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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#1
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900831/cooperation-of-three-chromophores-generates-the-water-resistant-nitrate-nonlinear-optical-material-bi3-teo6-oh-no3-2
#2
Sangen Zhao, Yi Yang, Yaoguo Shen, Bingqing Zhao, Lina Li, Chengmin Ji, Zhenyue Wu, Daqiang Yuan, Zheshuai Lin, Maochun Hong, Junhua Luo
Nitrates have long been ignored for practical uses as nonlinear optical (NLO) materials because they are usually very easy to dissolve in water; despite this, the π-conjugated [NO3 ](-) is among the most desirable NLO-active structural units. The cooperation of three structural chromophores, namely, Bi3 O6 OH short chains with 6s(2) lone pair electrons, distorted TeO6 octahedra with d(10) electrons, and π-conjugated [NO3 ](-) triangles, generates a new nitrate NLO material, Bi3 TeO6 OH(NO3 )2 , which exhibits an enhanced phase-matchable NLO response of three times that of KH2 PO4 (3×KH2 PO4 ), exceeding those of most nitrate NLO materials...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900260/gut-microbiota-and-glucometabolic-alterations-in-response-to-recurrent-partial-sleep-deprivation-in-normal-weight-young-individuals
#3
Christian Benedict, Heike Vogel, Wenke Jonas, Anni Woting, Michael Blaut, Annette Schürmann, Jonathan Cedernaes
OBJECTIVE: Changes to the microbial community in the human gut have been proposed to promote metabolic disturbances that also occur after short periods of sleep loss (including insulin resistance). However, whether sleep loss affects the gut microbiota remains unknown. METHODS: In a randomized within-subject crossover study utilizing a standardized in-lab protocol (with fixed meal times and exercise schedules), we studied nine normal-weight men at two occasions: after two nights of partial sleep deprivation (PSD; sleep opportunity 02:45-07:00 h), and after two nights of normal sleep (NS; sleep opportunity 22:30-07:00 h)...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898183/effect-of-exenatide-on-postprandial-glucose-fluxes-lipolysis-and-%C3%A3-cell-function-in-nondiabetic-morbidly-obese-patients
#4
Stefania Camastra, Brenno Astiarraga, Andrea Tura, Silvia Frascerra, Demetrio Ciociaro, Andrea Mari, Amalia Gastaldelli, Ele Ferrannini
AIMS: To investigate the effect of exenatide on glucose disposal, insulin secretion, ß-cell function, lipolysis, and hormone concentrations in non-diabetic, morbidly obese subjects under physiological conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were assigned to exenatide 10 µg twice daily (EXE, n = 15) or control (CT, n = 15) for 3 months. Patients received a meal test/tracer study (MTT) to measure endogenous glucose production (EGP), rate of oral glucose appearance (RaO), insulin secretion rate (ISR), ß-cell function, hepatic (HIR) and adipose tissue insulin resistance (AT-IR) and insulin sensitivity (IS)...
November 29, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895393/emerging-role-of-obeticholic-acid-in-the-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
EDITORIAL
Evangelia Makri, Evangelos Cholongitas, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the commonest chronic liver disease and its prevalence is increasing driven by the pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and hepatocellular cancer. Diet and exercise are limited by suboptimal long-term adherence in patients with NAFLD. On the other hand, current pharmacological treatment of NAFLD has limited efficacy and unfavorable safety profile. In this context, obeticholic acid (OCA), a selective agonist of the farnesoid X receptors, might represent a useful option in these patients...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892925/a-mouse-model-for-mers-coronavirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
Adam S Cockrell, Boyd L Yount, Trevor Scobey, Kara Jensen, Madeline Douglas, Anne Beall, Xian-Chun Tang, Wayne A Marasco, Mark T Heise, Ralph S Baric
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV...
