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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775820/adoption-of-farm-management-systems-for-cross-compliance-an-empirical-case-in-germany
#1
Ulrike Knuth, T S Amjath-Babu, Andrea Knierim
In Germany, Farm Management Systems (FMS) have been introduced as a support to farmers' compliance with environmental and other regulations, aiming at the increase of farm level performance and sustainable farming practices. Different kinds of FMS were developed and promulgated with various approaches, determined by each federal state's agricultural advisory system. Knowledge on the FMS' uptake and effectiveness has been lacking so far. The overall aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the implementation process and selected outcomes of the policy-driven instrumental innovation of FMS...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775539/from-water-use-to-water-scarcity-footprinting-in-environmentally-extended-input-output-analysis
#2
Bradley George Ridoutt, Michalis Hadjikakou, Martin Nolan, Brett A Bryan
Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) supports environmental policy by quantifying how demand for goods and services leads to resource use and emissions across the economy. However, some types of resource use and emissions require spatially-explicit impact assessment for meaningful interpretation, which is not possible in conventional EEIOA. For example, water use in locations of scarcity and abundance is not environmentally equivalent. Opportunities for spatially-explicit impact assessment in conventional EEIOA are limited because official input-output tables tend to be produced at the scale of political units which are not usually well aligned with environmentally relevant spatial units...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775105/phytostabilization-of-polymetallic-contaminated-soil-using-medicago-sativa-l-in-combination-with-powdered-marble-sustainable-rehabilitation
#3
Laila Midhat, Naaila Ouazzani, Abdessamed Hejjaj, Javier Bayo, Laila Mandi
This study uses an ecotoxicology approach to evaluate the effectiveness of combining powdered marble as an amendment, with phytostabilization by Medicago sativa L. on the neutralization of acidic mine tailings, and the stabilization of heavy metals. The mine tailings were collected from an abandoned polymetallic mine in Southern Morocco, and mixed with powdered marble as the following proportions, 25%, 50%, and 75%. Laboratory immobilization/stabilization tests showed that the application of powdered marble in the treatments led to a significant increase in pH, and significant reductions of Cu, Zn (99%), Pb (98%), and Fe (45%)...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773742/wicked-evolution-can-we-address-the-sociobiological-dilemma-of-pesticide-resistance
#4
REVIEW
Fred Gould, Zachary S Brown, Jennifer Kuzma
Resistance to insecticides and herbicides has cost billions of U.S. dollars in the agricultural sector and could result in millions of lives lost to insect-vectored diseases. We mostly continue to use pesticides as if resistance is a temporary issue that will be addressed by commercialization of new pesticides with novel modes of action. However, current evidence suggests that insect and weed evolution may outstrip our ability to replace outmoded chemicals and other control mechanisms. To avoid this outcome, we must address the mix of ecological, genetic, economic, and sociopolitical factors that prevent implementation of sustainable pest management practices...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772529/microbial-bio-fuels-a-solution-to-carbon-emissions-and-energy-crisis
#5
Arun Kumar, Sumit Kaushal, Shubhini A Saraf, Jay Shankar Singh
Increasing energy demand, limited fossil fuel resources and climate change have prompted development of alternative sustainable and economical fuel resources such as crop-based bio-ethanol and bio-diesel. However, there is concern over use of arable land that is used for food agriculture for creation of biofuel. Thus, there is a renewed interest in the use of microbes particularly microalgae for bio-fuel production. Microbes such as micro-algae and cyanobacteria that are used for biofuel production also produce other bioactive compounds under stressed conditions...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771502/atmospheric-co2-enrichment-and-reactive-nitrogen-inputs-interactively-stimulate-soil-cation-losses-and-acidification
#6
Li Zhang, Yunpeng Qiu, Lei Cheng, Yi Wang, Lingli Liu, Cong Tu, Dan C Bowman, Kent O Burkey, Xinmin Bian, Weijian Zhang, Shuijin Hu
Reactive N inputs (Nr) may alleviate N-limitation of plant growth and are assumed to help sustain plant responses to the rising atmospheric CO2 (eCO2). However, Nr and eCO2 may elicit a cascade reaction that alters soil chemistry and nutrient availability, shifting the limiting factors of plant growth, particularly in acidic tropical and subtropical croplands with low organic matter and low nutrient cations. Yet, few have so far examined the interactive effects of Nr and eCO2 on the dynamics of soil cation nutrients and soil acidity...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770565/a-review-of-child-stunting-determinants-in-indonesia
#7
REVIEW
Ty Beal, Alison Tumilowicz, Aang Sutrisna, Doddy Izwardy, Lynnette M Neufeld
Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain...
