mark Fitch, Marc Hellerstein, Mandana Khalili
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with hepatitis C infection (HCV), and Latinos are both at risk for IR and are disproportionately affected by HCV. Moderate alcohol consumption improves insulin sensitivity and may modify HCV-associated IR. We investigated the impact of moderate alcohol discontinuation on insulin sensitivity and secretion in Latinos using direct measurements. METHODS: Twenty-five non-diabetic, non-cirrhotic Latino adults without (n=17) or with (n=8) HCV underwent 3-day metabolic assessment before and after prescription of 6 weeks of moderate alcohol discontinuation...
December 8, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220502/identification-of-soybean-host-plant-resistance-to-brown-marmorated-stink-bugs-in-maturity-group-iii-plant-introductions
#2
Jonathan M La Mantia, M A Rouf Mian, Margaret G Redinbaugh
Halyomorpha halys (Stål; Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is a polyphagous nonnative insect first found in the United States in 1996. As of 2017, BMSB has been detected in 43 states and is a severe agricultural pest in mid-Atlantic states. On soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr (Fabales: Fabaceae), damage from BMSB infestation ranges from puncture marks with seed discoloration and deformities to seed and pod abortion. Host plant resistance has been used for managing pest populations and mitigating soybean yield losses caused by neotropical stink bugs (Eushistus heros, Nezara viridula, and Piezodorus guildinii) in Brazil and on the U...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217450/cadm2-regulates-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice
#3
Xin Yan, Zhen Wang, Vanessa Schmidt, Anton Gauert, Thomas E Willnow, Matthias Heinig, Matthew N Poy
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is strongly linked to genes regulating neuronal signaling and function, implicating the central nervous system in the maintenance of body weight and energy metabolism. Genome-wide association studies identified significant associations between body mass index (BMI) and multiple loci near Cell adhesion molecule2 (CADM2), which encodes a mediator of synaptic signaling enriched in the brain. Here we sought to further understand the role of Cadm2 in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia and weight gain...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215299/complex-assessment-of-metabolic-effectiveness-of-insulin-pump-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-beyond-hba1c-reduction
#4
Rudolf Chlup, Sarah Runzis, Javier Castaneda, Scott W Lee, Xuan Nguyen, Ohad Cohen
BACKGROUND: This prospective single-center study recruited insulin-resistant continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using insulin analog-based multiple daily injections (MDI) therapy and metformin. METHODS: A total of 23 individuals with T2D (70% male), aged a mean ± standard deviation 57.2 ± 8.03 years, with body mass index of 36.2 ± 7.02 kg/m2, diabetes duration of 13.3 ± 4.64 years, and HbA1c of 10...
December 7, 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211893/aldosterone-is-not-associated-with-metabolic-and-microvascular-insulin-sensitivity-in-abdominally-obese-men
#5
Monica T J Schütten, Yvo H A M Kusters, Alfons J H M Houben, Jean L J M Scheijen, Marjo P H van de Waarenburg, Casper G Schalkwijk, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Ronald P Mensink, Peter W de Leeuw, Coen D A Stehouwer
Context: Impaired insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment (IMMR) in obese individuals may add to the development of metabolic insulin resistance and hypertension. Increased aldosterone levels have been linked to these obesity-related complications in severely to morbidly obese individuals, and have been found to interfere with microvascular function in experimental studies. Objectives: To investigate whether aldosterone levels are related to IMMR, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in lean and moderately abdominally obese men, and to study the effect of weight loss on these variables...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211027/dietary-intake-of-protein-from-different-sources-and-weight-regain-changes-in-body-composition-and-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-after-weight-loss-the-diogenes-study
#6
Marleen A van Baak, Thomas M Larsen, Susan A Jebb, Alfredo Martinez, Wim H M Saris, Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska, Anthony Kafatos, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Marie Kunešová, Arne Astrup
An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205090/rapamycin-exacerbates-cardiovascular-dysfunction-after-complete-high-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Khalid C Eldahan, David H Cox, Jenna L Gollihue, Samir P Patel, Alexander G Rabchevsky
Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a potentially life-threatening syndrome in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal level that is characterized by episodic hypertension in response to noxious stimuli below the lesion. Maladaptive intraspinal plasticity is thought to contribute to the temporal development of AD, and experimental approaches that reduce such plasticity mitigate the severity of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has gained interest as a mediator of plasticity, regeneration and nociceptor hypersensitivity in the injured spinal cord...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204150/rhizobium-impacts-on-seed-productivity-quality-and-protection-of-pisum-sativum-upon-disease-stress-caused-by-didymella-pinodes-phenotypic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-traits
#8
Nima Ranjbar Sistani, Hans-Peter Kaul, Getinet Desalegn, Stefanie Wienkoop
In field peas, ascochyta blight is one of the most common fungal diseases caused by Didymella pinodes. Despite the high diversity of pea cultivars, only little resistance has been developed until to date, still leading to significant losses in grain yield. Rhizobia as plant growth promoting endosymbionts are the main partners for establishment of symbiosis with pea plants. The key role of Rhizobium as an effective nitrogen source for legumes seed quality and quantity improvement is in line with sustainable agriculture and food security programs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202557/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-lifestyle-modifications-focusing-on-physical-activity
#9
Min-Sun Kwak, Donghee Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with fibrosis is increasing as the population with NAFLD ages. To date, lifestyle modifications including weight loss, increased physical activity, and dietary changes remain the treatment of choice for NAFLD because there are no approved effective pharmacologic agents. Increased physical activity has therapeutic effects on NAFLD by reducing hepatic fat independent of weight reduction...
