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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527739/local-people-s-knowledge-with-regard-to-land-use-activities-in-southwest-madagascar-conceptual-insights-for-sustainable-land-management
#1
Nadine V M Fritz-Vietta, H Stone Tahirindraza, Susanne Stoll-Kleemann
Environmental conditions in the Mahafaly Plateau region in southwest Madagascar are harsh, with a long dry season and a short rainy season. The local people's land use capabilities and skills are adapted to these conditions. Nevertheless, they are currently confronted by drastic climatic changes, including longer dry seasons, which have resulted in food and water scarcities. It is therefore essential to ensure sustainable land management in the region. At present, the main land use activities are agriculture, livestock farming, natural resource collection including timber and non-timber forest products, and the practice of local customs...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527182/water-for-agriculture-the-convergence-of-sustainability-and-safety
#2
Sarah M Markland, David Ingram, Kalmia E Kniel, Manan Sharma
Agricultural water is a precious and limited resource. Increasingly more water types and sources are being explored for use in irrigation within the United States and across the globe. As outlined in this chapter, the Produce Safety Rule (PSR) in the Food Safety and Modernization Act (FSMA) provide irrigation water standards for application of water to fruits and vegetables consumed raw. These rules for production and use of water will continue to develop and be required as the world experiences aspects of a changing climate including flooding as well as drought conditions...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522870/the-rice-production-practices-of-high-yield-and-high-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-jiangsu-china
#3
Jiuxin Guo, Xiangyu Hu, Limin Gao, Kailiu Xie, Ning Ling, Qirong Shen, Shuijin Hu, Shiwei Guo
To face the great challenges of ensuring food security and environmental sustainability, agricultural production must be improved by high yield and high resource utilization efficiency (HYHE). We recently addressed this challenge and evaluated yield potential by surveying 735 farmers in 2008-2012 and then conducting 6 rice field experiments in 2008-2013 with large demonstration areas in 2010-2013 aimed to actualize the HYHE in Jiangsu Province, China. The survey result showed that the averaged N rate, grain yield and N partial factor productivity (PFPN) of the farmers were 336...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28519717/phytophthora-cinnamomi
#4
Adrienne R Hardham, Leila M Blackman
Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most devastating plant pathogens in the world. It infects close to 5,000 species of plants, including many of importance in agriculture, forestry and horticulture. Inadvertent introduction of P. cinnamomi into natural ecosystems, including a number of recognised Global Biodiversity Hotspots, has disastrous consequences for the environment and biodiversity of flora and fauna. The genus Phytophthora belongs to the Class Oomycetes, a group of fungus-like organisms that initiate plant disease through the production of motile zoospores...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516389/microenvironmental-scenario-of-the-bone-marrow-of-inorganic-arsenic-exposed-experimental-mice
#5
Jacintha Archana Pereira, Sujata Law
Exposure to arsenic on a regular basis, mainly through drinking water, agricultural pesticide, and sometimes therapeutic dose, results in various diseases of different tissues including the bone marrow hematopoietic system. Hematopoiesis is a dynamic process by which bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) generate a relatively constant pool of functionally mature blood cells by the support of microenvironmental components. The present study has been aimed to understand stem cell microenvironmental status during arsenic toxicity and the consequent reflection of dysregulation involving the hematopoietic machinery in experimental mice...
May 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515162/dietary-protein-and-the-health-nutrition-agriculture-connection-in-india
#6
REVIEW
Sumedha Minocha, Tinku Thomas, Anura V Kurpad
The connection between the production, availability, and consumption of high-quality food is becoming very important in developing countries. The requirement of protein is linked to its quality, or its digestibility and ability to meet human indispensable amino acid requirements. This requirement is particularly relevant in India, where commonly consumed cereal-based diets and cereal-based food subsidy programs offer low-quality protein and therefore pose a risk of quality protein deficiency. The production of and access to sustainable sources of high-quality protein will be important parts of mitigating risks to human health...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#7
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511357/establishing-and-testing-a-catchment-water-footprint-framework-to-inform-sustainable-irrigation-water-use-for-an-aquifer-under-stress
#8
Betsie le Roux, Michael van der Laan, Teunis Vahrmeijer, Keith L Bristow, John G Annandale
Future water scarcities in the face of an increasing population, climate change and the unsustainable use of aquifers will present major challenges to global food production. The ability of water footprints (WFs) to inform water resource management at catchment-scale was investigated on the Steenkoppies Aquifer, South Africa. Yields based on cropping areas were multiplied with season-specific WFs for each crop to determine blue and green water consumption by agriculture. Precipitation and evapotranspiration of natural vegetation and other uses of blue water were included with the agricultural WFs to compare water availability and consumption in a catchment sustainability assessment...
