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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025447/enough-is-not-enough-medical-students-knowledge-of-early-warning-signs-of-childhood-cancer
#1
Jennifer Ann Geel, Brent T Stevenson, Rebecca B Jennings, Lisa E Krook, Sinead J Winnan, Bracha T Katz, T J Fox, Lukhanyo Nyati
BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of childhood cancer in upper-middle-income South Africa (SA) is much lower than in high-income countries, partly due to under-diagnosis and under-reporting. Documented survival rates are disturbingly low, prompting an analysis of potential factors that may be responsible. OBJECTIVES: To determine final-year medical students' level of knowledge of early warning signs of childhood cancer and whether a correlation existed between test scores and participants' age, gender and previous exposure to a person with cancer...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022277/teaching-clinical-reasoning-with-an-example-mnemonic-for-the-neuropsychiatric-syndromes-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Matthew E Peters, Khaled Moussawi, Vani Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Academic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021371/consumption-of-a-double-fortified-salt-affects-perceptual-attentional-and-mnemonic-functioning-in-women-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-india
#3
Michael J Wenger, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Julie Eh Nevins, Sudha Venkatramanan, Gregory A Reinhart, Annie Wesley, Jere D Haas
Background: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have negative effects on aspects of perception, attention, and memory.Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the extent to which increases in dietary iron consumption are related to improvements in behavioral measures of perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function.Methods: Women were selected from a randomized, double-blind, controlled food-fortification trial involving ad libitum consumption of either a double-fortified salt (DFS) containing 47 mg potassium iodate/kg and 3...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990319/a-qualitative-study-on-community-pharmacists-decision-making-process-when-making-a-diagnosis
#4
Vassiliki Sinopoulou, Paul Summerfield, Paul Rutter
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Self-care policies are increasingly directing patients to seek advice from community pharmacists. This means pharmacists need to have sound diagnostic decision-making skills to enable them to recognise a variety of conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the process by which pharmacists manage patient signs and symptoms and to explore their use of decision-making for diagnostic purposes. METHODS: Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with community pharmacists working in England, between August 2013 and November 2014...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989788/caching-for-where-and-what-evidence-for-a-mnemonic-strategy-in-a-scatter-hoarder
#5
Mikel M Delgado, Lucia F Jacobs
Scatter-hoarding animals face the task of maximizing retrieval of their scattered food caches while minimizing loss to pilferers. This demand should select for mnemonics, such as chunking, i.e. a hierarchical cognitive representation that is known to improve recall. Spatial chunking, where caches with the same type of content are related to each other in physical location and memory, would be one such mechanism. Here we tested the hypothesis that scatter-hoarding eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are organizing their caches in spatial patterns consistent with a chunking strategy...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978520/comparative-effectiveness-of-a-mnemonic-use-approach-vs-self-study-to-interpret-a-lateral-chest-x-ray
#6
Michael Thompson, Dallin Johansen, Russell Stoner, Allison Jarstad, Robert Sorrells, Michele L McCarroll, Wade Justice
The chest X-ray is the most commonly performed medical imaging study; however, the lateral chest film intimidates many physicians and medical students. The lateral view is more difficult to interpret than the frontal view but provides important information that is either not visible or not as evident on frontal view, and inability to read it may lead to missed diagnoses and more expensive imaging. The objective of this study was to assess a novel mnemonic-based approach to teaching medical students to proficiently read a lateral film using a prospective pilot study...
December 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974150/production-on-hold-delaying-vocal-production-enhances-the-production-effect-in-free-recall
#7
Yaniv Mama, Michal Icht
The Production Effect (PE) represents superior memory for produced (read aloud) relative to non-produced (silently read) items. Another method of improving memory is taking a test on the study material - the Testing Effect. We evaluated the combined influence of both effects on free recall memory, using delayed vocal production, in which study words were vocally produced only after their disappearance. Such procedure involves an initial instant test since participants had to vocally retrieve the words (rather than read them aloud)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968744/olfactory-context-dependent-memory-and-the-effects-of-affective-congruency
#8
Ryan P M Hackländer, Christina Bermeitinger
Odors have been claimed to be particularly effective mnemonic cues, possibly because of the strong links between olfaction and emotion processing. Indeed, past research has shown that odors can bias processing towards affectively congruent material. In order to determine whether this processing bias translates to memory we conducted two olfactory-enhanced-context memory experiments where we manipulated affective congruency between the olfactory context and to-be-remembered material. Given the presumed importance of valence to olfactory perception, we hypothesized that memory would be best for affectively congruent material in the olfactory enhanced context groups...
