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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103182/trends-in-non-fatal-agricultural-injury-in-maine-and-new-hampshire-results-from-a-low-cost-passive-surveillance-system
#1
Erika Scott, Erin Bell, Liane Hirabayashi, Nicole Krupa, Paul Jenkins
: Agriculture is a dangerous industry, and although data on fatal injuries exists, less is known about non-fatal injuries. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to describe trends in agricultural morbidity in Maine and New Hampshire from 2008-2010 using a newly established passive surveillance system. This passive system is supplied by injury cases gathered from pre-hospital care reports and hospital data. METHODS: Demographics and specifics of the event were recorded for each incident case...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100080/the-commercialization-of-genome-editing-technologies
#2
Katelyn Brinegar, Ali K Yetisen, Sun Choi, Emily Vallillo, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Anand M Prabhakar, Ali Khademhosseini, Seok-Hyun Yun
The emergence of new gene-editing technologies is profoundly transforming human therapeutics, agriculture, and industrial biotechnology. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) have created a fertile environment for mass-scale manufacturing of cost-effective products ranging from basic research to translational medicine. In our analyses, we evaluated the patent landscape of gene-editing technologies and found that in comparison to earlier gene-editing techniques, CRISPR has gained significant traction and this has established dominance...
January 18, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094063/a-change-in-landscape-lessons-learned-from-abandonment-of-ancient-wari-agricultural-terraces-in-southern-peru
#3
Ana C Londoño, Patrick Ryan Williams, Megan L Hart
Ancient agricultural terrace practices have survived for millennia, sustaining populations through extreme climatic shifts and political regime changes. In arid regions with abrupt relief such as Southern Peru, agricultural terracing is undergoing a resurgence, as has seen revitalization of once abandoned terrace and hydraulic systems. Wari terraces at Cerro Baul provide clues to past cultural practices. They also document sustainable farming practices by using resilient land management techniques which can help combat desertification and degradation of arable lands...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092008/spatio-temporal-variation-of-septage-characteristics-of-a-semi-arid-metropolitan-city-in-a-developing-country
#4
D Krithika, Anu Rachel Thomas, Gomathy R Iyer, Martin Kranert, Ligy Philip
Septage is the solid sludge that accumulates in septic tanks over a period of time. Many of the developing countries in the world face the challenging task of septage management. Due to the high variability in the nature of septage, there is a need to study its physical and chemical characteristics in order to suggest a sustainable treatment methodology. The present study deals with the characterization of septage collected from different locations of Chennai city in India, in two different seasons (summer and winter)...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087662/terpenoids-in-plant-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-reinforced-defence-against-herbivorous-insects
#5
REVIEW
Esha Sharma, Garima Anand, Rupam Kapoor
BACKGROUND: Plants, though sessile, employ various strategies to defend themselves against herbivorous insects and convey signals of an impending herbivore attack to other plant(s). Strategies include the production of volatiles that include terpenoids and the formation of symbiotic associations with fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). This constitutes a two-pronged above-ground/below-ground attack-defence strategy against insect herbivores. SCOPE: Terpenoids represent an important constituent of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that deter herbivores and/or attract their predators...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#6
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077635/virion-structure-of-black-queen-cell-virus-a-common-honeybee-pathogen
#7
Radovan Spurny, Antonín Přidal, Lenka Pálková, Hoa Khanh Tran Kiem, Joachim R de Miranda, Pavel Plevka
: Viral diseases are a major threat to honeybee (Apis mellifera) populations world-wide and therefore an important factor in reliable crop pollination and food security. Black queen cell virus (BQCV) is the etiological agent of a fatal disease of honeybee queen larvae and pupae. The virus belongs to the genus Triatovirus from the family Dicistroviridae that is part of the order Picornavirales Here we present a crystal structure of BQCV determined to a resolution of 3.4 Å. The virion is formed by sixty copies of each of the major capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3, however there is no density corresponding to a 75-residue-long minor capsid protein VP4 encoded by the BQCV genome...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076998/phosphate-phytate-and-phytases-in-plants-from-fundamental-knowledge-gained-in-arabidopsis-to-potential-biotechnological-applications-in-wheat
#8
David Secco, Nadia Bouain, Aida Rouached, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai, Moez Hanin, Ajay K Pandey, Hatem Rouached
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. In plants, P is taken up from the rhizosphere by the roots mainly as inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is required in large and sufficient quantities to maximize crop yields. In today's agricultural society, crop yield is mostly ensured by the excessive use of Pi fertilizers, a costly practice neither eco-friendly or sustainable. Therefore, generating plants with improved P use efficiency (PUE) is of major interest. Among the various strategies employed to date, attempts to engineer genetically modified crops with improved capacity to utilize phytate (PA), the largest soil P form and unfortunately not taken up by plants, remains a key challenge...