May 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506271/agrobiodiversity-and-in-situ-conservation-in-ethnic-minority-communities-of-xishuangbanna-in-yunnan-province-southwest-china
#9
Shicai Shen, Gaofeng Xu, Diyu Li, David Roy Clements, Fudou Zhang, Guimei Jin, Jianyong Wu, Pingfang Wei, Song Lin, Dayuan Xue
BACKGROUND: Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China belongs to a global biodiversity and cultural hotspot. Agrobiodiversity plays an essential role in local livelihoods and traditional culture in the region. However, preliminary studies suggest that diversity of crop plants and livestock species is declining. We hypothesized that agrobiodiversity and traditional means of preserving agrobiodiversity are threatened because of changes in government policy in favor of commercial plantations, land use change and changes in traditional agricultural practices...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503179/molecular-and-evolutionary-mechanisms-of-cuticular-wax-for-plant-drought-tolerance
#10
REVIEW
Dawei Xue, Xiaoqin Zhang, Xueli Lu, Guang Chen, Zhong-Hua Chen
Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501024/sensing-of-molecular-patterns-through-cell-surface-immune-receptors
#11
REVIEW
Stefanie Ranf
In plants, sensing of Pathogen/Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) and host-derived Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) by host cell surface Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) activates Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI). The identification of an increasing number of immunogenic patterns and PRRs illustrates that PTI is a universal defence mechanism against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants, and that evolutionary selective pressure drives diversification of molecular patterns and diversity of PRRs...
May 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499265/nanoagroparticles-emerging-trends-and-future-prospect-in-modern-agriculture-system
#12
REVIEW
Syed Baker, Tatiana Volova, Svetlana V Prudnikova, S Satish, Nagendra Prasad M N
Increment of technical knowledge has remarkably uplifted logical thinking among scientific communities to shape the theoretical concepts into near product-oriented research. The concept of nanotechnology has overwhelmed almost all forms of lives and has traded its applications in myriad fields. Despite rapid expansion of nanotechnology, sustainable competitions still do exist in the field of agriculture. In current scenario, agriculture is a manifestation demand to provide adequate nutrition for relentless growing global population...
April 23, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493965/assessing-the-greenhouse-gas-emissions-of-brazilian-soybean-biodiesel-production
#13
Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri, Xin You, Maurício Roberto Cherubin, Cindy Silva Moreira, Guilherme Silva Raucci, Bruno de Almeida Castigioni, Priscila Aparecida Alves, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino Cerri, Francisco Fujita de Castro Mello, Carlos Clemente Cerri
Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491067/genome-wide-association-study-reveals-the-genetic-architecture-underlying-salt-tolerance-related-traits-in-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l
#14
Heping Wan, Lunlin Chen, Jianbin Guo, Qun Li, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jinxiong Shen
Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Salt tolerance at the seedling stage is crucial for plant establishment and high yield in saline soils; however, little information is available on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) salt tolerance. We evaluated salt tolerance in different rapeseed accessions and conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify salt tolerance-related quantitative trait loci (QTL). A natural population comprising 368 B. napus cultivars and inbred lines was genotyped with a Brassica 60K Illumina Infinium SNP array...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489403/development-of-a-chlorantraniliprole-microcapsule-formulation-with-a-high-loading-content-and-controlled-release-property
#15
Baoxia Liu, Yan Wang, Fei Yang, Haixin Cui, Decheng Wu