September 7, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968648/cortical-and-subcortical-contributions-to-long-term-memory-guided-visuospatial-attention
#9
Maya L Rosen, Chantal E Stern, Kathryn J Devaney, David C Somers
Long-term memory (LTM) helps to efficiently direct and deploy the scarce resources of the attentional system; however, the neural substrates that support LTM-guidance of visual attention are not well understood. Here, we present results from fMRI experiments that demonstrate that cortical and subcortical regions of a network defined by resting-state functional connectivity are selectively recruited for LTM-guided attention, relative to a similarly demanding stimulus-guided attention paradigm that lacks memory retrieval and relative to a memory retrieval paradigm that lacks covert deployment of attention...
July 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950264/an-abc-of-the-warning-signs-of-hereditary-angioedema
#10
Anete Sevciovic Grumach, Natasha Ferraroni, Maria Margarita Olivares, Maria Concepción López-Serrano, Anette Bygum
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency is a genetic disorder that clinically manifests with attacks of angioedema in the subcutaneous and submucosal tissues, mainly in the extremities, abdomen, and upper airway. During attacks, vascular permeability is increased due to increased bradykinin (BK). This means that special therapies are needed for attacks that do not respond to traditional antiallergic therapies involving antihistamines, corticosteroids, and epinephrine. The recurring attacks may disable patients and lead to frequent visits to emergency rooms where misdiagnoses are common...
September 27, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912950/quality-improvement-regarding-handoff
#11
Scott Studeny, Lauren Burley, Kelsey Cowen, Melanie Akers, Kelly O'Neill, Susan L Flesher
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have emphasized the importance of effectual communication during patient handoffs. The objectives of this study were to (1) implement a resident-driven quality improvement project to improve handoffs by including key elements that are necessary for a safe and effective handoff. We chose to use the IPASS (illness severity, patient summary, action items, situation awareness and contingency planning, synthesis by receiver) mnemonic as our standardized handoff model; (2) Consider balancing measures in an effort to be aware of any negative effects of our interventions on resident satisfaction with the system...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904893/surgical-patient-selection-and-counseling
#12
REVIEW
Matt Ziegelmann, Tobias S Köhler, George C Bailey, Tanner Miest, Manaf Alom, Landon Trost
The objectives of patient selection and counseling are ultimately to enhance successful outcomes. However, the definition for success is often narrowly defined in published literature (ability to complete surgery, complications, satisfaction) and fails to account for patient desires and expectations, temporal changes, natural history of underlying diseases, or independent validation. Factors associated with satisfaction and dissatisfaction are often surgery-specific, although correlation with pre-operative expectations, revisions, and complications are common with most procedures...
August 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888073/selective-decline-of-neurotrophin-and-neurotrophin-receptor-genes-within-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-and-hippocampus-proper-correlation-with-cognitive-performance-and-neuropathology-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Stephen D Ginsberg, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Melissa J Alldred, Shaoli Che, Irina Elarova, Yinghua Chen, Freddy Jeanneteau, Thorsten M Kranz, Moses V Chao, Scott E Counts, Elliott J Mufson
Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, a major component of the medial temporal lobe memory circuit, are selectively vulnerable during the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cellular mechanism(s) underlying degeneration of these neurons and the relationship to cognitive performance remains largely undefined. Here, we profiled neurotrophin and neurotrophin receptor gene expression within microdissected CA1 neurons along with regional hippocampal dissections from subjects who died with a clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD using laser capture microdissection (LCM), custom-designed microarray analysis, and qPCR of CA1 subregional dissections...
