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Sustainable agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918337/ecotoxicological-and-microbiological-assessment-of-sewage-sludge-associated-with-sugarcane-bagasse
#1
Lais Roberta Deroldo Sommaggio, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti Mazzeo, Débora de Andrade E Silva Sant' Anna, Carlos Emílio Levy, Maria Aparecida Marin-Morales
Sewage sludge (SS) obtained after sewage treatment process may contain several toxic substances. Bioremediation can decrease the toxicity of the sludge, mainly when it is associated with stimulant agents, such as sugarcane bagasse (B). Samples of pure SS (SSP); SS+B; SS+Soil; and SS+B+Soil were bioremediated for 1, 3, and 6 months (T1, T2, and T3, respectively). After each period, the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic potentials of the solid samples and their respective aqueous extracts (aqueous eluate and percolate water) were evaluated by the Allium cepa test...
September 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917170/how-do-climatic-and-management-factors-affect-agricultural-ecosystem-services-a-case-study-in-the-agro-pastoral-transitional-zone-of-northern-china
#2
Jianmin Qiao, Deyong Yu, Jianguo Wu
Agricultural ecosystem management needs to ensure food production and minimize soil erosion and nitrogen (N) leaching under climate change and increasingly intensive human activity. Thus, the mechanisms through which climatic and management factors affect crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching must be understood in order to ensure food security and sustainable agricultural development. In this study, we adopted the GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to simulate crop production, soil erosion, and N leaching, and used a partial least squares regression model to evaluate the contributions of climate variables (solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, and maximum and minimum temperature) and management factors (irrigation, fertilization, and crop cultivation area) on agricultural ecosystem services (AES) in the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) of northern China...
September 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916578/nutritional-sustainability-aligning-priorities-in-nutrition-and-public-health-with-agricultural-production
#3
REVIEW
John W Finley, Dennis Dimick, Elizabeth Marshall, Gerald Charles Nelson, Jonathan R Mein, David I Gustafson
Nutrition science-based dietary advice urges changes that may have a great impact on agricultural systems. For example, the 2016 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommends greatly increased fruit and vegetable consumption, but the present domestic production is insufficient to accommodate large-scale adoption of these guidelines. Increasing production to the extent needed to meet the DGA will necessitate changes in an already stressed agriculture and food system and will require nutrition and agriculture professionals to come together in open and collegial discourse...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912508/use-of-anthropogenic-linear-features-by-two-medium-sized-carnivores-in-reserved-and-agricultural-landscapes
#4
Georgina E Andersen, Christopher N Johnson, Leon A Barmuta, Menna E Jones
Many carnivores are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. These changes create linear features and habitat edges that can facilitate foraging and/or travel. To understand the significance of anthropogenic linear features in the ecology of carnivores, fine-scaled studies are needed. We studied two medium-sized carnivores: the endangered Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) and the near threatened spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), in a mixed landscape of conservation and agricultural land. Using GPS tracking, we investigated their use of intact habitat versus linear features such as roads, fences and the pasture/cover interface...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910716/understanding-sustained-use-of-ecological-sanitation-in-rural-burkina-faso
#5
Sarah Dickin, Linus Dagerskog, Alejandro Jiménez, Kim Andersson, Karim Savadogo
Access to safe sanitation services is fundamental for healthy and productive lives, but in rural Burkina Faso only around 7% of the population uses improved sanitation. Ecological sanitation (ecosan) systems that allow safe agricultural reuse of nutrients in human waste have been promoted in these areas, as a way to meet sanitation needs while contributing to food security. However, little is known about the success of these interventions in terms of both sustained use of the toilet and safe excreta reuse practices...
September 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905167/molecular-diversity-and-phylogeny-of-indigenous-rhizobium-leguminosarum-strains-associated-with-trifolium-repens-plants-in-romania
#6
Rodica C Efrose, Craita M Rosu, Catalina Stedel, Andrei Stefan, Culita Sirbu, Lucian D Gorgan, Nikolaos E Labrou, Emmanouil Flemetakis
The symbiotic nitrogen fixing legumes play an essential role in sustainable agriculture. White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is one of the most valuable perennial legumes in pastures and meadows of temperate regions. Despite its great agriculture and economic importance, there is no detailed available information on phylogenetic assignation and characterization of rhizobia associated with native white clover plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the present work, the diversity of indigenous white clover rhizobia originating in 11 different natural ecosystems in North-Eastern Romania were assessed by a polyphasic approach...
