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John W Norbury, Natalie C Karr, Vivek Sindhi, Kimberly M Rathbun, Stephen C Charles, Michael B McIver, Eric J Morrison
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the line-of-sight approach improved the performance time and accuracy of ultrasound (US)-guided needle placement targeting the subdeltoid bursa in a cadaver among novice operators compared to the side approach. A secondary objective was to determine whether participants thought the APPLES (angle, position, perpendicular, line up, entry, sweep) mnemonic was a helpful guide for performing the procedure. METHODS: Medical students and residents were randomized into either a line-of-sight or side approach group and then crossed over to the other group...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Ali Mashhoori, Saeedeh Hashemniayetorshizi, Bruce L McNaughton, David Euston, Aaron J Gruber
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) encodes information supporting mnemonic and cognitive processes. We show here that a rat's position can be decoded with high spatiotemporal resolution from ACC activity. ACC neurons encoded the current state of the animal and task, except for brief excursions that sometimes occurred at target feeders. During excursions, the decoded position became more similar to a remote target feeder than the rat's physical position. Excursions recruited activation of neurons encoding choice and reward, and the likelihood of excursions at a feeder was inversely correlated with feeder preference...
April 17, 2018: ELife
Joshua Harold, Eric Fong
In this paper, we envisage how the sociohistorical experiences of groups are related to their residential patterns. We posit that the residential clustering of a group can be strongly related to the group's mnemonic institutions, which are organizational symbols of collective identity that link the present to the past. We present the case of Jewish residential clustering patterns in Toronto to demonstrate our arguments. We employ 2001 Canadian Census tract-level data to show Jewish residential clustering patterns in relation to the presence of a synagogue or Jewish community center, the mnemonic institutions of Jews...
April 11, 2018: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
Beom Sun Chung, Min Suk Chung
The authors have operated the homepage ( to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models-all Visible Korean products-can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay...
March 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Tim James Viney, Minas Salib, Abhilasha Joshi, Gunes Unal, Naomi Berry, Peter Somogyi
Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum...
April 5, 2018: ELife
José R Banegas, Luis M Ruilope, Bryan Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Alexis M Bullock, Allison L Mizzi, Ana Kovacevic, Jennifer J Heisz
The present study examined the differential effects of aging and fitness on memory. Ninety-five young adults (YA) and 81 older adults (OA) performed the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST) to assess high-interference memory and general recognition memory. Age-related differences in high-interference memory were observed across the lifespan, with performance progressively worsening from young to old. In contrast, age-related differences in general recognition memory were not observed until after 60 years of age. Furthermore, OA with higher aerobic fitness had better high-interference memory, suggesting that exercise may be an important lifestyle factor influencing this aspect of memory...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Marie H Sabec, Susan Wonnacott, E Clea Warburton, Zafar I Bashir
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in the medial prefrontal cortex have critical roles in cognitive function. However, whether nAChRs are required for associative recognition memory and the mechanisms by which nAChRs may contribute to mnemonic processing are not known. We demonstrate that nAChRs in the prefrontal cortex exhibit subtype-specific roles in associative memory encoding and retrieval. We present evidence that these separate roles of nAChRs may rely on bidirectional modulation of plasticity at synaptic inputs to the prefrontal cortex that are essential for associative recognition memory...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
José Nunes de Alencar Neto
Since it was first reported in 1912, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has become the leading cause of death in the Western world. Several improvements that have been made over the years in the pharmacological treatment of ACS have reduced the relative risk of death due to myocardial infarction from 35-45% previously to approximately 3.5% at present. Universities, websites, and educational videos commonly use a mnemonic for morphine, oxygen, nitrates, and aspirin (MONA) to refer to the adjuvant treatment used for the management of ACS...
January 25, 2018: Curēus
Mark C Horattas, Ileana K Horattas, Elya M Vasiliou
This study evaluated nonoperative treatment for mild appendicitis and reviewed selection criteria to be used in introducing this option into clinical practice. A retrospective review of 73 consecutive cases of appendicitis treated by a single surgeon from 2011 to 2013 was completed. Patients who were diagnosed with mild appendicitis meeting the criteria of an APPENDICITIS scoring algorithm proposed in this manuscript were considered for nonoperative management. An additional 17 patients with mild appendicitis were offered and successfully treated nonoperatively between 2014 and 2016 and reviewed...
February 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Alessandra D Nostro, Veronika I Müller, Deepthi P Varikuti, Rachel N Pläschke, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Kaustubh R Patil, Simon B Eickhoff
Personality is associated with variation in all kinds of mental faculties, including affective, social, executive, and memory functioning. The intrinsic dynamics of neural networks underlying these mental functions are reflected in their functional connectivity at rest (RSFC). We, therefore, aimed to probe whether connectivity in functional networks allows predicting individual scores of the five-factor personality model and potential gender differences thereof. We assessed nine meta-analytically derived functional networks, representing social, affective, executive, and mnemonic systems...
