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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931509/development-and-validation-of-qmortality-risk-prediction-algorithm-to-estimate-short-term-risk-of-death-and-assess-frailty-cohort-study
#1
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
Objectives To derive and validate a risk prediction equation to estimate the short term risk of death, and to develop a classification method for frailty based on risk of death and risk of unplanned hospital admission.Design Prospective open cohort study.Participants Routinely collected data from 1436 general practices contributing data to QResearch in England between 2012 and 2016. 1079 practices were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 357 practices to validate the scores. 1.47 million patients aged 65-100 years were in the derivation cohort and 0...
September 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926294/predictors-of-death-in-the-hospital-for-patients-with-chronic-serious-illness
#2
Katy Hicks, Lois Downey, Ruth A Engelberg, James A Fausto, Helene Starks, Ben Dunlap, James Sibley, William Lober, Nita Khandelwal, Elizabeth T Loggers, J Randall Curtis
BACKGROUND: Most people prefer to die at home, yet most do not. Understanding factors associated with terminal hospitalization may inform interventions to improve care. OBJECTIVE: Among patients with chronic illness receiving care in a multihospital healthcare system, we identified the following: (1) predictors of death in any hospital; (2) predictors of death in a hospital outside the system; and (3) trends from 2010 to 2015. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort using death certificates and electronic health records...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919117/global-regional-and-national-incidence-prevalence-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-328-diseases-and-injuries-for-195-countries-1990-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#3
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917207/exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-dementia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#4
Hong Chen, Jeffrey C Kwong, Ray Copes, Perry Hystad, Aaron van Donkelaar, Karen Tu, Jeffrey R Brook, Mark S Goldberg, Randall V Martin, Brian J Murray, Andrew S Wilton, Alexander Kopp, Richard T Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. METHODS: The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2...
September 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889822/the-relationship-between-obesity-and-cognitive-health-and-decline
#5
Louise Dye, Neil Bernard Boyle, Claire Champ, Clare Lawton
The relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment is important given the globally ageing population in whom cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders will carry grave individual, societal and financial burdens. This review examines the evidence for the link between obesity and cognitive function in terms of both the immediate effects on cognitive performance, and effects on the trajectory of cognitive ageing and likelihood of dementia. In mid-life, there is a strong association between obesity and impaired cognitive function...
September 11, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883241/ketoacidosis-due-to-a-low-carbohydrate-diet-in-an-elderly-woman-with-dementia-and-abnormal-eating-behavior
#6
Hitoshi Iwata, Seiichiro Tsuzuki, Mitsunaga Iwata, Teruhiko Terasawa
Strict restriction of carbohydrates can induce symptomatic ketoacidosis. We herein report a 76-year-old demented woman who developed ketoacidosis after 1 month of abnormal eating behavior involving selectively eating hamburger steak (estimated carbohydrate =12.7 g/day). Laboratory tests showed high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis with elevated blood ketone levels. She was successfully treated with intravenous fluids followed by oral intake of a regular diet. She remained relapse-free after correcting her eating habits...
September 6, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873124/trends-in-dementia-incidence-in-a-birth-cohort-analysis-of-the-einstein-aging-study
#7
Carol A Derby, Mindy J Katz, Richard B Lipton, Charles B Hall
Importance: Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. Objectives: To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied...
