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Jordana S Wynn, Rosanna K Olsen, Malcolm A Binns, Bradley R Buchsbaum, Jennifer D Ryan
Research using eye movement monitoring suggests that recapitulating the pattern of eye movements made during stimulus encoding at subsequent retrieval supports memory by reinstating the spatial layout of the encoded stimulus. In the present study, the authors investigated whether recapitulation of encoding fixations during a poststudy, stimulus-free delay period-an effect that has been previously linked to memory maintenance in younger adults-can support mnemonic performance in older adults. Older adults showed greater delay-period fixation reinstatement than younger adults, and this reinstatement supported age-equivalent performance on a subsequent visuospatial-memory-based change detection task, whereas in younger adults, the performance-enhancing effects of fixation reinstatement increased with task difficulty...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
Andrew C Heusser, Youssef Ezzyat, Ilana Shiff, Lila Davachi
Episodic memories are not veridical records of our lives, but rather are better described as organized summaries of experience. Theories and empirical research suggest that shifts in perceptual, temporal, and semantic information lead to a chunking of our continuous experiences into segments, or "events." However, the consequences of these contextual shifts on memory formation and organization remains unclear. In a series of 3 behavioral studies, we introduced context shifts (or "event boundaries") between trains of stimuli and then examined the influence of the boundaries on several measures of associative memory...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
David Berron, Katja Neumann, Anne Maass, Hartmut Schütze, Klaus Fliessbach, Verena Kiven, Frank Jessen, Magdalena Sauvage, Dharshan Kumaran, Emrah Düzel
There is now converging evidence from studies in animals and humans that the medial temporal lobes (MTLs) harbor anatomically distinct processing pathways for object and scene information. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans suggest that this domain-specific organization may be associated with a functional preference of the anterior-lateral part of the entorhinal cortex (alErC) for objects and the posterior-medial entorhinal cortex (pmErC) for scenes. As MTL subregions are differentially affected by aging and neurodegenerative diseases, the question was raised whether aging may affect the 2 pathways differentially...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
G R I Barker, E C Warburton
Recognition memory for single items requires the perirhinal cortex (PRH), while recognition of an item and its associated location, requires a functional interaction between the PRH, hippocampus (HPC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). While the precise mechanisms through which these interactions are effected are unknown, the nucleus reuniens (NRe) has bidirectional connections with each regions and hence may play a role in recognition memory. Here we investigated, in male rats, whether specific manipulations of NRe function affected performance of recognition memory for single items, object location or object-in-place associations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Erik A Wing, Vijeth Iyengar, Thomas M Hess, Kevin S LaBar, Scott A Huettel, Roberto Cabeza
Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face pictures...
February 9, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
G Sirgo Rodríguez, M Chico Fernández, F Gordo Vidal, M García Arias, M S Holanda Peña, B Azcarate Ayerdi, E Bisbal Andrés, A Ferrándiz Sellés, P J Lorente García, M García García, P Merino de Cos, J M Allegue Gallego, A García de Lorenzo Y Mateos, J Trenado Álvarez, P Rebollo Gómez, M C Martín Delgado
Handover is a frequent and complex task that also implies the transfer of the responsibility of the care. The deficiencies in this process are associated with important gaps in clinical safety and also in patient and professional dissatisfaction, as well as increasing health cost. Efforts to standardize this process have increased in recent years, appearing numerous mnemonic tools. Despite this, local are heterogeneous and the level of training in this area is low. The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of IT while providing a methodological structure that favors effective IT in ICU, reducing the risk associated with this process...
February 6, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Qiang Chen, Gianluca Ursini, Adrienne L Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Karleigh Mezeivtch, Ena Xiao, Giulio Pergola, Giuseppe Blasi, Richard E Straub, Joseph H Callicott, Karen F Berman, Ahmad R Hariri, Alessandro Bertolino, Venkata S Mattay, Daniel R Weinberger
The use of polygenic risk scores has become a practical translational approach to investigating the complex genetic architecture of schizophrenia, but the link between polygenic risk scores and pathophysiological components of this disorder has been the subject of limited research. We investigated in healthy volunteers whether schizophrenia polygenic risk score predicts hippocampal activity during simple memory encoding, which has been proposed as a risk-associated intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. We analysed the relationship between polygenic risk scores and hippocampal activity in a discovery sample of 191 unrelated healthy volunteers from the USA and in two independent replication samples of 76 and 137 healthy unrelated participants from Europe and the USA, respectively...
February 3, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Giulia A Aldi, Iris Lange, Cristiana Gigli, Lies Goossens, Koen R Schruers, Fiammetta Cosci
OBJECTIVE: Pattern separation (PS) is the ability to represent similar experiences as separate, non-overlapping representations. It is usually assessed via the Mnemonic Similarity Task - Object Version (MST-O) which, however, assesses PS performance without taking behavioral context discrimination into account, since it is based on pictures of everyday simple objects on a white background. We here present a validation study for a new task, the Mnemonic Similarity Task - Context Version (MST-C), which is designed to measure PS while taking behavioral context discrimination into account by using real-life context photographs...
