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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212674/proportion-of-dementia-in-australia-explained-by-common-modifiable-risk-factors
#1
Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell, Richard Burns, Jonathan Shaw, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: At present, dementia has no known cure. Interventions to delay onset and reduce prevalence of the disease are therefore focused on risk factor reduction. Previous population attributable risk estimates for western countries may have been underestimated as a result of the relatively low rates of midlife obesity and the lower weighting given to that variable in statistical models. METHODS: Levin's Attributable Risk which assumes independence of risk factors was used to calculate the proportion of dementia attributable to seven modifiable risk factors (midlife obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, low educational attainment, diabetes mellitus, midlife hypertension and depression) in Australia...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#2
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210868/cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-new-emerging-complication-of-type-2-diabetes-the-diabetologist-s-perspective
#3
Rafael Simó, Andreea Ciudin, Olga Simó-Servat, Cristina Hernández
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two of the most common diseases of aging around the world. Given the frequency with which T2D and AD occur, the notion that people with T2D may be at increased risk for AD has large societal consequences, and understanding the mechanistic links between these diseases is imperative for the development of effective AD prevention and treatment strategies. Apart from being an accelerator of AD, T2D is associated with a progressive cognitive decline...
February 16, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206976/lipid-and-alzheimer-s-disease-genes-associated-with-healthy-aging-and-longevity-in-healthy-oldest-old
#4
Lauren C Tindale, Stephen Leach, John J Spinelli, Angela R Brooks-Wilson
Several studies have found that long-lived individuals do not appear to carry lower numbers of common disease-associated variants than ordinary people; it has been hypothesized that they may instead carry protective variants. An intriguing type of protective variant is buffering variants that protect against variants that have deleterious effects. We genotyped 18 variants in 15 genes related to longevity or healthy aging that had been previously reported as having a gene-gene interaction or buffering effect...
February 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202888/sarcopenia-and-its-relationship-with-falling-among-outpatients-attending-a-geriatric-and-memory-clinic-at-kyorin-university-hospital
#5
Masamichi Tanaka, Kumiko Nagai, Hitomi Koshiba, Toshifumi Matui, Koichi Kozaki
AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in outpatients attending a geriatric and memory clinic and to investigate its relationship with falling. METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia (according to the EWGSOP criteria) among 283 outpatients that were all ≥65 years of age, and who attended the geriatric and memory clinic at Kyorin University Hospital. We also examined comorbidities, CGA items, and fall-related measures, and analyzed the relationships between these factors and sarcopenia...
2017: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192452/increased-risk-of-dementia-in-patients-hospitalized-with-acute-kidney-injury-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Hsin-Hsi Tsai, Ruoh-Fang Yen, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
PURPOSE: To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000-2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. RESULTS: During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190681/differential-effects-of-metformin-on-age-related-comorbidities-in-older-men-with-type-2-diabetes
#7
Chen-Pin Wang, Carlos Lorenzo, Samy L Habib, Booil Jo, Sara E Espinoza
AIMS: To identify distinct temporal likelihoods of age-related comorbidity (ARC) diagnoses: cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, depression, dementia, and frailty-related diseases (FRD) in older men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but ARC naïve initially, and assess the heterogeneous effects of metformin on ARCs and mortality. METHODS: We identified a clinical cohort of male veterans in the United States who were ≥65years old with T2D and free from ARCs during 2002-2003...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188974/glycemic-control-and-disability-free-survival-in-hypoglycemic-agent-treated-community-dwelling-older-patients-with-type%C3%A2-2-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Takuro Morita, Tazuo Okuno, Taroh Himeno, Keisuke Watanabe, Kumie Nakajima, Yumi Koizumi, Hiroshi Yano, Osamu Iritani, Masashi Okuro, Shigeto Morimoto
AIM: Although lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ) has been believed to be an important marker of improvement of glycemic control in order to maintain better quality of life for patients with diabetes mellitus, a too low HbA1c might be harmful in older adults. We investigated whether this was the case with respect to risk of support/care-need certification in community-dwelling older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We analyzed 184 diabetes patients aged 65-94 years receiving glucose-lowering medication/insulin...
February 11, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182172/chronic-disease-self-management-support-for-persons-with-dementia-in-a-clinical-setting
#9
Joseph Elias Ibrahim, Laura J Anderson, Aleece MacPhail, Janaka Jonathan Lovell, Marie-Claire Davis, Margaret Winbolt
The burden of chronic disease is greater in individuals with dementia, a patient group that is growing as the population is aging. The cornerstone of optimal management of chronic disease requires effective patient self-management. However, this is particularly challenging in older persons with a comorbid diagnosis of dementia. The impact of dementia on a person's ability to self-manage his/her chronic disease (eg, diabetes mellitus or heart failure) varies according to the cognitive domain(s) affected, severity of impairment and complexity of self-care tasks...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179815/considering-sex-and-gender-in-alzheimer-disease-and-other-dementias
#10
Jessica L Podcasy, C Neill Epperson
Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs...