September 5, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870545/arterial-stiffness-and-cognitive-impairment
#8
REVIEW
Xiaoxuan Li, Peiyuan Lyu, Yanyan Ren, Jin An, Yanhong Dong
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860463/decision-making-in-primary-onset-middle-age-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-bold-fmri-study
#9
Dan-Miao Sun, Ye Ma, Zong-Bo Sun, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Wei-Song Chen, Shou-Xing Duan, Zhi-Rong Lin, Rui-Wei Guo, Hong-Bo Le, Wen-Can Xu, Shu-Hua Ma
Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-recognized risk factor for dementia, the neural mechanisms that underlying cognitive impairment in T2DM remain unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate the neural basis of decision making at the initial onset stage of T2DM. Eighteen newly diagnosed middle-aged T2DM patients, with no previous diabetic treatment history, and 18 matched controls were recruited. Results indicated that T2DM patients made more disadvantageous decisions than controls...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855459/background-characteristics-and-clinical-features-of-elderly-patients-with-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-syndrome
#10
Takuya Yamaoka, Yoshiaki Tamura, Remi Kodera, Yuki Tsuboi, Ken Sato, Yuko Chiba, Seijiro Mori, Hideki Ito, Atsushi Araki
AIM: Few reports have described the characteristics of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in the elderly. We investigated the background characteristics and clinical features of 14 elderly patients with HHS. METHODS: HHS was diagnosed based on a blood glucose level of >600 mg/dL and an effective plasma osmolality [2 (Na) + glu/18] of >320 mOsm/kg. For 14 cases of HHS, we investigated the medical and social backgrounds of the patients, their clinical findings, and the outcomes...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854435/n-terminal-prosomatostatin-and-risk-of-vascular-dementia
#11
Hannes Holm, Katarina Nägga, Erik D Nilsson, Fabrizio Ricci, Eduardo Cinosi, Olle Melander, Oskar Hansson, Erasmus Bachus, Martin Magnusson, Artur Fedorowski
BACKGROUND: Increased somatostatin plasma concentration has been found in patients with vascular dementia. However, it is unknown whether or not somatostatin levels may predict dementia development in the general population. To this end, we sought to assess the association of circulating N-terminal prosomatostatin (NT-proSST) with incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project, 5,347 study participants (mean age: 69 ± 6years; 70% men) provided plasma for the determination of NT-proSST concentration...
August 31, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852028/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-reductions-in-specific-cognitive-domains-and-increases-in-csf-tau-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#12
Simon M Laws, Scott Gaskin, Amy Woodfield, Velandai Srikanth, David Bruce, Paul E Fraser, Tenielle Porter, Philip Newsholme, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Samantha Burnham, Vincent Doré, Qiao-Xin Li, Paul Maruff, Colin L Masters, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Christopher C Rowe, Olivier Salvado, Victor L Villemagne, Ralph N Martins, Giuseppe Verdile
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes (T2D) increases the risk of developing dementia. Experimental evidence from mouse models demonstrates that the induction of T2D/insulin resistance (IR) can promote the accumulation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological features. However, the association of T2D with pathological and clinical phenotypes in humans is unclear. Here we investigate the relationship of indices of IR (HOMA-IR) and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-B) with cognitive performance across several domains (Verbal/Visual Episodic Memory, Executive Function, Language and a measure of Global cognition) and AD biomarkers (CSF Aβ42, T-tau/P-tau, hippocampal volume and neocortical Aβ-amyloid burden)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843663/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-brain-failure-a-novel-end-point
#13
Tarun D Singh, John C O'Horo, Ognjen Gajic, Amra Sakusic, Courtney N Day, Jay Mandrekar, Rahul Kashyap, Dereddi Raja Shekar Reddy, Alejandro A Rabinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of acute brain failure (ABF) in a mixed medical and surgical cohort of critically ill patients and its effect on ICU & hospital mortality. DESIGN: Observational electronic medical record (EMR) based retrospective cohort study of critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between 2006 and 2013. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adult (>18years) critically ill patients admitted to medical and surgical ICUs...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838595/variations-in-hospital-costs-after-traffic-injuries-the-importance-of-sociodemographic-aspects-and-comorbidities
#14
Stefanie Devos, Griet Van Belleghem, Karen Pien, Ives Hubloue, Isidoor Lauwaert, Tom van Lier, Lieven Annemans, Koen Putman
OBJECTIVE: The impact of sociodemographic aspects and comorbidities on the inpatient hospital care costs of traffic victims are not clear. The main goal of this study is to provide insights into the sociodemographic characteristics and clinical conditions (including comorbidities) of the victims that result in higher hospital costs. PARTICIPANTS: For the period 2009-2011, people admitted to a hospital as a result of a road traffic crash (N=64,304) were identified in the national Minimal Hospital Dataset, after which they were linked to their respective claims data from the sickness funds...