January 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068637/assembling-of-multifunctional-latex-based-hybrid-nanocarriers-from-calotropis-gigantea-for-sustained-doxorubicin-dox-releases
#9
Periyakaruppan Pradeepkumar, Dharman Govindaraj, Murugaraj Jeyaraj, Murugan A Munusamy, Mariappan Rajan
Natural rubber Latex (Lax) is a colloidal dispersion of polymer particles in liquid and shows good biodegradable, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Natural polymers are the most important materials used in food packaging, micro/nano-drug delivery, tissue engineering, agriculture, and coating. In the present study, natural compounds extracted from plant Lax were designed to function as drug carriers using various surfactants via emulation and solvent evaporation method. Calotropis gigantea belongs to the family Apocynaceae and has received considerable attention in modern medicine, ayurvedeic, siddha, and traditional medicine...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068378/mesopredator-management-effects-of-red-fox-control-on-the-abundance-diet-and-use-of-space-by-feral-cats
#10
Robyn Molsher, Alan E Newsome, Thomas M Newsome, Christopher R Dickman
Apex predators are subject to lethal control in many parts of the world to minimize their impacts on human industries and livelihoods. Diverse communities of smaller predators-mesopredators-often remain after apex predator removal. Despite concern that these mesopredators may be 'released' in the absence of the apex predator and exert negative effects on each other and on co-occurring prey, these interactions have been little studied. Here, we investigate the potential effects of competition and intraguild predation between red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) in south-eastern Australia where the apex predator, the dingo (Canis dingo), has been extirpated by humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067861/phylis-a-low-cost-portable-visible-range-spectrometer-for-soil-and-plants
#11
Matt J Aitkenhead, Graham J Gaskin, Noemie Lafouge, Cathy Hawes
Monitoring soil and crop condition is vital for the sustainable management of agricultural systems. Often, land management decision-making requires rapid assessment of conditions, which is difficult if samples need to be taken and sent elsewhere for analysis. In recent years, advances in field-based spectroscopy have led to improvements in real-time monitoring; however, the cost of equipment and user training still makes it inaccessible for most land managers. At the James Hutton Institute, we have developed a low-cost visible wavelength hyperspectral device intended to provide rapid field-based assessment of soil and plant conditions...
January 7, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056495/novel-rosaceae-plant-elicitor-peptides-as-sustainable-tools-to-control-xanthomonas-arboricola-pv-pruni-in-prunus-spp
#12
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, which control is only based on preventive treatment with compounds with limited efficacy and a negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. Plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054268/optimizing-the-phosphorus-use-in-cotton-by-using-csm-cropgro-cotton-model-for-semi-arid-climate-of-vehari-punjab-pakistan
#13
Asad Amin, Wajid Nasim, Muhammad Mubeen, Muhammad Nadeem, Liaqat Ali, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, Syeda Refat Sultana, Khawar Jabran, M Habib Ur Rehman, Shakeel Ahmad, Muhammad Awais, Atta Rasool, Shah Fahad, Shah Saud, Adnan Noor Shah, Zahid Ihsan, Shahzad Ali, Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Khalid Rehman Hakeem, Asif Ameen, Amanullah, Hafeez Ur Rehman, Fahad Alghabar, Ghulam Hussain Jatoi, Muhammad Akram, Aziz Khan, Faisal Islam, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani, Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Razaq, Amin Fathi
Crop nutrient management is an essential component of any cropping system. With increasing concerns over environmental protection, improvement in fertilizer use efficiencies has become a prime goal in global agriculture system. Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients, and strategies are required to optimize its use in important arable crops like cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) that has great significance. Sustainable P use in crop production could significantly avoid environmental hazards resulting from over-P fertilization...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052201/rice-husk-silica-derived-nanomaterials-for-battery-applications-a-literature-review
#14
Yafei Shen
Silica-rich rice husk (RH) is an abundant and sustainable agricultural waste. The recovery of value added products from RH or its ash to explore an economic way for the valorization of agricultural wastes have attracted wide attention. For instance, RH can be converted to biofuels and biochars simultaneously via thermochemical processes. In general, the applications of RH biochars include soil remediation, pollutants removal, silicon battery materials, etc. This review article concludes recent progresses in the synthesis of RH-derived silicon materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) applications...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050948/the-urbanisation-of-our-species
#15
Michael Gross
Ever since humans started to develop agriculture, trade and task differentiation, agglomerations have evolved according to scaling rules that may well be universal. After passing the milestone of 50% urbanisation, humanity is rapidly becoming a predominantly city-dwelling species. Ensuring the resilience, safety and sustainability of fast-growing cities will require much more joined-up policy and planning. Michael Gross reports.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050058/sustainable-crop-intensification-through-surface-water-irrigation-in-bangladesh-a-geospatial-assessment-of-landscape-scale-production-potential
#16
Timothy J Krupnik, Urs Schulthess, Zia Uddin Ahmed, Andrew J McDonald
Changing dietary preferences and population growth in South Asia have resulted in increasing demand for wheat and maize, along side high and sustained demand for rice. In the highly productive northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, farmers utilize groundwater irrigation to assure that at least two of these crops are sequenced on the same field within the same year. Such double cropping has had a significant and positive influence on regional agricultural productivity. But in the risk-prone and food insecure lower Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), cropping is less intensive...