Microcapsule formulations have been widely developed and used in agriculture to improve pesticide utilization and reduce environmental pollution. However, commercial formulations of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) are only traditional formulations due to poor solubility of CAP in organic solvents. Here, adopting a solid in oil in water (S/O/W) double-emulsion method combined with premix membrane emulsion, we successfully constructed CAP microcapsule formulations with a high loading content. The microcapsule formulations with good light and thermal stability showed a significantly sustained release for a long period, which could be optimally regulated by tuning the surface porosity and size of the porous microcapsules...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488295/a-global-synthesis-of-the-effects-of-diversified-farming-systems-on-arthropod-diversity-within-fields-and-across-agricultural-landscapes
#16
Elinor M Lichtenberg, Christina M Kennedy, Claire Kremen, Péter Batáry, Frank Berendse, Riccardo Bommarco, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez, Luísa G Carvalheiro, William E Snyder, Neal M Williams, Rachael Winfree, Björn K Klatt, Sandra Åström, Faye Benjamin, Claire Brittain, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Yann Clough, Bryan Danforth, Tim Diekötter, Sanford D Eigenbrode, Johan Ekroos, Elizabeth Elle, Breno M Freitas, Yuki Fukuda, Hannah R Gaines-Day, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Andrea Holzschuh, Rufus Isaacs, Marco Isaia, Shalene Jha, Dennis Jonason, Vincent P Jones, Alexandra-Maria Klein, Jochen Krauss, Deborah K Letourneau, Sarina Macfadyen, Rachel E Mallinger, Emily A Martin, Eliana Martinez, Jane Memmott, Lora Morandin, Lisa Neame, Mark Otieno, Mia G Park, Lukas Pfiffner, Michael J O Pocock, Carlos Ponce, Simon G Potts, Katja Poveda, Mariangie Ramos, Jay A Rosenheim, Maj Rundlöf, Hillary Sardiñas, Manu E Saunders, Nicole L Schon, Amber R Sciligo, C Sheena Sidhu, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Teja Tscharntke, Milan Veselý, Wolfgang W Weisser, Julianna K Wilson, David W Crowder
Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts...
May 10, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487674/uncovering-potential-applications-of-cyanobacteria-and-algal-metabolites-in-biology-agriculture-and-medicine-current-status-and-future-prospects
#17
REVIEW
Rachana Singh, Parul Parihar, Madhulika Singh, Andrzej Bajguz, Jitendra Kumar, Samiksha Singh, Vijay P Singh, Sheo M Prasad
Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487233/are-biological-control-agents-isolated-from-tropical-fruits-harmless-to-potential-consumers
#18
Iris Betsabee Ocampo-Suarez, Zaira López, Montserrat Calderón-Santoyo, Juan Arturo Ragazzo-Sánchez, Peter Knauth
Postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables can reach up to 25% in developed and up to 50% in developing countries. (Sub)tropical fruits are especially susceptible because their protecting peel can easily be damaged. Traditionally used pesticides are associated to environmental pollution and possible harmful health effects. An alternative are biocontrol agents (BCA), means bacteria or yeasts applied onto the fruits to inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. Many reports on their effectiveness have been published, however, reports on their harmlessness to consumers are still rare...
May 6, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484956/pesticide-survey-in-water-and-suspended-solids-from-the-uruguay-river-basin-argentina
#19
Celia Williman, Martín S Munitz, María I T Montti, María B Medina, Agustín F Navarro, Alicia E Ronco
The Uruguay River is receptor of pollutants, such as pesticides, from agriculture activities along its course. The present study reports concentration levels of organochlorinate, organophosphorus, and other pesticides in water and suspended solids in nine sampling sites of the Uruguay River. Data analyses included principal component analysis (PCA) to assess differences between sampling sites contamination. Most of the tested pesticides were ubiquitous due to the widely use in the chemical control of pests implemented in the region...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482305/virtual-water-trade-of-agri-food-products-evidence-from-italian-chinese-relations
#20
Lucrezia Lamastra, Pier Paolo Miglietta, Pierluigi Toma, Federica De Leo, Stefania Massari
At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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