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Neha Sinha, Chelsie N Berg, Nicholas J Tustison, Ashlee Shaw, Diane Hill, Michael A Yassa, Mark A Gluck
African Americans are 1.4 times more likely than European Americans to carry the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the neural correlates of cognitive function in older African Americans and how they relate to genetic risk for AD. In particular, no past study on African Americans has examined the effect of APOE ε4 status on pattern separation-mnemonic discrimination performance and its corresponding neural computations in the hippocampus...
May 26, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Kit W Cho
Words rated for their survival relevance are remembered better than when rated using other well-known memory mnemonics. This finding, which is known as the survival advantage effect and has been replicated in many studies, suggests that our memory systems are molded by natural selection pressures. In two experiments, the present study used a visual search task to examine whether there is likewise a survival advantage for our visual systems. Participants rated words for their survival relevance or for their pleasantness before locating that object's picture in a search array with 8 or 16 objects...
May 2018: Experimental Psychology
Michael D Geschwind, Katy Murray
Prion diseases are unique in medicine as in humans they occur in sporadic, genetic, and acquired forms. The most common human prion disease is sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), which commonly presents as a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) with behavioral, cerebellar, extrapyramidal, and some pyramidal features, with the median survival from symptom onset to death of just a few months. Because human prion diseases, as well as other RPDs, are relatively rare, they can be difficult to diagnose, as most clinicians have seen few, if any, cases...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Angela Gutchess, Elizabeth A Kensinger
The literatures on episodic memory for self-referential and emotional information have proceeded relatively independently, and most studies examining the effects of age on these memory processes have been interpreted within domain-specific frameworks. However, there is increasing evidence for shared mechanisms that contribute to episodic memory benefits in these two domains. We review this evidence and propose a model that incorporates overlapping as well as domain-specific contributions to episodic memory encoding of self-referential and emotional material...
June 6, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Jeffrey D Wammes, Brady R T Roberts, Myra A Fernandes
Creating a visual representation of an item through drawing affords that item a substantive memory benefit, relative to several control tasks. Recent findings demonstrate the robustness of this drawing effect across several stimulus classes, irrespective of encoding time, setting, age group, or memory measure. The advantage for drawn information has been attributed to the integrated contributions of at least three components of visual production through drawing, which can independently facilitate memory: elaborative, motoric, and pictorial...
June 5, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
Joshua D Koen, Preston P Thakral, Michael D Rugg
The left angular gyrus (AG) is thought to play a critical role in episodic retrieval and has been implicated in the recollection of specific details of prior episodes. Motivated by recent fMRI studies in which it was reported that elevated neural activity in left AG during study is predictive of subsequent associative memory, the present study investigated whether the region plays a causal role in associative memory encoding. Participants underwent online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while encoding word pairs prior to an associative memory test...
June 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Xiaofei Wu, Yu Liu, Jing Luo
Creativeness has been widely recognized as the ability to generate thoughts that are both novel (new) and appropriate (useful) (Barron, 1955). In this paper, we investigated the mnemonic effects of novelty and appropriateness in chunk decomposition tasks. Studies 1 and 2 utilized classical recognition tasks (explicit memory) and ambiguous word identification tasks (implicit memory) to reveal whether novelty and appropriateness are involved in different mnemonic systems. A 2 (familiarity) × 2 (appropriateness) experimental design was utilized in our experiments, and the four conditions were familiar-appropriate, familiar-inappropriate, novel-appropriate and novel-inappropriate...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Manuela Tondelli, Anna M Barbarulo, Giulia Vinceti, Chiara Vincenzi, Annalisa Chiari, Paolo F Nichelli, Giovanna Zamboni
Patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) may present anosognosia for their cognitive deficits. Three different methods have been usually used to measure anosognosia in patients with AD and MCI, but no studies have established if they share similar neuroanatomical correlates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if anosognosia scores obtained with the three most commonly used methods to assess anosognosia relate to focal atrophy in AD and MCI patients, in order to improve understanding of the neural basis of anosognosia in dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
David Fitzpatrick, Michael McKenna, Edward A S Duncan, Colville Laird, Richard Lyon, Alasdair Corfield
BACKGROUND: Poor communication during patient handover is recognised internationally as a root cause of a significant proportion of preventable deaths. Improving the accuracy and quality of handover may reduce associated mortality and morbidity. Although the practice of handover between Ambulance and Emergency Department clinicians has received some attention over recent years there is little evidence to support handover best practice within the prehospital domain. Further research is therefore urgently required to understand the most appropriate way to deliver clinical information exchange in the pre-hospital environment...
June 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Joshua J Rodgers, Joseph S Kass
Medical decision-making capacity, the patient's ability to exercise autonomy reasonably, is an essential component of both informed consent and informed refusal. The assessment of medical decision-making capacity is thus fundamental to the ethical practice of medicine. Medical decision-making capacity is not all or nothing but rather exists on a continuum and should be assessed on a decision-by-decision basis. Alzheimer disease and other neurocognitive disorders can affect a patient's medical decision-making capacity and may pose special challenges to capacity assessment...