August 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834964/aldosterone-hypothesis-for-cognitive-impairment-in-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Sarama Saha, Stefan R Bornstein, Juergen Graessler, Sasanka Chakrabarti, Steffi Kopprasch
Increased plasma aldosterone concentration is significantly associated with dementia, which is accentuated by diabetes mellitus (DM). Angiotensin II (AngII) deteriorates cognitive function through neuronal degradation. Lipoproteins, a major source of cholesterol for aldosterone biosynthesis, undergo glycoxidative modifications in the presence of hyperglycemia. We hypothesize that there would be a pathophysiological link between diabetically-modified lipoproteins, angiotensin II, and increased plasma aldosterone concentration for induction of cognitive impairment...
September 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833619/cost-effective-options-for-the-prevention-and-management-of-gastrointestinal-and-liver-disease-in-the-asia-pacific-region
#16
REVIEW
Ian C Roberts-Thomson, Thomas Lung
The Asia-Pacific region contains more than half of the world's population and is markedly heterogeneous in relation to income levels and the provision of public and private health services. For low-income countries, the major health priorities are child and maternal health. In contrast, priorities for high-income countries include vascular disease, cancer, diabetes, dementia and mental health disorders as well as chronic inflammatory disorders such as hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Cost-effectiveness analyses are methods for assessing the gains in health relative to the costs of different health interventions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826680/patient-characteristics-associated-with-quality-of-colonoscopy-preparation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Kunjal Gandhi, Christina Tofani, Carly Sokach, Devin Patel, David Kastenberg, Constantine Daskalakis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some features of patients are associated with inadequate bowel preparation, which reduces the effectiveness of colonoscopy examination. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between patients' sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and medications with inadequate bowel preparation. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Review databases for randomized controlled trials and cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control, and cross-sectional studies published through March 2016...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817241/association-between-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-heart-failure-risk-in-the-elderly
#18
Catarina Magalhães Porto, Vanessa De Lima Silva, João Soares Brito da Luz, Brivaldo Markman Filho, Vera Magalhães da Silveira
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of heart failure in elderly patients of cardiology outpatient clinics. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study with an analytical approach was employed. Clinical data were collected from the elderly from August 2015 to February 2016. The dependent variable was the risk of heart failure; the independent variable was vitamin D deficiency; and intervening factors were age, gender, education, ethnicity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, renal failure, dementia, stroke, dyslipidaemia, depression, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, andropause, and cardiac arrhythmia...
August 17, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815415/type-2-diabetes-with-comorbid-depression-in-relation-to-cognitive-impairment-an-opportunity-for-prevention
#19
David A Zhang, Vicky Lam, Vanessa Chu, Ming Li
Studies show poor glycemic control is associated with increased risk of dementia among patients with Type 2 diabetes, indicating potential for prevention of dementia with improved glycemia. Emerging evidence suggests that a relationship between short-term glycemic control and cognitive function exists in Type 2 diabetes. However, detailed mechanisms relating diabetic dementia are lacking, as other concurrent conditions, such as depression, may also increase the risk of dementia in Type 2 diabetes. We examined the effects of glycemic control and depression on cognitive function in 88 patients (mean age, 67 ± 4 years) whose A1c (glycosylated hemoglobin) levels, comorbid depression, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores were recorded at baseline...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811268/antecedent-adhd-dementia-and-metabolic-dysregulation-a-u-s-based-cohort-analysis
#20
Keith Fluegge, Kyle Fluegge
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological and genetic studies have reported a link between antecedent ADHD and dementia. The underpinning mechanisms of these associations are not known and have generated considerable speculation. METHODS: We have extracted hospitalization discharge data on dementia and ADHD (representing a severe phenotype) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUPnet) and utilized a Poisson regression with two-ways fixed effects to investigate this association...
August 12, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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