February 1, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Ilana J Bennett, Shauna M Stark, Craig E L Stark
Objectives: The current study examined recognition memory dysfunction and its neuroanatomical substrates in cognitively normal older adults and those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Participants completed the Mnemonic Similarity Task, which provides simultaneous measures of recognition memory and mnemonic discrimination. They also underwent structural neuroimaging to assess volume of medial temporal cortex and hippocampal subfields. Results: As expected, individuals diagnosed with MCI had significantly worse recognition memory performance and reduced volume across medial temporal cortex and hippocampal subfields relative to cognitively normal older adults...
February 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Paul M Cromwell, Michael Flood, Emer O Connell, Waqar Khan, Ronan Waldron, Iqbal Khan, Kevin Barry
OBJECTIVE: To construct and pilot an educational tool to improve the quality of postoperative documentation at Mayo University Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective data were collected from 100 consecutive patients treated surgically during October to November 2016. The first written ward based note following surgery was analyzed against RCS quality standards outlined in "Good Surgical Practice." An educational tool was then constructed to improve postoperative documentation...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Nicole D Anderson, Chris B Martin, Julia Czyzo, Stefan Köhler
Objectives: Aging is associated with decreased recollection required to offset misleading effects of familiarity, as well as an increased mnemonic reliance on gist-based over detail-based information. We tested the novel hypothesis that age-related decrements in overriding familiarity can be eliminated under conditions in which gist-based information facilitates retrieval. Method: Twenty-seven younger adults and 27 older adults viewed scenes from two categories in an incidental encoding phase...
January 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Stephanie L Leal, Michael A Yassa
Pattern separation, the ability to independently represent and store similar experiences, is a crucial facet of episodic memory. Growing evidence suggests that the hippocampus possesses unique circuitry that is computationally capable of resolving mnemonic interference by using pattern separation. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of this process and evaluate the caveats and limitations of linking across animal and human studies. We summarize clinical and translational studies using methods that are sensitive to pattern separation impairments, an approach that stems from the fact that the hippocampus is a major site of disruption in many brain disorders...
February 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Kristina Watterson, Maggie Jo Hauck, Amanda Auker, Rebecca Burns, Julianne Greider, Melissa Marlin, Natalie McAlpin, Shannon Melville, Jennifer Shirley, LaQuisha Stevens, Cathy Logan, Erika Fenimore
Peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are commonly used in pediatric medical-surgical orthopedic and neurology populations but are at risk of dislodgement with subsequent infiltration of fluids and/or medications. This quality improvement project sought to decrease the incidence of infiltration by creating an educational awareness program for both staff nurses and families using the S.T.I.C.K. mnemonic bundle. Rates of PIV catheter infiltration on a pediatric medical-surgical orthopedic and neurology unit were found to decrease when staff nurses utilized the S...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Lezio S Bueno-Junior, José E Peixoto-Santos, Rafael N Ruggiero, Milton A V Ávila, Danilo B Marques, Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar, João P Leite
The prefrontal cortex integrates a variety of cognition-related inputs, either unidirectional, e.g., from the hippocampal formation, or bidirectional, e.g., with the limbic thalamus. While the former is usually implicated in synaptic plasticity, the latter is better known for regulating ongoing activity. Interactions between these processes via prefrontal neurons are possibly important for linking mnemonic and executive functions. Our work further elucidates such dynamics using in vivo electrophysiology in rats...
January 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Yu Luo, Guillén Fernández, Erno Hermans, Susanne Vogel, Yu Zhang, Hong Li, Floris Klumpers
Stress-related disorders, e.g., anxiety and depression, are characterized by decreased top-down control for distracting information, as well as a memory bias for threatening information. However, it is unclear how acute stress biases mnemonic encoding and leads to prioritized storage of threat-related information even if outside the focus of attention. In the current study, healthy adults (N = 53, all male) were randomly assigned to stress induction using the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) or a control condition...
January 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Brittany Ransom, Karen Winters
What is the effectiveness of the I-PASS mnemonic in reducing handoff related errors during inter- or intrahospital transfers for hospitalized patients?The objective of this systematic review is to identify the impact of the I-PASS mnemonic during hospitalized patient inter- or intrahospital transfers on medication errors, transfer delays, treatment delays and mortality.More specifically, the objective is to identify the effect that the I-PASS mnemonic has on handoff related errors during inter or intrahospital patient transfers by comparing rates pre and post I-PASS implementation...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Mariam N Salib, Tadeusz F Molinski
Six new cyclopenta[g]indoles were isolated from a West Australian sponge, Trikentrion flabbeliforme Hentschel, 1912 and their structures elucidated by integrated spectroscopic analysis. The compounds are analogs of previously described trikentrins, herbindoles and trikentramides from related Axinellid sponges. The assignment of absolute configuration of the new compounds was carried out largely by comparative analysis of specific rotation, calculated and measured ECD and exploiting van't Hoff's principle of optical superposition...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Clarence Cryer
In many health care settings, hospital readmissions represent poor quality and increased costs. The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation includes reduced readmission rates among key performance indicators for the quality of care provided to inmates. More than 25% of the institutions continue to face challenges in minimizing these occurrences. Despite historic deficiencies, the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison at Corcoran reduced 30-day readmissions over a 2-year period...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Josef Parvizi, Anthony D Wagner
Human lateral PPC demonstrates rich, functional heterogeneity across its subregions, including during mnemonic and numerical decision tasks. In this issue of Neuron, Rutishauser et al. (2018) report striking local heterogeneity within a small patch of anterior IPS at the neuronal level during memory-based decisions.
January 3, 2018: Neuron
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