May 17, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766427/an-improved-export-coefficient-model-to-estimate-non-point-source-phosphorus-pollution-risks-under-complex-precipitation-and-terrain-conditions
#8
Xian Cheng, Liding Chen, Ranhao Sun, Yongcai Jing
To control non-point source (NPS) pollution, it is important to estimate NPS pollution exports and identify sources of pollution. Precipitation and terrain have large impacts on the export and transport of NPS pollutants. We established an improved export coefficient model (IECM) to estimate the amount of agricultural and rural NPS total phosphorus (TP) exported from the Luanhe River Basin (LRB) in northern China. The TP concentrations of rivers from 35 selected catchments in the LRB were used to test the model's explanation capacity and accuracy...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762552/the-electronic-rothamsted-archive-e-ra-an-online-resource-for-data-from-the-rothamsted-long-term-experiments
#9
Sarah A M Perryman, Nathalie I D Castells-Brooke, Margaret J Glendining, Keith W T Goulding, Malcolm J Hawkesford, Andy J Macdonald, Richard J Ostler, Paul R Poulton, Christopher J Rawlings, Tony Scott, Paul J Verrier
The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762079/does-reducing-food-losses-and-wastes-in-sub-saharan-africa-make-economic-sense
#10
Emerta Aragie, Jean Balié, Cristian MoralesOpazo
Reducing food losses and waste (FLW) is one of the sustainable ways of closing the food requirement gap in developing countries. However, there is not yet adequate knowledge on the extent of FLW by commodity type and stage of the food supply chain (FSC). Focusing on ten agrarian countries in Africa and building mainly on the Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Balance Sheets (FBSs), this study generates some new insights on the level of FLW by country, FSC and food type. Across the FSC, we find that these countries lose a cumulative amount equivalent to 28% (641 kilocalories per capita per day - kcal/cap/day) of the current calorie intake...
May 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758911/a-hybrid-land-water-environment-model-for-identification-of-ecological-effect-and-risk-under-uncertain-meteorological-precipitation-in-an-agroforestry-ecosystem
#11
Xueting Zeng, Tienan Li, Cong Chen, Zhenjiang Si, Guohe Huang, Ping Guo, Xiaowen Zhuang
In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758029/forest-resources-of-nations-in-relation-to-human-well-being
#12
Pekka E Kauppi, Vilma Sandström, Antti Lipponen
A universal turnaround has been detected in many countries of the World from shrinking to expanding forests. The forest area of western Europe expanded already in the 19th century. Such early trends of forest resources cannot be associated with the rapid rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide nor with the anthropogenic climate change, which have taken place since the mid 20th century. Modern, most recent spatial patterns of forest expansions and contractions do not correlate with the geography of climate trends nor with dry versus moist areas...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755440/biodegradable-plastic-mulch-films-impacts-on-soil-microbial-communities-and-ecosystem-functions
#13
REVIEW
Sreejata Bandopadhyay, Lluis Martin-Closas, Ana M Pelacho, Jennifer M DeBruyn
Agricultural plastic mulch films are widely used in specialty crop production systems because of their agronomic benefits. Biodegradable plastic mulches (BDMs) offer an environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional polyethylene (PE) mulch. Unlike PE films, which need to be removed after use, BDMs are tilled into soil where they are expected to biodegrade. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about long-term impacts of BDM incorporation on soil ecosystems. BDMs potentially influence soil microbial communities in two ways: first, as a surface barrier prior to soil incorporation, indirectly affecting soil microclimate and atmosphere (similar to PE films) and second, after soil incorporation, as a direct input of physical fragments, which add carbon, microorganisms, additives, and adherent chemicals...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754059/selectivity-assessment-of-two-biorational-insecticides-azadirachtin-and-pyriproxyfen-in-comparison-to-a-neonicotinoid-acetamiprid-on-pupae-and-adults-of-a-neotropical-strain-eretmocerus-mundus-mercet
#14
Natalia Francesena, Marcela Inés Schneider
Assessment of the susceptibility of natural enemies of pests to selective pesticides is relevant for a sustainable agriculture with low impact on the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of two biorational insecticides, azadirachtin and pyriproxyfen in comparison to a neonicotinoid insecticide, acetamiprid, on pupae and adults of a Neotropical strain of Eretmocerus mundus. Adult emergence and survival were evaluated as lethal effects whereas the sublethal effects were assessed through the reproductive capacity, sex ratio, and longevity of the surviving first progeny...
