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Sustainable agriculture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331834/land-water-food-nexus-and-indications-of-crop-adjustment-for-water-shortage-solution
#1
Dandan Ren, Yonghui Yang, Yanmin Yang, Keith Richards, Xinyao Zhou
While agriculture places the greatest demand on water resources, increasing agricultural production is worsening a global water shortage. Reducing the cultivation of water-consuming crops may be the most effective way to reduce agricultural water use. However, when also taking food demand into consideration, sustaining the balance between regional water and food securities is a growing challenge. This paper addresses this task for regions where water is unsustainable for food production (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region for example) by: (i) assessing the different effects of wheat and maize on water use; (ii) analyzing virtual water and virtual land flows associated with food imports and exports between Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and elsewhere in China; (iii) identifying sub-regions where grain is produced using scarce water resources but exported to other regions; and (iv) analyzing the potentiality for mitigating water shortage via Land-Water-Food Nexus...
January 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329724/the-potential-of-cold-plasma-for-safe-and-sustainable-food-production
#2
REVIEW
Paula Bourke, Dana Ziuzina, Daniela Boehm, Patrick J Cullen, Kevin Keener
Cold plasma science and technology is increasingly investigated for translation to a plethora of issues in the agriculture and food sectors. The diversity of the mechanisms of action of cold plasma, and the flexibility as a standalone technology or one that can integrate with other technologies, provide a rich resource for driving innovative solutions. The emerging understanding of the longer-term role of cold plasma reactive species and follow-on effects across a range of systems will suggest how cold plasma may be optimally applied to biological systems in the agricultural and food sectors...
November 30, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323890/hrmas-nmr-and-mri-spectroscopies-distinguish-metabolome-and-structural-properties-of-maize-seeds-from-plants-treated-with-different-fertilizers-and-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi
#3
Pierluigi Mazzei, Vincenza Cozzolino, Alessandro Piccolo
Both High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning (HRMAS) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) NMR spectroscopies were applied here to identify the changes of metabolome, morphology and structural properties induced in seeds (caryopses) of maize plants grown at field level under either mineral or compost fertilization in combination with the inoculation by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF). The metabolome of intact caryopses was examined by HRMAS-NMR, while the morphological aspects, endosperm properties and seed water distribution were investigated by MRI...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323865/building-capacity-through-urban-agriculture-report-on-the-ask%C3%A3-y-project
#4
Wanda Martin, Lindsey Vold
INTRODUCTION: Many North American cities have a built environment that provides access to energy-dense food and little opportunity for active living. Urban agriculture contributes to a positive environment involving food plant cultivation that includes processing, storing, distributing and composting. It is a means to increase local food production and thereby improve community health. The purpose of this study was to understand how participating in urban agriculture can help to empower young adults and build capacity for growing food in the city...
January 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321936/low-voltage-electricity-induced-lung-injury
#5
Thai Truong, Thuong Vu Le, David L Smith, Stephen P Kantrow, Van Ngoc Tran
We report a case of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and haemoptysis following low-voltage electricity exposure in an agricultural worker. A 58-year-old man standing in water reached for an electric watering machine and sustained an exposure to 220 V circuit for an uncertain duration. The electricity was turned off by another worker, and the patient was asymptomatic for the next 10 h until he developed haemoptysis. A chest radiograph demonstrated bilateral infiltrates, and chest computed tomography (CT) revealed ground-glass opacities with interstitial thickening...
February 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321907/the-groot-effect-plant-facilitation-and-desert-shrub-regrowth-following-extensive-damage
#6
Christopher J Lortie, Eva Gruber, Alex Filazzola, Taylor Noble, Michael Westphal
Deserts are increasing in extent globally, but existing deserts are decreasing in health. The basic biology and ecology of foundation plant species in deserts are limited. This is a direct study that provides an estimate of the capacity for a locally dominant foundation shrub species in California to recover from damage. Desert shrubs are cleared and damaged by humans for many purposes including agriculture, oil and gas production, and sustainable energy developments; we need to know whether foundation species consistently facilitate the abundance and diversity of other plants in high-stress ecosystems and whether they can recover...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321101/bioremediation-and-detoxification-of-industrial-wastes-by-earthworms-vermicompost-as-powerful-crop-nutrient-in-sustainable-agriculture
#7
REVIEW
Sartaj Ahmad Bhat, Sharanpreet Singh, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar, Bhawana, Adarsh Pal Vig
Vermicompost is the final product of the vermicomposting process involving the collective action of earthworms and microbes. During this process, the waste is converted into useful manure by reducing the harmful effects of waste. Toxicity of industrial wastes is evaluated by plant bioassays viz. Allium cepa and Vicia faba test. These bioassays are sensitive and cost-effective for the monitoring of environmental contamination. The valorization potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify heavy metals in industrial wastes is because of their strong metabolic system and involvement of earthworm gut microbes and chloragocyte cells...