December 6, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201070/rapid-weight-loss-vs-slow-weight-loss-which-is-more-effective-on-body-composition-and-metabolic-risk-factors
#10
Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Matin Ghanavati, Nasrin Lamuchi-Deli, Seyedeh Arefeh Payami, Sara Alavi-Rad, Mehdi Boustaninejad, Reza Afrisham, Amir Abbasnezhad, Meysam Alipour
Background: Achieving weight loss (WL) in a short time regardless of its consequences has always been the focus of many obese and overweight people. In this study, anthropometric and metabolic effects of two diets for rapid and slow WL and their consequences were examined. Methods: Forty-two obese and overweight individuals were randomly divided to 2 groups; rapid WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 5 weeks) and slow WL (weight loss of at least 5% in 15 weeks). To compare the effects of the rate of WL in 2 groups, the same amount of was achieved with different durations...
July 2017: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200139/hyperkalemia-and-acute-kidney-injury-in-an-adolescent-thinking-outside-the-box
#11
Adam Szadkowski, Allison J Pollock, Awni M Al-Subu
Addison disease is a rare endocrine disorder, which typically presents with nonspecific symptoms including weight loss, fatigue, and nausea in conjunction with hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. This case demonstrates key diagnostic clues in evaluation of an adolescent who presented with severe hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury that was resistant to insulin, glucose, and sodium polystyrene sulfonate and was found to have primary adrenal insufficiency.
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198435/modifications-of-serum-levels-of-omentin-1-and-other-cardiovascular-risk-factors-following-weight-loss-secondary-to-a-mediterranean-hypocaloric-diet
#12
Daniel Antonio de Luis, Olatz Izaola, David Primo, R Aller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Omentin-1 might play a role on insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of weight loss on omentin-1 concentrations after a hypocaloric diet with Mediterranean pattern. METHODS: A Caucasian sample of 67 obese patients was analyzed before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid concentrations and omentin-1 were measured...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197341/frail-phenotype-is-associated-with-distinct-quantitative-electroencephalographic-findings-among-end-stage-renal-disease-patients-an-observational-study
#13
Chia-Ter Chao, Hsin-Jung Lai, Hung-Bin Tsai, Shao-Yo Yang, Jenq-Wen Huang
BACKGROUND: Frailty is prevalent among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. However, apart from its influence on cognition, it is currently unknown whether frailty affects subtler cerebral function in patients with ESRD. METHODS: Patients with ESRD were prospectively enrolled, with clinical features and laboratory data recorded. The severity of frailty among these patients with ESRD was ascertained using the previously validated simple FRAIL scale, and was categorized as none-to-mild and moderate-to-severe frailty...
December 2, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196066/cough-due-to-tuberculosis-and-other-chronic-infections-chest-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#14
Stephen K Field, Patricio Escalante, Dina A Fisher, Belinda Ireland, Richard S Irwin
BACKGROUND: Cough is common in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and other chronic respiratory infections. Identifying features that predict whether pulmonary TB is the cause would help target appropriate individuals for rapid and cost-effective screening, potentially limiting disease progression, and preventing transmission to others. METHODS: A systematic literature search for individual studies to answer 8 Key questions (KQ) was conducted according to established Chest Organization methods using the following databases: MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1/1/1984 to April 2014...
