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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148357/cuts-and-the-cutting-edge-british-science-funding-and-the-making-of-animal-biotechnology-in-1980s-edinburgh
#1
Dmitriy Myelnikov
The Animal Breeding Research Organisation in Edinburgh (ABRO, founded in 1945) was a direct ancestor of the Roslin Institute, celebrated for the cloning of Dolly the sheep. After a period of sustained growth as an institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), ABRO was to lose most of its funding in 1981. This decision has been absorbed into the narrative of the Thatcherite attack on science, but in this article I show that the choice to restructure ABRO pre-dated major government cuts to agricultural research, and stemmed from the ARC's wish to prioritize biotechnology in its portfolio...
December 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147558/discovery-and-design-of-self-assembling-peptides
#2
REVIEW
Shuguang Zhang
Peptides are ubiquitous in nature and useful in many fields, from agriculture as pesticides, in medicine as antibacterial and antifungal drugs founded in the innate immune systems, to medicinal chemistry as hormones. However, the concept of peptides as materials was not recognized until 1990 when a self-assembling peptide as a repeating segment in a yeast protein was serendipitously discovered. Peptide materials are so called because they have bona fide materials property and are made from simple amino acids with well-ordered nanostructures under physiological conditions...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147107/debated-agronomy-public-discourse-and-the-future-of-biotechnology-policy-in-ghana
#3
Joseph A Braimah, Kilian N Atuoye, Siera Vercillo, Carrie Warring, Isaac Luginaah
This paper examines the highly contested and ongoing biotechnology (Bt) policy-making process in Ghana. We analyse media content on how Bt is viewed in the context of Ghana's parliamentary debate on the Plant Breeders Bill and within the broader public policy-making literature. This paper does not seek to take a position on Bt or the Bill, but to understand how policy actors influence the debate with political and scientific rhetoric in Ghana. The study reveals that in the midst of scientific uncertainties of Bt's potential for sustainable agriculture production and food security, policy decisions that encourage its future adoption are heavily influenced by health, scientific, economic, environmental and political factors dictated by different ideologies, values and norms...
2017: Global Bioethics, Problemi di Bioetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146310/a-review-on-moringa-tree-and-vetiver-grass-potential-biorefinery-feedstocks
#4
REVIEW
Jegannathan Kenthorai Raman, Catarina M Alves, Edgard Gnansounou
Plants and derivatives have been explored for unlimited purposes by mankind, from crop cultivation for providing food and animal feed, to the use for cosmetics, therapeutics and energy. Moringa tree and vetiver grass features, capabilities and applications were explored through a literature review. The suitability of these plants for the bioenergy industry products is evidenced, namely for bioethanol, biogas and biodiesel, given the lignocellulosic biomass content of these plants and characteristics of moringa seed oil...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146266/endophytism-or-saprophytism-decoding-the-lifestyle-transition-of-the-generalist-fungus-phomopsis-liquidambari
#5
Jun Zhou, Xin Li, Peng-Wei Huang, Chuan-Chao Dai
Filamentous ascomycete Phomopsis sp. are common inhabitants of natural ecosystems and, as saprophytes, are largely responsible for the destructive decay of litterfall, promoting the carbon and nitrogen cycles. Phomopsis liquidambari B3 can establish mutualistic symbiosis with a broad spectrum of crop plants. Colonizing dynamics observations and a growth promotion assay of rice and Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the B3 colonization strategy is host-adapted and resulted in different growth promotions influenced by N availability...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146250/revitalization-of-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-for-sustainable-development-in-agriculture
#6
REVIEW
Sushanto Gouda, Rout George Kerry, Gitishree Das, Spiros Paramithiotis, Han-Seung Shin, Jayanta Kumar Patra
The progression of life in all forms is not only dependent on agricultural and food security but also on the soil characteristics. The dynamic nature of soil is a direct manifestation of soil microbes, bio-mineralization, and synergistic co-evolution with plants. With the increase in world's population the demand for agriculture yield has increased tremendously and thereby leading to large scale production of chemical fertilizers. Since the use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural fields have caused degradation of soil quality and fertility, thus the expansion of agricultural land with fertile soil is near impossible, hence researchers and scientists have sifted their attention for a safer and productive means of agricultural practices...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145071/proteomic-analysis-reveals-that-tomato-interaction-with-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-is-highly-determined-by-ethylene-perception