June 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Takuya Sasaki
The hippocampal network generates synchronized spikes of a large population of pyramidal neurons associated with sharp-wave ripples in local field potential signals. Ample evidence demonstrates that the synchronized spikes are created by sequential activation of hippocampal place cells that correspond to the animal's past or future trajectories and are hypothesized to play instrumental roles in mnemonic functions. However, not all place-cell spike sequences are precisely organized, and some sequences are composed of spikes from non-spatial cells, implying that not all hippocampal synchronized events directly replicate learned behavioral episodes...
May 26, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Sanjay Kalra, Komal Verma
This article discusses a simplified, yet comprehensive approach to handle complex varieties of emotions related to insulin injections prescribed to patients with diabetes. Diabetes management requires balancing of biomedical and psychosocial complexities, so that varied emotions faced by individuals with diabetes which lead to undesirable reactions/behavior are understood and managed. This realization has inspired useful mnemonics such as OPEN OUT, SHAKTI, ASHA/HOPE, SHANTI/SHALOM, and LISTEN. These, if used in diabetes care practice, will make insulin acceptable and well tolerated...
May 28, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Daniela J Palombo, Signy Sheldon, Brian Levine
Although humans have a remarkable capacity to recall a wealth of detail from the past, there are marked interindividual differences in the quantity and quality of our mnemonic experiences. Such differences in autobiographical memory may appear self-evident, yet there has been little research on this topic. In this review, we synthesize an emerging body of research regarding individual differences in autobiographical memory. We focus on two syndromes that fall at the extremes of the 'remembering' dimension: highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) and severely deficient autobiographical memory (SDAM)...
May 25, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Candice C Morey
The dominant paradigm for understanding working memory, or the combination of the perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic processes needed for thinking, subdivides short-term memory (STM) according to whether memoranda are encoded in aural-verbal or visual formats. This traditional dissociation has been supported by examples of neuropsychological patients who seem to selectively lack STM for either aural-verbal, visual, or spatial memoranda, and by experimental research using dual-task methods. Though this evidence is the foundation of assumptions of modular STM systems, the case it makes for a specialized visual STM system is surprisingly weak...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Meneka Kaur Sidhu, John S Duncan, Josemir W Sander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy neuroimaging is important for detecting the seizure onset zone, predicting and preventing deficits from surgery and illuminating mechanisms of epileptogenesis. An aspiration is to integrate imaging and genetic biomarkers to enable personalized epilepsy treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability to detect lesions, particularly focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis, is increased using ultra high-field imaging and postprocessing techniques such as automated volumetry, T2 relaxometry, voxel-based morphometry and surface-based techniques...
May 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sathesan Thavabalasingam, Edward B O'Neil, Andy C H Lee
Recent rodent work suggests the hippocampus may provide a temporal representation of event sequences, in which the order of events and the interval durations between them are encoded. There is, however, limited human evidence for the latter, in particular whether the hippocampus processes duration information pertaining to the passage of time rather than qualitative or quantitative changes in event content. We scanned participants while they made match/mismatch judgements on each trial between a study sequence of events and a subsequent test sequence...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Stéphie Ratovohery, Alexia Baudouin, Aude Gachet, Juliette Palisson, Pauline Narme
Age-related differences in episodic memory have been explained by a decrement in strategic encoding implementation. It has been shown in clinical populations that music can be used during the encoding stage as a mnemonic strategy to learn verbal information. The effectiveness of this strategy remains equivocal in older adults (OA). Furthermore, the impact of the emotional valence of the music used has never been investigated in this context. Thirty OA and 24 young adults (YA) learned texts that were either set to music that was positively or negatively valenced, or spoken only...
May 17, 2018: Memory
Ralph M Trüeb
Traditionally, syndromes have been named after the physician who originally identified the condition. These are referred to as eponymous syndromes. Nevertheless, the term eponym is to be regarded in a broader sense, since - by definition - an eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which something is named. Accordingly, some eponymous syndromes do not refer to the physician who originally reported the condition, but alternatively to the indicator patient, a geographic location, or a historical, literary, or mythological context...
April 2018: Skin Appendage Disorders
Leslie Rollins, Elizabeth B Cloude
The present study examined mnemonic discrimination in 5- and 6-yr-old children, 8- and 9-yr-old children, 11- and 12-yr-old children, and young adults. Participants incidentally encoded pictorial stimuli and subsequently judged whether targets (i.e., repeated stimuli), lures (i.e., mnemonically related stimuli), and foils (i.e., novel stimuli) were old, similar, or new. Compared to older age groups, younger children were more likely to (1) incorrectly identify lures as "old" (rather than "similar") and (2) fail to recognize lures altogether, especially when lures were more mnemonically distinct from targets...
June 2018: Learning & Memory
Ashley Sanello, Marianne Gausche-Hill, William Mulkerin, Karl A Sporer, John F Brown, Kristi L Koenig, Eric M Rudnick, Angelo A Salvucci, Gregory H Gilbert
Introduction: In the United States emergency medical services (EMS) protocols vary widely across jurisdictions. We sought to develop evidence-based recommendations for the prehospital evaluation and treatment of a patient with an acute change in mental status and to compare these recommendations against the current protocols used by the 33 EMS agencies in the State of California. Methods: We performed a literature review of the current evidence in the prehospital treatment of a patient with altered mental status (AMS) and augmented this review with guidelines from various national and international societies to create our evidence-based recommendations...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
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