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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213515/rehabilitation-in-severe-memory-deficit-a-case-study
#1
Nariana Mattos Figueiredo Sousa
The term amnesia refers to a pathological state of mind in which memory and learning are affected to a greater extent than other cognitive functions in a patient without altered level of consciousness. The aim of the current study was to describe a case of severe amnesia in a patient during neurological rehabilitation and to report the importance of preserved cognitive functions to compensate for the mnemonic deficit. VJA presented a clinical condition suggestive of encephalopathy due to caloric-protein malnutrition following several abdominal surgical procedures for complicated choledocholithiasis...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205291/interactive-effects-of-seizure-frequency-and-lateralization-on-intratemporal-effective-connectivity-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Chang-Hyun Park, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Hwa-Kyung Chung, A-Reum Jung, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Hyang Woon Lee
OBJECTIVE: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) show brain connectivity changes in association with cognitive impairment. Seizure frequency and lateralization are 2 important clinical factors that characterize epileptic seizures. In this study, we sought to examine an interactive effect of the 2 seizure factors on intratemporal effective connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in patients with TLE. METHODS: For rsfMRI data acquired from 48 TLE patients and 45 healthy controls, we applied stochastic dynamical causal modeling to infer effective connectivity between 3 medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions, including the hippocampus (Hipp), parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and amygdala (Amyg), ipsilateral to the seizure focus...
December 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198270/contributions-to-understanding-the-neuropsychology-of-alcoholism-an-ins-legacy
#3
Edith V Sullivan
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) has been a major cause of family, social, and personal strife for centuries, with current prevalence estimates of 14% for 12-month and 29% lifetime AUD. Neuropsychological testing of selective cognitive, sensory, and motor functions complemented with in vivo brain imaging has enabled tracking the consequences of AUD, which follows a dynamic course of development, maintenance, and recovery or relapse. Controlled studies of alcoholism reviewed herein provide evidence for disruption of selective functions involving executive, visuospatial, mnemonic, emotional, and attentional processes, response inhibition, prosody, and postural stability and brain systems supporting these functions...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187172/investing-in-the-use-of-a-checklist-during-differential-diagnoses-consideration-what-s-the-trade-off
#4
Keng Sheng Chew, Jeroen J G van Merrienboer, Steven J Durning
BACKGROUND: A key challenge clinicians face when considering differential diagnoses is whether the patient data have been adequately collected. Insufficient data may inadvertently lead to premature closure of the diagnostic process. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that the application of a mnemonic checklist helps to stimulate more patient data collection, thus leading to better diagnostic consideration. METHODS: A total of 88 final year medical students were assigned to either an educational intervention group or a control group in a non-equivalent group post-test only design...
November 29, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186621/is-the-voice-an-auditory-face-an-ale-meta-analysis-comparing-vocal-and-facial-emotion-processing
#5
Annett Schirmer
This meta-analysis compares the brain structures and mechanisms involved in facial and vocal emotion recognition. Neuroimaging studies contrasting emotional with neutral (face: N = 76, voice: N = 34) and explicit with implicit emotion processing (face: N = 27, voice: N = 20) were collected to shed light on stimulus and goal driven mechanisms, respectively. Activation likelihood estimations were conducted on the full data sets for the separate modalities and on reduced, modality-matched data sets for modality comparison...
November 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180157/the-development-and-piloting-of-attend-dr-a-clinical-teaching-tool-to-identify-and-prioritize-potential-causes-of-adverse-drug-reactions
#6
Michelle King, Sohil Khan
BACKGROUND: The identification, management, and reporting of adverse drug reactions are integral to clinical practice and education; however, undergraduate teaching related to adverse drug reactions may be inadequate for practice. Existing methods of causality assessment have a number of limitations in relation to clinical teaching, for example, they do not deal well with the concurrent use of other medications. OBJECTIVE: To develop and pilot a teaching tool to guide students through the process of identifying and prioritizing potential causes of an adverse drug reaction...