September 9, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887225/substance-p-and-neurotensin-in-the-limbic-system-their-roles-in-reinforcement-and-memory-consolidation
#14
REVIEW
L Lénárd, K László, E Kertes, T Ollmann, L Péczely, A Kovács, V Kállai, O Zagorácz, R Gálosi, Z Karádi
Substance P (SP) and neurotensin (NT) are neuropeptides isolated in the periphery and in the central nervous system. They are involved in various regulatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, kidney and endocrine system. In addition to the peripheral effects, SP and NT act as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system, regulating various behavioural actions, such as general and motor activity, pain, food and water intake, anxiety, reward/reinforcement and memory consolidation...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885486/bacopa-monnieri-extract-enhances-learning-dependent-hippocampal-long-term-synaptic-potentiation
#15
Charkriya Promsuban, Suveerawan Limsuvan, Pravit Akarasereenont, Kanokwan Tilokskulchai, Sompol Tapechum, Narawut Pakaprot
Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a memory enhancer for a long time; however, its direct effect on synaptic plasticity has not been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the effect of B. monnieri on long-term synaptic potentiation in acute hippocampal slices. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered either sterile water or the ethanolic extract of B. monnieri for 60 days. The extracellular recording was performed to measure the field excitatory postsynaptic potential in the acute hippocampal slices of these rats...
November 8, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881444/gabaergic-inhibition-gates-excitatory-ltp-in-perirhinal-cortex
#16
Vibhakar C Kotak, Ana Mirallave, Todd M Mowery, Dan H Sanes
The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a key region downstream of auditory cortex (ACx) that processes familiarity linked mnemonic signaling. In gerbils, ACx-driven EPSPs recorded in PRh neurons are largely shunted by GABAergic inhibition (Kotak et al. 2015). To determine whether inhibitory shunting prevents the induction of excitatory long-term potentiation (e-LTP), we stimulated ACx-recipient PRh in a brain slice preparation using theta burst stimulation (TBS). Under control conditions, without GABA blockers, the majority of PRh neurons exhibited long-term depression...
September 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871031/angular-gyrus-involvement-at-encoding-and-retrieval-is-associated-with-durable-but-less-specific-memories
#17
Marieke van der Linden, Ruud M W J Berkers, Richard G M Morris, Guillén Fernández
After consolidation, information belonging to a mental schema is better remembered, but such memory can be less specific when it comes to details. A neuronal mechanism consistent with this behavioral pattern could result from a dynamic interaction that entails mediation by a specific cortical network with associated hippocampal disengagement. We now report that, in male and female adult human subjects, encoding and later consolidation of a series of objects embedded in a semantic schema was associated with a buildup of activity in the angular gyrus (AG) that predicted memory 24 h later...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866682/are-there-place-cells-in-the-avian-hippocampus
#18
David F Sherry, Stephanie L Grella, Mélanie F Guigueno, David J White, Diano F Marrone
Birds possess a hippocampus that serves many of the same spatial and mnemonic functions as the mammalian hippocampus but achieves these outcomes with a dramatically different neuroanatomical organization. The properties of spatially responsive neurons in birds and mammals are also different. Much of the contemporary interest in the role of the mammalian hippocampus in spatial representation dates to the discovery of place cells in the rat hippocampus. Since that time, cells that respond to head direction and cells that encode a grid-like representation of space have been described in the rat brain...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865286/the-influence-of-time-on-task-on-mind-wandering-and-visual-working-memory
#19
Marissa Krimsky, Daniel E Forster, Maria M Llabre, Amishi P Jha
Working memory relies on executive resources for successful task performance, with higher demands necessitating greater resource engagement. In addition to mnemonic demands, prior studies suggest that internal sources of distraction, such as mind wandering (i.e., having off-task thoughts) and greater time on task, may tax executive resources. Herein, the consequences of mnemonic demand, mind wandering, and time on task were investigated during a visual working memory task. Participants (N=143) completed a delayed-recognition visual working memory task, with mnemonic load for visual objects manipulated across trials (1 item=low load; 2 items=high load) and subjective mind wandering assessed intermittently throughout the experiment using a self-report Likert-type scale (1=on-task, 6=off-task)...
December 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863221/resident-workshop-standardizes-patient-handoff-and-improves-quality-confidence-and-knowledge
#20
Heidi J Murphy, Aryn C Karpinski, Amanda Messer, Julie Gallois, Michelle Mims, Ashley Farge, Lauren Hernandez, Michelle Steinhardt, Chelsey Sandlin
OBJECTIVES: Residency programs are required to instruct residents in handoff; however, a handoff curriculum endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education does not exist. Although curricula are available, we preferred to use a curriculum that could be taught quickly, was easy to implement, and used a mnemonic that resembled current practices at our institution. We designed and implemented a novel handoff educational workshop intended to improve resident confidence and performance...
September 2017: Southern Medical Journal
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