January 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320450/nitrogen-nutrition-of-fruit-trees-to-reconcile-productivity-and-environmental-concerns
#8
Corina Carranca, Gustavo Brunetto, Massimo Tagliavini
Although perennial fruit crops represent 1% of global agricultural land, they are of a great economic importance in world trade and in the economy of many regions. The perennial woody nature of fruit trees, their physiological stages of growth, the root distribution pattern, and the presence of herbaceous vegetation in alleys make orchard systems efficient in the use and recycling of nitrogen (N). The present paper intends to review the existing literature on N nutrition of young and mature deciduous and evergreen fruit trees with special emphasis to temperate and Mediterranean climates...
January 10, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314635/semiochemicals-to-enhance-herbivory-by-diorhabda-carinulata-aggregations-in-saltcedar-tamarix-spp-infestations
#9
Alexander M Gaffke, Sharlene E Sing, Tom L Dudley, Daniel W Bean, Justin A Russak, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Paul A Grieco, Robert K D Peterson, David K Weaver
BACKGROUND: Semiochemicals for monitoring, attracting or repelling pest and beneficial organisms are increasingly deployed in agricultural and forest systems for pest management activities. However, the use of aggregation pheromones and host plant attractants for the express purpose of increasing the efficacy of classical biological control agents of weeds has not been widely reported. Therefore, we conducted field-based assays to determine if a specialized wax based matrix impregnated with an aggregation pheromone of the northern tamarisk beetle Diorhabda carinulata (Desbrochers) or host plant volatiles could increase the efficacy of D...
January 3, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313197/exploiting-rhizosphere-microbial-cooperation-for-developing-sustainable-agriculture-strategies
#10
Yoann Besset-Manzoni, Laura Rieusset, Pierre Joly, Gilles Comte, Claire Prigent-Combaret
The rhizosphere hosts a considerable microbial community. Among that community, bacteria called plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can promote plant growth and defense against diseases using diverse distinct plant-beneficial functions. Crop inoculation with PGPR could allow to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agrosystems. However, microbial crop protection and growth stimulation would be more efficient if cooperation between rhizosphere bacterial populations was taken into account when developing biocontrol agents and biostimulants...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304005/investigating-the-mis-match-between-natural-pest-control-knowledge-and-the-intensity-of-pesticide-use
#11
David Mall, Ashley E Larsen, Emily A Martin
Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems...
January 5, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302131/climate-smart-agriculture-farm-household-typologies-and-food-security-an-ex-ante-assessment-from-eastern-india
#12
Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Romain Frelat, Mark T van Wijk, Diego Valbuena, Timothy J Krupnik, M L Jat
One of the great challenges in agricultural development and sustainable intensification is the assurance of social equity in food security oriented interventions. Development practitioners, researchers, and policy makers alike could benefit from prior insight into what interventions or environmental shocks might differentially affect farmers' food security status, in order to move towards more informed and equitable development. We examined the food security status and livelihood activities of 269 smallholder farm households (HHs) in Bihar, India...
January 2018: Agricultural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300949/summer-flowering-cover-crops-support-wild-bees-in-vineyards
#13
Houston Wilson, Jessica S Wong, Robbin W Thorp, Albie F Miles, Kent M Daane, Miguel A Altieri
Agricultural expansion and intensification negatively affect pollinator populations and has led to reductions in pollination services across multiple cropping systems. As a result, growers and researchers have utilized the restoration of local and landscape habitat diversity to support pollinators, and wild bees in particular. Although a majority of studies to date have focussed on effects in pollinator-dependent crops such as almond, tomato, sunflower, and watermelon, supporting wild bees in self-pollinated crops, such as grapes, can contribute to broader conservation goals as well as provide other indirect benefits to growers...