January 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174819/considering-sex-differences-in-the-cognitive-controls-of-feeding
#7
Camille H Sample, Terry L Davidson
Women are disproportionately affected by obesity, and obesity increases women's risk of developing dementia more so than men. Remarkably little is known about how females make decisions about when and how much to eat. Research in animal models with males supports a framework in which previous experiences with external food cues and internal physiological energy states, and the ability to retrieve memories of the consequences of eating, determines subsequent food intake. Additional evidence indicates that consumption of a high-fat, high-sugar diet interferes with hippocampal-dependent mnemonic processes that operate to suppress eating, such as in situations of satiety...
November 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173261/the-importance-of-cognitive-map-placement-in-bile-duct-injuries
#8
Francis Sutherland, Elijah Dixon
Bile duct injuries often occur because of surgeon spatial disorientation. The psychological concept of cognitive map misplacement is a useful explanation of how this disorientation and injury occurs. Surgeons may find that using a "bile duct time out" is a helpful way to orient. Based on the mnemonic B-SAFE, they can use 5 subhepatic landmarks (B, bile duct; S, sulcus of Rouviere; A, hepatic artery; F, umbilical fissure; E, enteric/duodenum) to correctly place their cognitive map.
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170537/hippocampal-mrs-and-subfield-volumetry-at-7t-detects-dysfunction-not-specific-to-seizure-focus
#9
Natalie L Voets, Carl J Hodgetts, Arjune Sen, Jane E Adcock, Uzay Emir
Ultra high-field 7T MRI offers sensitivity to localize hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but has rarely been evaluated in patients with normal-appearing clinical MRI. We applied multimodal 7T MRI to assess if focal subfield atrophy and deviations in brain metabolites characterize epileptic hippocampi. Twelve pre-surgical TLE patients (7 MRI-negative) and age-matched healthy volunteers were scanned at 7T. Hippocampal subfields were manually segmented from 600μm isotropic resolution susceptibility-weighted images...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169264/adaptive-memory-remembering-potential-mates
#10
Josefa N S Pandeirada, Natália Lisandra Fernandes, Marco Vasconcelos, James S Nairne
According to the adaptive memory perspective, memory should function more efficiently in fitness-relevant domains. The current work explored whether there is a mnemonic tuning in a fundamental domain for human evolution: reproduction. In two experiments, female participants assessed how desirable potential male candidates (represented by a face and a short descriptor) would be in the context of a long-term mating relationship or in the context of a long-term work relationship. Then, after a short distractor task, participants performed a recognition task for the faces and a source memory task...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165763/neuropsychological-intervention-of-minimal-cognitive-impairment-including-language-deficits
#11
Y Zhao, H Li
OBJECTIVE: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an early dementia or discrete memory loss. The cognitive deficit in MCI impedes people's daily activities, which influences multiple aspects of thinking and acting including attention, reading, writing, reasoning, language, and judgment. This review aims to assess the outcome of various neuropsychological interventions in treating MCI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCI causes memory problems and is characterized by the cognitive damage that is disproportionate about individual education background and age...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163254/using-self-generated-cues-to-facilitate-recall-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca L Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert
We draw upon the Associative Network model of memory, as well as the principles of encoding-retrieval specificity, and cue distinctiveness, to argue that self-generated cue mnemonics offer an intuitive means of facilitating reliable recall of personally experienced events. The use of a self-generated cue mnemonic allows for the spreading activation nature of memory, whilst also presenting an opportunity to capitalize upon cue distinctiveness. Here, we present the theoretical rationale behind the use of this technique, and highlight the distinction between a self-generated cue and a self-referent cue in autobiographical memory research...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156059/clinical-pearl-the-rule-of-8
#13
Kevin Lu Shen, Amit R Bhatt
Preschool-aged children typically perform worse than 20/20 on visual acuity testing in the absence of ocular or visual pathway abnormalities due to non-ocular issues, including concentration, cooperation, and/or confidence. As a result, vision screening for this age group can be a challenge. The "Rule of 8" is an easy-to-remember, highly effective mnemonic that clinicians can use to help differentiate children who are performing visual acuity testing at age-appropriate levels from those who may need further evaluation...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142387/fast-hugs-bid-modified-mnemonic-for-surgical-patient
#14
Abhijit S Nair, Vibhavari Milind Naik, Basanth Kumar Rayani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138923/hippocampal-caudate-nucleus-interactions-support-exceptional-memory-performance
#15
Nils C J Müller, Boris N Konrad, Nils Kohn, Monica Muñoz-López, Michael Czisch, Guillén Fernández, Martin Dresler
Participants of the annual World Memory Championships regularly demonstrate extraordinary memory feats, such as memorising the order of 52 playing cards in 20 s or 1000 binary digits in 5 min. On a cognitive level, memory athletes use well-known mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci. However, whether these feats are enabled solely through the use of mnemonic strategies or whether they benefit additionally from optimised neural circuits is still not fully clarified. Investigating 23 leading memory athletes, we found volumes of their right hippocampus and caudate nucleus were stronger correlated with each other compared to matched controls; both these volumes positively correlated with their position in the memory sports world ranking...