#7
Pablo Ibort, Hiroyuki Imai, Matsuo Uemura, Ricardo Aroca
Feeding an increasing global population as well as reducing environmental impact of crops is the challenge for the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) management could represent a suitable method but elucidation of their action mechanisms is essential for a proper and effective utilization. Furthermore, ethylene is involved in growth and response to environmental stimuli but little is known about the implication of ethylene perception in PGPB activity. The ethylene-insensitive tomato never ripe and its isogenic wild-type cv...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141975/dietary-strategies-to-reduce-environmental-impact-a-critical-review-of-the-evidence-base
#8
REVIEW
Bradley G Ridoutt, Gilly A Hendrie, Manny Noakes
The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138387/strategies-for-feeding-the-world-more-sustainably-with-organic-agriculture
#9
Adrian Muller, Christian Schader, Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Judith Brüggemann, Anne Isensee, Karl-Heinz Erb, Pete Smith, Peter Klocke, Florian Leiber, Matthias Stolze, Urs Niggli
Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to organic agriculture needs more land than conventional agriculture but reduces N-surplus and pesticide use. However, in combination with reductions of food wastage and food-competing feed from arable land, with correspondingly reduced production and consumption of animal products, land use under organic agriculture remains below the reference scenario...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138201/effect-of-iron-and-zinc-biofortified-pearl-millet-consumption-on-growth-and-immune-competence-in-children-aged-12-18-months-in-india-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Saurabh Mehta, Julia L Finkelstein, Sudha Venkatramanan, Samantha L Huey, Shobha A Udipi, Padmini Ghugre, Caleb Ruth, Richard L Canfield, Anura V Kurpad, Ramesh D Potdar, Jere D Haas
INTRODUCTION: Biofortified crops represent a sustainable agricultural solution for the widespread micronutrient malnutrition in India and other resource-limited settings. This study aims to investigate the effect of the consumption of foods prepared with iron- and zinc-biofortified pearl millet (FeZn-PM) by children on biomarkers of iron and zinc status, growth, and immune function. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a randomised controlled feeding trial in identified slums of Mumbai, India among 200 children aged between 12 and 18 months...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136841/miniaturized-quechers-based-methodology-for-multiresidue-determination-of-pesticides-in-odonate-nymphs-as-ecosystem-biomonitors
#11
Florencia Jesús, Ricardo Hladki, Natalia Gérez, Natalia Besil, Silvina Niell, Grisel Fernández, Horacio Heinzen, María Verónica Cesio
The impacts of the modern, agrochemicals based agriculture that threatens the overall systems sustainability, need to be monitored and evaluated. Seeking for agroecosystems monitors, the present article focus in the occurrence and abundance of aquatic macroinvertebrates, that have been frequently used as bioindicators of water quality due to their relationship with land use. Some of these organisms are on the top of the food chain, where bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes can be observed, and they can turn into secondary pollution sources of systems and terrestrial organisms as well...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135953/spatial-temporal-dynamics-of-cropping-frequency-in-hubei-province-over-2001-2015
#12
Jianbin Tao, Wenbin Wu, Wenbin Liu
Mapping crop patterns with remote sensing data is of great importance for agricultural production, food security and agricultural sustainability. In this paper, a hierarchical clustering method was proposed to map cropping frequency from time-series Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Indices (EVI) data and the spatial and temporal patterns of cropping frequency from 2001 to 2015 in Hubei Province of China were analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) The total double crop areas decreased slightly, while total single crop areas decreased significantly during 2001 and 2015; (2) The transfer between double crop and single crop was frequent in Hubei with about 11~15% croplands changed their cropping frequency every 5 years; (3) The crop system has obvious regional differentiation for their change trend at the county level...