September 13, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902133/effects-of-wildflower-strips-and-an-adjacent-forest-on-aphids-and-their-natural-enemies-in-a-pea-field
#7
Séverin Hatt, Pierre Mouchon, Thomas Lopes, Frédéric Francis
Landscape diversification is a key element for the development of sustainable agriculture. This study explores whether the implementation of habitats for pest natural enemies enhances conservation biological control in an adjacent field. In the present study conducted in Gembloux (Belgium) in 2016, the effect of two different habitats (wildflower strips and a forest) and aphid abundance on the density of aphid natural enemies, mummified aphids and parasitism on pea plants was assessed through visual observations...
September 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895046/characterization-of-cadmium-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-mcc-3091-promoted-rice-seedling-growth-by-alleviating-phytotoxicity-of-cadmium
#8
Krishnendu Pramanik, Soumik Mitra, Anumita Sarkar, Tithi Soren, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Cadmium (Cd) phytotoxicity in agricultural land is a major global concern now-a-days resulting in very poor yield. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR)-mediated bioremediation is one of the convenient strategies for detoxification of Cd from the soil and for plant growth promotion under Cd stress. The selected strain K5 was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae based on MALDI-TOF MS ribosomal protein and 16S rDNA sequence-based homology. The strain possessed several PGP traits viz. IAA production (3413 μg/mL), phosphate solubilization (80...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893504/a-review-on-organic-waste-to-energy-systems-in-india
#9
REVIEW
Hiya Dhar, Sunil Kumar, Rakesh Kumar
Waste generation is increasing day-by-day with the growth of population which directly affects the environment and economy. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) and agriculture sectors contribute towards maximum waste generation in India. Thus, management of organic waste is very much essential with the increasing demand for energy. The present paper mainly focusses on reviewing waste to energy (WtE) potentials, its technologies, and the associated challenges. Different substrates are utilized through various technological options in India...
August 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892724/effect-of-biochar-amendment-on-compost-organic-matter-composition-following-aerobic-composting-of-manure
#10
Nikolas Hagemann, Edisson Subdiaga, Silvia Orsetti, José María de la Rosa, Heike Knicker, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Andreas Kappler, Sebastian Behrens
Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891950/impact-of-silicon-in-plant-biomass-production-focus-on-bast-fibres-hypotheses-and-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Marie Luyckx, Jean-Francois Hausman, Stanley Lutts, Gea Guerriero
Silicon (Si) is an abundant element which, when supplied to plants, confers increased vigor and resistance to exogenous stresses, as well as enhanced stem mechanical strength. Plant species vary in their ability to take Si up and to accumulate it under the form of silicon dioxide (SiO₂) in their tissues: emblematic of this is the example of Poales, among which there is rice, a high Si accumulator. Monocots usually accumulate more Si than dicots; however, the impact that Si has on dicots, notably on economically important dicots, is a subject requiring further study and scientific efforts...
September 9, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890716/mining-the-volatilomes-of-plant-associated-microbiota-for-new-biocontrol-solutions
#12
REVIEW
Aurélien Bailly, Laure Weisskopf
Microbial lifeforms associated with land plants represent a rich source for crop growth- and health-promoting microorganisms and biocontrol agents. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the plant microbiota have been demonstrated to elicit plant defenses and inhibit the growth and development of numerous plant pathogens. Therefore, these molecules are prospective alternatives to synthetic pesticides and the determination of their bioactivities against plant threats could contribute to the development of control strategies for sustainable agriculture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888828/contribution-of-dark-septate-fungi-to-the-nutrient-uptake-and-growth-of-rice-plants
#13
Carlos Vergara, Karla Emanuelle Campos Araujo, Luiziene Soares Alves, Sônia Regina de Souza, Leandro Azevedo Santos, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Krisle da Silva, Gilmara Maria Duarte Pereira, Gustavo Ribeiro Xavier, Jerri Édson Zilli
The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution...