March 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Lisa C Dandolo, Lars Schwabe
With time, memories undergo a neural reorganization that is linked to a transformation of detailed, episodic into more semantic, gist-like memory. Traditionally, this reorganization is thought to involve a redistribution of memory from the hippocampus to neocortical areas. Here we report a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, along its anterior-posterior axis, that is related to the transformation of detailed memories into gist-like representations. We show that mnemonic representations in the anterior hippocampus are highly distinct and that anterior hippocampal activity is associated with detailed memory but decreases over time...
March 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Roger Johansson, Philip Pärnamets, Amanda Bjernestedt, Mikael Johansson
Mnemonic interference refers to the inability to retrieve a goal-relevant memory due to interference from goal-irrelevant memories. Understanding the causes of such interference and how it is overcome has been a central goal in the science of memory for more than a century. Here, we shed new light on this fundamental issue by tracking participants' pupil response when they encode and retrieve memories in the face of competing goal-irrelevant memories. We show that pupil dilation systematically increased in accordance with interference from competing memory traces when participants retrieved previously learned information...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camillo Lamanna
Narrative medicine explores the stories that patients tell; this paper, conversely, looks at some of the stories that patients are told. The paper starts by examining the 'story' told by the Shambaa people of Tanzania to explain the bubonic plague and contrasts this with the stories told by Ghanaian communities to explain lymphatic filariasis. By harnessing insights from memory studies, these stories' memorability is claimed to be due to their use mnemonic devices woven into stories. The paper suggests that stories can be unpatronising, informative, and appropriate vehicles for communicating medical information to all age groups across all cultures...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Humanities
Andrew Booth, Jane Noyes, Kate Flemming, Ansgar Gehardus, Philip Wahlster, Gert Jan van der Wilt, Kati Mozygemba, Pietro Refolo, Dario Sacchini, Marcia Tummers, Eva Rehfuess
OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast different methods of qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) against criteria identified from the literature and to map their attributes to inform selection of the most appropriate QES method to answer research questions addressed by qualitative research. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Electronic databases, citation searching and a study register were used to identify studies reporting QES methods. Attributes compiled from 26 methodological papers (2001-2014) were used as a framework for data extraction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Gilda Fazzari, Merylin Zizza, Anna Di Vito, Raffaella Alò, Maria Mele, Rosalinda Bruno, Barni Tullio, Rosa Maria Facciolo, Canonaco Marcello
Recent indications are suggesting that high fat and sugar-enriched foods do not only evoke harmful physiological conditions, but they also endure evident structural alterations in cerebral regions controlling cognitive and feeding behaviors. Food consumption plus neuronal energy regulatory mechanisms seem to constitute a complex system assuring that food calories do not exceed body requirements. At the same time obesogenic-related properties of limbic feeding stations like the hypothalamus (HTH), hippocampus (HIP) and amygdala (AMY) tend to control eating habits through the interaction of distinct neuropeptides...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Vera Leo, Aleksi J Sihvonen, Tanja Linnavalli, Mari Tervaniemi, Matti Laine, Seppo Soinila, Teppo Särkämö
Coupling novel verbal material with a musical melody can potentially aid in its learning and recall in healthy subjects, but this has never been systematically studied in stroke patients with cognitive deficits. In a counterbalanced design, we presented novel verbal material (short narrative stories) in both spoken and sung formats to stroke patients at the acute poststroke stage and 6 months poststroke. The task comprised three learning trials and a delayed recall trial. Memory performance on the spoken and sung tasks did not differ at the acute stage, whereas sung stories were learned and recalled significantly better compared with spoken stories at the 6 months poststroke stage...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Sanjay Kalra
Insulin is a life saving medicine. Yet, diabetes care professionals encounter many barriers to its use, especially at the patient level. This is even more true in primary care, where patients tend to resist injectable therapy. This article uses the mnemonic,InfoCRIne, to highlight four important barriers to insulin, and proposes bridges to overcome them. The bridges include information, confidence building, resource husbandry and individualization of strategy. These help overcome the barriers of hearsay, perceived inability to use insulin, perceived lack of resources and intrusion into lifestyle...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kenneth J O'Riordan, Neng-Wei Hu, Michael J Rowan
Synaptic long-term depression (LTD) is believed to underlie critical mnemonic processes in the adult hippocampus. The roles of the metabotropic and ionotropic actions of glutamate in the induction of synaptic LTD by electrical low-frequency stimulation (LFS) in the living adult animal is poorly understood. Here we examined the requirement for metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and NMDA receptors in LTD induction in anaesthetized adult rats. LTD induction was primarily dependent on NMDA receptors and required the involvement of both the ion channel function and GluN2B subunit of the receptor...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Scott A Cairney, Anna Á Váli Guttesen, Nicole El Marj, Bernhard P Staresina
How are brief encounters transformed into lasting memories? Previous research has established the role of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, along with its electrophysiological signatures of slow oscillations (SOs) and spindles, for memory consolidation [1-4]. In related work, experimental manipulations have demonstrated that NREM sleep provides a window of opportunity to selectively strengthen particular memory traces via the delivery of auditory cues [5-10], a procedure known as targeted memory reactivation (TMR)...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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