November 28, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885461/prevention-and-treatment-effect-of-evogliptin-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-fed-animal-models
#7
Mi-Kyung Kim, Yu Na Chae, Gook-Jun Ahn, Chang Yell Shin, Song-Hyen Choi, Eun Kyoung Yang, Yong Sung Sohn, Moon-Ho Son
Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is an adipokine that interrupts insulin signaling. The resulting insulin resistance exacerbates hepatic steatosis. We previously reported that the novel DPP4 inhibitor evogliptin improves insulin resistance. This study aimed to verify the therapeutic potential of evogliptin for fatty liver. Evogliptin treatment was initiated simultaneously with a high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in normal mice and in a post-24 week HFD-fed rats. In a prevention study, insulin sensitivity was preserved in evogliptin-treated mice after a 16-week treatment...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883326/renal-replacement-therapy-in-patients-with-heart-and-kidney-failure
#8
Dimitrios S Goumenos, Evangelos Papachristou, Marios Papasotiriou
The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is high as CKD and CHF share underlying risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Cardiac failure leads to renal hypoperfusion and dysfunction and then fluid overload and need for aggressive diuretic therapy. However, development of diuretic resistance represents a significant problem in the management of these patients. The role of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) is important for patients who do not response to conservative management of fluid overload facilitating the failing heart to restore function...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883272/circulating-adipocyte-derived-exosomal-micrornas-associated-with-decreased-insulin-resistance-after-gastric-bypass
#9
Monica J Hubal, Evan P Nadler, Sarah C Ferrante, Matthew D Barberio, Jung-Hyuk Suh, Justin Wang, G Lynis Dohm, Walter J Pories, Michelle Mietus-Snyder, Robert J Freishtat
OBJECTIVE: Exosomes from obese adipose contain dysregulated microRNAs linked to insulin signaling, as compared with lean controls, providing a direct connection between adiposity and insulin resistance. This study tested the hypotheses that gastric bypass surgery and its subsequent weight loss would normalize adipocyte-derived exosomal microRNAs associated with insulin signaling and the associated metabolome related to glucose homeostasis. METHODS: African American female subjects with obesity (N = 6; age: 38...
November 24, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881395/diet-induced-weight-loss-improves-not-only-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-but-also-markers-of-vascular-function-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-abdominally-obese-men
#10
Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat, Yvo Ham Kusters, Alfons Jhm Houben, Coen DA Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk, Ronald P Mensink
BACKGROUND: Many trials assessing effects of dietary weight loss on vascular function have been performed without no-weight loss control groups and in individuals with obesity-related morbidities. Usually a limited set of vascular function markers has been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine effects of diet-induced weight loss on various vascular function markers and differences between normal-weight and abdominally obese men at baseline and after weight reduction...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877138/a-ketogenic-diet-in-rodents-elicits-improved-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-training-compared-to-an-isocaloric-western-diet
#11
Hayden W Hyatt, Wesley C Kephart, A Maleah Holland, Petey Mumford, C Brooks Mobley, Ryan P Lowery, Michael D Roberts, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis
Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876096/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-very-low-carbohydrate-and-high-carbohydrate-diets-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#12
Jeannie Tay, Ian T Zajac, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Vanessa Danthiir, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, Grant D Brinkworth
This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875980/comparative-genomics-of-european-avian-pathogenic-e-coli-apec
#13
Guido Cordoni, Martin J Woodward, Huihai Wu, Mishaal Alanazi, Tim Wallis, Roberto M La Ragione
BACKGROUND: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes colibacillosis, which results in significant economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. However, the diversity between isolates remains poorly understood. Here, a total of 272 APEC isolates collected from the United Kingdom (UK), Italy and Germany were characterised using multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) targeting 22 equally weighted factors covering virulence genes, R-type and phylogroup. Following these analysis, 95 of the selected strains were further analysed using Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS)...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869777/the-effects-of-mild-gestational-hyperglycemia-on-exclusive-breastfeeding-cessation
#14
Sergio Verd, Diego de Sotto, Consuelo Fernández, Antonio Gutiérrez
Gestational diabetes increases the risk of a range of adverse perinatal outcomes, including breastfeeding failure, but the best cut-off point for gestational diabetes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between mild gestational glucose tolerance impairment and the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This is an observational study of 768 women with full term pregnancies that were screened for gestational diabetes at 24-28 weeks gestation. Subjects were divided into two groups: those with a normal 1-h glucose challenge test and those with an elevated 1-h glucose challenge test but still did not qualify for gestational diabetes...