August 23, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887416/identifying-the-active-microbiome-associated-with-roots-and-rhizosphere-soil-of-oilseed-rape
#14
Konstantia Gkarmiri, Shahid Mahmood, Alf Ekblad, Sadhna Alström, Nils Högberg, Roger Finlay
RNA stable isotope probing and high throughput sequencing were used to characterize the active microbiomes of bacteria and fungi colonizing roots and rhizosphere soil of oilseed rape, to identify taxa assimilating plant-derived carbon following (13)CO2 labeling. Root- and rhizosphere soil-associated communities of both bacteria and fungi differed from each other and there were highly significant differences between their DNA- and RNA-based community profiles. Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi were the most active bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soil...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886058/sparse-trees-and-shrubs-confers-a-high-biodiversity-to-pastures-case-study-on-spiders-from-transylvania
#15
Róbert Gallé, István Urák, Gallé-Szpisjak Nikolett, Tibor Hartel
The integration of food production and biodiversity conservation represents a key challenge for sustainability. Several studies suggest that even small structural elements in the landscape can make a substantial contribution to the overall biodiversity value of the agricultural landscapes. Pastures can have high biodiversity potential. However, their intensive and monofunctional use typically erodes its natural capital, including biodiversity. Here we address the ecological value of fine scale structural elements represented by sparsely scattered trees and shrubs for the spider communities in a moderately intensively grazed pasture in Transylvania, Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885598/report-from-the-1st-mycokey-international-conference-global-mycotoxin-reduction-in-the-food-and-feed-chain-held-in-ghent-belgium-11-14-september-2017
#16
Sarah De Saeger, Antonio Logrieco
This conference is organized within the framework of the H2020-Research and Innovation Action-Societal Challenge 2-"Food security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine, maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy challenge"-GA 678781 MycoKey "Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chain" [...].
September 8, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878801/crispr-cas9-a-practical-approach-in-date-palm-genome-editing
#17
REVIEW
Muhammad N Sattar, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad N Tahir, Muhammad S Shahid, Muhammad Khurshid, Abdullatif A Al-Khateeb, Suliman A Al-Khateeb
The genetic modifications through breeding of crop plants have long been used to improve the yield and quality. However, precise genome editing (GE) could be a very useful supplementary tool for improvement of crop plants by targeted genome modifications. Various GE techniques including ZFNs (zinc finger nucleases), TALENs (transcription activator-like effector nucleases), and most recently clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9)-based approaches have been successfully employed for various crop plants including fruit trees...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875704/amplifying-progress-toward-multiple-development-goals-through-resource-recovery-from-sanitation
#18
John T Trimmer, Roland D Cusick, Jeremy S Guest
The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recognize that current sanitation gaps must be closed to better serve those without access to safely managed systems (Target 6.2: universal sanitation coverage) and those connected to sewers without wastewater treatment (Target 6.3: halving the proportion of untreated wastewater). Beyond mitigating environmental and health concerns, implementing resource recovery sanitation systems could simultaneously improve the availability of agricultural nutrients (SDG 2) and household energy (SDG 7)...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875263/pillar-of-strength-columnar-cactus-as-a-key-factor-in-yoreme-heritage-and-wildland-preservation
#19
Andrew J Semotiuk, Patricia Colunga-GarcíaMarín, David Valenzuela Maldonado, Exequiel Ezcurra
The persistence of traditional cultures and modes of land use within rapidly changing, globalized societies is a central issue in understanding ecological and cultural change in the Anthropocene. Located in the heart of the Green Revolution, the Yoreme (Mayo) people of the Mayo Valley in Mexico still obtain a significant proportion of their sustenance from wild ecosystems in the midst of this intensive technological and agricultural development. They live in and around the thornscrub dominated by pitaya (Stenocereus thurberi (Engelm...
September 5, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875164/increasing-drought-in-jordan-climate-change-and-cascading-syrian-land-use-impacts-on-reducing-transboundary-flow
#20
Deepthi Rajsekhar, Steven M Gorelick
In countries where severe drought is an anticipated effect of climate change and in those that heavily depend on upstream nations for fresh water, the effect of drier conditions and consequent changes in the transboundary streamflow regime induced by anthropogenic interventions and disasters leads to uncertainty in regional water security. As a case in point, we analyze Jordan's surface water resources and agricultural water demand through 2100, considering the combined impacts of climate change and land-use change driven by the Syrian conflict...
August 2017: Science Advances
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