November 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138109/mesopontine-neurons-implicated-in-anesthetic-loss-of-consciousness-have-either-ascending-or-descending-axonal-projections-but-not-both
#16
Adi Miriam Goldenberg, Anne Minert, Yelena Fishman, Gilly Wolf, Marshall Devor
The MPTA (mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area) is a key node in a network of axonal pathways that collectively engage the key components of general anesthesia: immobility and atonia, analgesia, amnesia and loss-of-consciousness. In this study we have applied double retrograde tracing to analyze MPTA connectivity, with a focus on axon collateralization. Prior tracer studies have shown that collectively, MPTA neurons send descending projections to spinal and medullary brain targets associated with atonia and analgesia as well as ascending projections to forebrain structures associated with amnesia and arousal...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129536/event-boundaries-trigger-rapid-memory-reinstatement-of-the-prior-events-to-promote-their-representation-in-long-term-memory
#17
Ignasi Sols, Sarah DuBrow, Lila Davachi, Lluís Fuentemilla
Although everyday experiences unfold continuously over time, shifts in context, or event boundaries, can influence how those events come to be represented in memory [1-4]. Specifically, mnemonic binding across sequential representations is more challenging at context shifts, such that successful temporal associations are more likely to be formed within than across contexts [1, 2, 5-9]. However, in order to preserve a subjective sense of continuity, it is important that the memory system bridge temporally adjacent events, even if they occur in seemingly distinct contexts...
November 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123562/the-role-of-occupational-and-physiotherapy-in-multi-modal-approach-to-tackling-delirium-in-the-intensive-care
#18
REVIEW
Jenny Rains, Nigel Chee
The presence of delirium within critical care remains a long-standing challenge for patients and clinicians alike. A myriad of pre-disposing and precipitating factors lead to this patient cohort being high risk for developing delirium during their critical care stay. Until now, non-pharmacological management of these patients usually encompasses a 'bundle' of principles to reduce delirium days. These bundles have limited focus on the entire multi-disciplinary team (including occupational therapists and physiotherapists) who could assist with the reduction of delirium...
November 2017: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120893/ce-pressure-injuries-caused-by-medical-devices-and-other-objects-a-clinical-update
#19
Barbara Ann Delmore, Elizabeth A Ayello
: At the April 2016 National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) consensus conference, terminology and staging definitions were updated and two definitions were revised to describe pressure injuries (PIs) caused by medical devices or other items on the skin or mucosa. Here, the authors discuss the etiology and prevention of PIs resulting from medical and other devices, the frequency of such injuries, and the bodily sites at which they most often occur. They provide an overview of the current NPUAP guideline, highlight important risk factors, and explain why mucosal PIs cannot be staged...
December 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116882/lingering-cognitive-states-shape-fundamental-mnemonic-abilities
#20
Anuya Patil, Katherine Duncan
Why are people sometimes able to recall associations in exquisite detail while at other times left frustrated by the deficiencies of memory? Although this apparent fickleness of memory has been extensively studied by investigating factors that build strong memory traces, researchers know less about whether memory success also depends on cognitive states that are in place when a cue is encountered. Motivating this possibility, neurocomputational models propose that the hippocampus's capacity to support associative recollection (pattern completion) is biased by persistent neurochemical states, which can be elicited by exposure to familiarity and novelty...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
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