December 30, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300364/%C3%B0-c31-integrase-mediated-isolation-and-characterization-of-novel-safe-harbors-for-transgene-expression-in-the-pig-genome
#14
Yanzhen Bi, Zaidong Hua, Hongyan Ren, Liping Zhang, Hongwei Xiao, Ximei Liu, Wenjun Hua, Shuqi Mei, Adrian Molenaar, Götz Laible, Xinmin Zheng
Programmable nucleases have allowed the rapid development of gene editing and transgenics, but the technology still suffers from the lack of predefined genetic loci for reliable transgene expression and maintenance. To address this issue, we used ФC31 integrase to navigate the porcine genome and identify the pseudo attP sites suitable as safe harbors for sustained transgene expression. The combined ФC31 integrase mRNA and an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter donor were microinjected into one-cell zygotes for transgene integration...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299996/consumer-perception-of-sustainability-attributes-in-organic-and-local-food
#15
Azzurra Annunziata
BACKGROUND: Although sustainable food consumption is gaining growing importance on the international agenda, research on this subject is still quite fragmented and most studies analyse single aspects of sustainable food consumption with particular reference to environmental sustainability. In addition, the literature highlights the need to take account of the strong heterogeneity of consumers in studying sustainable behaviour. Identifying consumer segments with common profiles, needs and values is essential for developing effective communication strategies to promote sustainability in food consumption...
December 14, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288998/changing-sediment-budget-of-the-mekong-cumulative-threats-and-management-strategies-for-a-large-river-basin
#16
G Mathias Kondolf, Rafael J P Schmitt, Paul Carling, Steve Darby, Mauricio Arias, Simone Bizzi, Andrea Castelletti, Thomas A Cochrane, Stanford Gibson, Matti Kummu, Chantha Oeurng, Zan Rubin, Thomas Wild
Two decades after the construction of the first major dam, the Mekong basin and its six riparian countries have seen rapid economic growth and development of the river system. Hydropower dams, aggregate mines, flood-control dykes, and groundwater-irrigated agriculture have all provided short-term economic benefits throughout the basin. However, it is becoming evident that anthropic changes are significantly affecting the natural functioning of the river and its floodplains. We now ask if these changes are risking major adverse impacts for the 70 million people living in the Mekong Basin...
December 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286969/simultaneous-ipsilateral-dislocation-of-the-hip-and-the-knee-a-case-report
#17
Antonio Arenas Miquelez, Filippo Familiari, Lucas Arbeloa, Andrea D'Arrigo Azzarelli
CASE: A patient was struck by an agricultural vehicle and sustained ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations. Closed reduction of the hip was accomplished in the emergency department; the patient required general anesthesia in the operating room to reduce the knee dislocation. Nonoperative treatment was used for both injuries, with a good long-term outcome. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous ipsilateral hip and knee dislocations are rare and complex injuries that usually result from high-energy trauma...
October 2017: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284056/durum-wheat-diversity-for-heat-stress-tolerance-during-inflorescence-emergence-is-correlated-to-tdhsp101c-expression-in-early-developmental-stages
#18
Miguel Bento, Sónia Gomes Pereira, Wanda Viegas, Manuela Silva
The predicted world population increase along with climate changes threatens sustainable agricultural supply in the coming decades. It is therefore vital to understand crops diversity associated to abiotic stress response. Heat stress is considered one of the major constrains on crops productivity thus it is essential to develop new approaches for a precocious and rigorous evaluation of varietal diversity regarding heat tolerance. Plant cell membrane thermostability (CMS) is a widely used method for wheat thermotolerance assessment although its limitations require complementary solutions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284018/changes-of-microbial-population-and-n-cycling-function-genes-with-depth-in-three-chinese-paddy-soils
#19
Huanhuan Wang, Xu Li, Xiang Li, Xinyu Li, Jian Wang, Huiwen Zhang
Microbial communities play critical roles in soil nitrogen (N) cycle; however, we have limited understanding of the distribution of N-cycling microbial groups in deeper soil horizons. In this study, we used quantitative PCR to characterize the changes of microbial populations (16S rRNA and 18S rRNA) and five key N-cycling gene abundances involved in N fixation (nifH), ammonia oxidation (amoA) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), and nitrite reduction (nirS and nirK) along profiles (0-100 cm depth) of different paddy soils from three regions (Hailun, Changshu, Yingtan) across China from north to south...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283996/genome-wide-association-study-and-genetic-diversity-analysis-on-nitrogen-use-efficiency-in-a-central-european-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-collection
#20
István Monostori, Fruzsina Szira, Alessandro Tondelli, Tamás Árendás, Krisztián Gierczik, Luigi Cattivelli, Gábor Galiba, Attila Vágújfalvi
To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons...
2017: PloS One
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