May 2, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751432/reconceptualizing-inrm-in-understanding-environmental-risks-from-food-production-systems
#15
Chitra Pandey, Hema Diwan
Sustainable agri-development is composed of soil fertility maintenance, nutrient use efficiency and resource use efficiency. In this regard, the present study aims to address the complex dynamics of farm-soil and the water nexus for integrated natural resource management by understanding the fertilizer use decision of farmers. In addition to the monitoring of soil quality parameters, that is, the total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations, factor analysis was used to explore the drivers of high fertilizer use in the most agriculturally intensive region of India...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751251/salt-tolerance-of-glycine-max-l-induced-by-endophytic-fungus-aspergillus-flavus-csh1-via-regulating-its-endogenous-hormones-and-antioxidative-system
#16
Lubna, Sajjad Asaf, Muhammad Hamayun, Abdul Latif Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Aaqil Khan, Rahmatullah Jan, In-Jung Lee, Anwar Hussain
Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749125/a-spatially-explicit-representation-of-conservation-agriculture-for-application-in-global-change-studies
#17
Reinhard Prestele, Annette L Hirsch, Edouard L Davin, Sonia I Seneviratne, Peter H Verburg
Conservation agriculture (CA) is widely promoted as a sustainable agricultural management strategy with the potential to alleviate some of the adverse effects of modern, industrial agriculture such as large-scale soil erosion, nutrient leaching and overexploitation of water resources. Moreover, agricultural land managed under CA is proposed to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation through reduced emission of greenhouse gases, increased solar radiation reflection, and the sustainable use of soil and water resources...
May 10, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743529/dissection-of-niche-competition-between-introduced-and-indigenous-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-with-respect-to-soybean-yield-responses
#18
Rieko Niwa, Takuya Koyama, Takumi Sato, Katsuki Adachi, Keitaro Tawaraya, Shusei Sato, Hideki Hirakawa, Shigenobu Yoshida, Tatsuhiro Ezawa
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with most land plants and deliver phosphorus to the host. Identification of biotic/abiotic factors that determine crop responses to AM fungal inoculation is an essential step for successful application of the fungi in sustainable agriculture. We conducted three field trials on soybean with a commercial inoculum and developed a new molecular tool to dissect interactions between the inoculum and indigenous fungi on the MiSeq sequencing platform. Regression analysis indicated that sequence read abundance of the inoculum fungus was the most significant factor that determined soybean yield responses to the inoculation, suggesting that dominance of the inoculum fungus is a necessary condition for positive yield responses...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742166/metrics-and-methods-for-characterizing-dairy-farm-intensification-using-farm-survey-data
#19
Alejandra Gonzalez-Mejia, David Styles, Paul Wilson, James Gibbons
Evaluation of agricultural intensification requires comprehensive analysis of trends in farm performance across physical and socio-economic aspects, which may diverge across farm types. Typical reporting of economic indicators at sectorial or the "average farm" level does not represent farm diversity and provides limited insight into the sustainability of specific intensification pathways. Using farm business data from a total of 7281 farm survey observations of English and Welsh dairy farms over a 14-year period we calculate a time series of 16 key performance indicators (KPIs) pertinent to farm structure, environmental and socio-economic aspects of sustainability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740705/hydrochemical-and-environmental-isotope-analysis-of-groundwater-and-surface-water-in-a-dry-mountain-region-in-northern-chile
#20
Carina Zang, Juliane Dame, Marcus Nüsser
This case study examines the geological imprint and land use practices on water quality in the arid Huasco Valley against the backdrop of ongoing water conflicts surrounding competing demands for agriculture and mining. The study is based on a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of monthly surface and bi-monthly groundwater quality samples measured during the Chilean summer of 2015/16. Additional information on source regions and river-groundwater interactions were collected using stable water isotopes...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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