November 19, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869219/a-novel-role-of-spred2-in-the-colonic-epithelial-cell-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#15
Sakuma Takahashi, Teizo Yoshimura, Takahiro Ohkura, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Soichiro Fushimi, Toshihiro Ito, Junya Itakura, Sakiko Hiraoka, Hiroyuki Okada, Kazuhide Yamamoto, Akihiro Matsukawa
Rapid and adequate mucosal healing is important for a remission of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Here, we examined whether Spred2, a member of the Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing proteins that inhibit the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway, plays a role in colonic mucosal homeostasis and inflammation by using Spred2 knockout (KO) mice. We first detected increased epithelial cell proliferation and cadherin 1 expression in the colon of naïve Spred2 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Interestingly, Spred2 KO mice were resistant to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis as indicated by lower levels of body weight loss and disease activity index...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867884/comparison-clinical-and-metabolic-effects-of-metformin-and-pioglitazone-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#16
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864284/region-specific-role-for-pten-in-maintenance-of-epithelial-phenotype-and-integrity
#17
Per Flodby, Janice Marie Liebler, Mitsuhiro Sunohara, Dan Ran, Alicia M McConnell, Manda Sai Krishnaveni, Agnes Banfalvi, Min Li, Barry R Stripp, Beiyun Zhou, Edward D Crandall, Parviz Minoo, Zea Borok
Previous studies have demonstrated resistance to naphthalene-induced injury in proximal airways of mice with lung epithelial-specific deletion of the tumor-suppressor gene Pten, attributed to increased proliferation of airway progenitors. We tested effects of Pten loss following bleomycin injury, a model typically used to study distal lung epithelial injury, in conditional PtenSFTPC-cre knockout mice. Pten-deficient airway epithelium exhibited marked hyperplasia, particularly in small bronchioles and at bronchoalveolar duct junctions, with reduced E-cadherin and β-catenin expression between cells towards the luminal aspect of the hyperplastic epithelium...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843076/evolution-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-fibrosis-after-bariatric-surgery
#18
K Chabot, M-S Gauthier, P Y Garneau, R Rabasa-Lhoret
AIM: Obesity is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR). The mechanisms leading to IR remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis and IR in obese patients before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Thirty-five obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery (12 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the study. Non-diabetic patients were classified as either insulin-sensitive (n=11) or insulin-resistant (n=12), based on the Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISIMatsuda)...
November 11, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837261/transgenic-sugarcane-overexpressing-canecpi-1-negatively-affects-the-growth-and-development-of-the-sugarcane-weevil-sphenophorus-levis
#19
Vanessa Karine Schneider, Andrea Soares-Costa, Mohan Chakravarthi, Carolina Ribeiro, Sabrina Moutinho Chabregas, Maria Cristina Falco, Flavio Henrique-Silva
Transgenic sugarcane expressing CaneCPI-1 exhibits resistance to Sphenophorus levis larvae. Transgenic plants have widely been used to improve resistance against insect attack. Sugarcane is an economically important crop; however, great losses are caused by insect attack. Sphenophorus levis is a sugarcane weevil that digs tunnels in the stem base, leading to the destruction of the crop. This insect is controlled inefficiently by chemical insecticides. Transgenic plants expressing peptidase inhibitors represent an important strategy for impairing insect growth and development...
November 11, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832862/time-restricted-feeding-improves-insulin-resistance-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-postmenopausal-obesity
#20
Heekyung Chung, Winjet Chou, Dorothy D Sears, Ruth E Patterson, Nicholas J G Webster, Lesley G Ellies
BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting...
December 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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