November 28, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192516/knockdown-of-angiopoietin-like-2-mimics-the-benefits-of-intermittent-fasting-on-insulin-responsiveness-and-weight-loss
#15
Cécile Martel, Anthony Pinçon, Alexandre Maxime Bélanger, Xiaoyan Luo, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Olivia de Montgolfier, Nathalie Thorin-Trescases, Éric Thorin
Angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) is an inflammatory adipokine linking obesity to insulin resistance. Intermittent fasting, on the other hand, is a lifestyle intervention able to prevent obesity and diabetes but difficult to implement and maintain. Our objectives were to characterize a link between ANGPTL2 and intermittent fasting and to investigate whether the knockdown of ANGPTL2 reproduces the benefits of intermittent fasting on weight gain and insulin responsiveness in knockdown and wild-type littermates mice...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190720/intramyocellular-triacylglycerol-accumulation-across-weight-loss-strategies-sub-study-of-the-central-trial
#16
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Gal Tsaban, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Lilac Tene, Benjamin Sarusy, Philip Rosen, Jay R Hoffman, Jeffrey R Stout, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND: Intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) is utilized as metabolic fuel during exercise and is linked to insulin resistance, but the long-term effect of weight loss strategies on IMTG among participants with abdominal fat, remain unclear. METHODS: In an 18-month trial, sedentary participants with abdominal fat/dyslipidemia were randomized to either a low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet (including 28g·day-1 of walnuts). After 6-months, the participants were re-randomized to moderate intense physical activity (PA+) or non-physical activity (PA-)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187420/bayesian-diallel-analysis-reveals%C3%A2-mx1-dependent-and%C3%A2-mx1-independent-effects-on-response-to-influenza-a-virus-in-mice
#17
Paul L Maurizio, Martin T Ferris, Gregory R Keele, Darla R Miller, Ginger D Shaw, Alan C Whitmore, Ande West, Clayton R Morrison, Kelsey E Noll, Kenneth S Plante, Adam S Cockrell, David W Threadgill, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Ralph S Baric, Mark T Heise, William Valdar
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a respiratory pathogen that causes substantial morbidity and mortality during both seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Infection outcomes in unexposed populations are affected by host genetics, but this host genetic architecture is not well understood. Here we obtain a broad view of how heritable factors affect a mouse model of response to IAV infection using an 8×8 diallel of the eight inbred founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC). Expanding on a prior statistical framework for modeling treatment response in diallels, we explore how a range of heritable effects modify acute host response to IAV through 4 days post-infection...
November 29, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185927/supplemental-psyllium-fibre-regulates-the-intestinal-barrier-and-inflammation-in-normal-and-colitic-mice
#18
Miyuki Ogata, Tasuku Ogita, Hiroyuki Tari, Teruaki Arakawa, Takuya Suzuki
Our previous study demonstrated that supplemental psyllium fibre increased cytoprotective heat-shock protein (Hsp) 25 levels in the intestinal cells of mice. Here, we examined the effect of psyllium fibre on colonic gene and protein expression and faecal microbiota in normal and colitic mice to improve the understanding of the preventive role of the supplement. DNA microarray analysis revealed that a 10 % psyllium fibre diet administered for 5 d up-regulated eleven extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes, including collagens and fibronectins, in normal mice...
November 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185588/fasting-a-major-limitation-for-resistance-exercise-training-effects-in-rodents
#19
W das Neves, L F de Oliveira, R P da Silva, C R R Alves, A H Lancha
Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study...
November 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183766/ketogenic-diet-using-a-japanese-ketogenic-milk-for-patients-with-epilepsy-a-multi-institutional-study
#20
Tomohiro Kumada, Katsumi Imai, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Shin Nabatame, Hirokazu Oguni
BACKGROUND: In Japan, Meiji 817-B (M817-B), a powdered ketogenic milk, has been available since the ketogenic diet was introduced to infants and tube-fed children with medication-resistant epilepsy in the 1980s. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of the ketogenic diet using M817-B as the main source of daily food intake for patients with epilepsy by sending questionnaires to the members of a subcommittee of the Japan Epilepsy Society that focuses on the proper use of M817-B...
November 25, 2017: Brain & Development
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