January 2017: Land Use Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049088/geospatial-assessment-of-bioenergy-land-use-and-its-impacts-on-soil-erosion-in-the-u-s-midwest
#17
William M SooHoo, Cuizhen Wang, Huixuan Li
Agricultural land use change, especially corn expansion since 2000s, has been accelerating to meet the growing bioenergy demand of the United States. This study identifies the environmentally sensitive lands (ESLs) in the U.S. Midwest using the distance-weighted Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) associated with bioenergy land uses extracted from USDA Cropland Data Layers. The impacts of soil erosion to downstream wetlands and waterbodies in the river basin are counted in the RUSLE with an inverse distance weighting approach...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042879/identification-of-mega-environments-in-europe-and-effect-of-allelic-variations-at-maturity-e-loci-on-adaptation-of-european-soybean
#18
Alena K Kurasch, Volker Hahn, Willmar L Leiser, Johann Vollmann, Arnold Schori, Claude-Alain Bétrix, Bernhard Mayr, Johanna Winkler, Klemens Mechtler, Jonas Aper, Aleksandra Sudaric, Ivan Pejic, Hrvoje Sarcevic, Patrice Jeanson, Christiane Balko, Marco Signor, Fabiano Miceli, Peter Strijk, Hendrik Rietman, Eugen Muresanu, Vuk Djordjevic, Ana Pospišil, Giuseppe Barion, Peter Weigold, Stefan Streng, Matthias Krön, Tobias Würschum
Soybean cultivation holds great potential for a sustainable agriculture in Europe, but adaptation remains a central issue. In this large mega-environment (MEV) study, 75 European cultivars from five early maturity groups (MGs 000 - II) were evaluated for maturity related traits at 22 locations in 10 countries across Europe. Clustering of the locations based on phenotypic similarity revealed six mega-environments in latitudinal direction and suggested several more. Analysis of maturity identified several groups of cultivars with phenotypic similarity that are optimally adapted to the different growing regions in Europe...
January 2, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041693/nitrogen-containing-organic-compounds-origins-toxicity-and-conditions-of-their-photocatalytic-mineralization-over-tio2
#19
REVIEW
Drissa Bamba, Mariame Coulibaly, Didier Robert
Sustainable water management remains a global concern to meet the food needs of industrial and agricultural activities. Therefore, pollution abatement techniques, cheap and environmentally, are highly desired and recommended. The present review is devoted to the origin and the toxicity of nitrogen-containing organic compounds in water. The progress made in removing these pollutants, in recent years, is addressed. However, a prominent place is given to the photocatalytic degradation process using the TiO2 as a semiconductor, the conditions for good mineralization and especially the factors influencing it...
December 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040217/impacts-of-converting-low-intensity-pastureland-to-high-intensity-bioenergy-cropland-on-the-water-quality-of-tropical-streams-in-brazil
#20
Ricardo Hideo Taniwaki, Carla Cristina Cassiano, Solange Filoso, Silvio Frosini de Barros Ferraz, Plínio Barbosa de Camargo, Luiz Antônio Martinelli
In Brazil, the cultivation of bioenergy crops is expanding at an accelerated rate. Most of this expansion has occurred over low-intensity pasture and is considered sustainable because it does not involve deforestation of natural vegetation. However, the impacts on the water quality of headwater streams are poorly understood, especially with regard to the influence of land use patterns in the watershed. In this study, we investigated the effects of land-use conversion on the water quality of streams draining sugarcane fields and examined whether the preservation of forested areas at the top of the headwaters would help mitigate the negative impacts of intensive agriculture...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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