November 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134071/the-scaling-structure-of-the-global-road-network
#13
Emanuele Strano, Andrea Giometto, Saray Shai, Enrico Bertuzzo, Peter J Mucha, Andrea Rinaldo
Because of increasing global urbanization and its immediate consequences, including changes in patterns of food demand, circulation and land use, the next century will witness a major increase in the extent of paved roads built worldwide. To model the effects of this increase, it is crucial to understand whether possible self-organized patterns are inherent in the global road network structure. Here, we use the largest updated database comprising all major roads on the Earth, together with global urban and cropland inventories, to suggest that road length distributions within croplands are indistinguishable from urban ones, once rescaled to account for the difference in mean road length...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132720/intensify-production-transform-biomass-to-energy-and-novel-goods-and-protect-soils-in-europe-a-vision-how-to-mobilize-marginal-lands
#14
REVIEW
P Schröder, B Beckers, S Daniels, F Gnädinger, E Maestri, N Marmiroli, M Mench, R Millan, M M Obermeier, N Oustriere, T Persson, C Poschenrieder, F Rineau, B Rutkowska, T Schmid, W Szulc, N Witters, A Sæbø
The rapid increase of the world population constantly demands more food production from agricultural soils. This causes conflicts, since at the same time strong interest arises on novel bio-based products from agriculture, and new perspectives for rural landscapes with their valuable ecosystem services. Agriculture is in transition to fulfill these demands. In many countries, conventional farming, influenced by post-war food requirements, has largely been transformed into integrated and sustainable farming...
November 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129287/can-agricultural-practices-that-mitigate-or-improve-crop-resilience-to-climate-change-also-manage-crop-pests
#15
REVIEW
Ebony G Murrell
Sustainable agricultural practices that are promoted for mitigating climate change have the potential to also improve pest management. The author highlights recent studies that demonstrate effects of climate-mitigating agricultural practices on arthropod pests and predators in agronomic cropping systems. Promising practices for suppressing pests and/or improving biological control include: plant species diversification, especially via the addition of perennial species; cover cropping; tillage practices that retain crop residue; application of organic fertilizers such as compost and manure; and water management practices such as irrigation and sustainable rice intensification...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129283/biological-control-agents-in-the-anthropocene-current-risks-and-future-options
#16
REVIEW
Jessa H Thurman, David W Crowder, Tobin D Northfield
Global climate change is often expected to disrupt biological control. Predicting the effects of climate change on biological control, and identifying natural enemies that will thrive in future climate scenarios, is thus essential to ensure agricultural sustainability. To promote biological control under climate change, land managers should prioritise the conservation of natural enemy diversity to ensure some effective natural enemies are always present despite often-unpredictable climate scenarios. In addition, ecophysiological and habitat domain models should be combined to predict climate change-induced shifts in predation by diverse predator communities...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127868/reduced-irrigation-increases-the-water-use-efficiency-and-productivity-of-winter-wheat-summer-maize-rotation-on-the-north-china-plain
#17
Yunqi Wang, Yinghua Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jinpeng Li, Meng Zhang, Shunli Zhou, Zhimin Wang
The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126820/blend-design-tools-for-medium-combustion-plants-mcp-firing-biomass-wastes
#18
I Ibarra, G Aragón, I Gómez, I Múgica, J González, J Rodríguez Maroto, E Rojas, D Sanz, R Ramos, R Escalada, E Borjabad, C Gutiérrez-Canas
A feasible alternative for agricultural or forestry waste management is the operation of a distributed network of sustainable Medium Combustion Plants (MCPs). However, one of the main factors that hinder its development is the propensity to operational problems derived from corrosion, slagging and fouling characteristics of both bottom and fly ashes. Therefore, a cost-effective approach for these multi-product MCP could be based on predictive tools for an optimal formulation of a fuel blend. This work focuses on the assessment of the ability of these methods to provide guidance for preventing ash-related operational problems and to provide fuel-blending rules...
November 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124016/chemically-synthesized-biofuels-from-agricultural-waste-optimization-operating-parameters-with-surface-response-methodology-ccd
#19
Tesfay Berhe, Omprakash Sahu
Bioethanol is one of the most important alternative renewable energy sources that substitute the fossil fuels. Sugarcane bagasse has a content of cellulose and hemicelluloses, which make it suitable as fermentation substrate when hydrolyzed. The objective of work is ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by the fermentation process. Eight laboratory experiments were conducted to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse. By using Design Expert, it was formulated the dilute acid hydrolysis step to investigate the effects of hydrolysis parameters on a yield of ethanol and optimum condition...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123532/food-legumes-and-rising-temperatures-effects-adaptive-functional-mechanisms-specific-to-reproductive-growth-stage-and-strategies-to-improve-heat-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Kumari Sita, Akanksha Sehgal, Bindumadhava HanumanthaRao, Ramakrishnan M Nair, P V Vara Prasad, Shiv Kumar, Pooran M Gaur, Muhammad Farooq, Kadambot H M Siddique, Rajeev K Varshney, Harsh Nayyar
Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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