December 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#11
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163495/using-multistate-observational-studies-to-determine-role-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-as-risk-factors-for-dementia
#12
Mitasha Singh, Des Raj, Sunil Kumar Raina, Manoj Kumar Gandhi, Vishav Chander
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that modifiable risk factors which can be targeted by prevention are vascular diseases, such as diabetes, midlife hypertension (HTN), midlife obesity, midlife cholesterol, mid- and late-life depression as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database and Google Scholar was conducted. A combinations of medical subject headings and free text words that included search terms related to the exposure (e...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162091/increased-dementia-risk-predominantly-in-diabetes-mellitus-rather-than-in-hypertension-or-hyperlipidemia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Yen-Chun Fan, Jung-Lung Hsu, Hong-Yi Tung, Chia-Chi Chou, Chyi-Huey Bai
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of insulin resistance-induced hypertension and hyperlipidemia might entail differences in dementia risk in cases with hypertension and hyperlipidemia without prior diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated whether incident hypertension, incident hyperlipidemia, or both, increased the dementia risk in patients with and without DM. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted. The study sample was obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 6, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158989/higher-skeletal-muscle-mass-may-protect-against-ischemic-stroke-in-community-dwelling-adults-without-stroke-and-dementia-the-present-project
#14
Yang-Ki Minn, Seung-Han Suk
BACKGROUND: It is well known that a low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is associated with stroke. However, it is unknown whether increasing muscle mass can prevent stroke. METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study was supported by the regional government. SMM measurements and brain computed tomography was performed in 722 stroke-free and dementia-free subjects (aged 50-75 years). Subjects were divided into quartiles (Q) by SMM, checked using the bioelectrical impedance analysis method (InBody 770, InBody, Seoul, Korea)...
February 3, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153642/personality-traits-and-risk-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#15
Antonio Terracciano, Yannick Stephan, Martina Luchetti, Emiliano Albanese, Angelina R Sutin
We investigated the association between five factor model personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and risk of dementia, cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND), and conversion from CIND to dementia in a large national cohort. Participants from the Health and Retirement Study (N > 10,000) completed a personality scale in 2006-2008 and their cognitive status was tracked for up to 8 years using the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICSm)...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152778/patterns-of-comorbidity-among-older-u-s-patients-with-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#16
Steven I Park, Jennifer Leigh Lund
: 304 Background: Evidence suggests that the number and type ofcomorbidities at cancer diagnosis influences cancer treatment and mortality, especially among older patients.We sought to describe comorbidity patterns and identify how patterns predict all-cause mortality among older non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients. METHODS: Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiologic, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare databases, we identified patients aged > 66 with a first diagnosis of stage I-IV NHL from 2007-2009...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151002/lack-of-associations-between-modifiable-risk-factors-and-dementia-in-the-very-old-findings-from-the-cambridge-city-over-75s-cohort-study
#17
Kay Deckers, Sebastian Köhler, Martin van Boxtel, Frans Verhey, Carol Brayne, Jane Fleming
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between modifiable risk and protective factors and severe cognitive impairment and dementia in the very old. Additionally, the present study tests the predictive validity of the 'LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score, an index developed to assess an individual's dementia prevention potential. METHOD: Two hundred seventy-eight individuals aged 85 years or older from the Cambridge City over-75s cohort study were followed-up until death...
February 2, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146334/dementia-and-co-occurring-chronic-conditions-a-systematic-literature-review-to-identify-what-is-known-and-where-are-the-gaps-in-the-evidence
#18
REVIEW
Mark B Snowden, Lesley E Steinman, Lucinda L Bryant, Monique M Cherrier, Kurt J Greenlund, Katherine H Leith, Cari Levy, Rebecca G Logsdon, Catherine Copeland, Mia Vogel, Lynda A Anderson, David C Atkins, Janice F Bell, Annette L Fitzpatrick
OBJECTIVE: The challenges posed by people living with multiple chronic conditions are unique for people with dementia and other significant cognitive impairment. There have been recent calls to action to review the existing literature on co-occurring chronic conditions and dementia in order to better understand the effect of cognitive impairment on disease management, mobility, and mortality. METHODS: This systematic literature review searched PubMed databases through 2011 (updated in 2016) using key constructs of older adults, moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment (both diagnosed and undiagnosed dementia), and chronic conditions...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137222/machine-learning-and-molecular-dynamics-based-insights-into-mode-of-actions-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme-modulators
#19
Salma Jamal, Sukriti Goyal, Asheesh Shanker, Abhinav Grover
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common lethal neurodegenerative disorders having impact on the lives of millions of people worldwide. The disease lacks effective treatment options and the unavailability of the drugs to cure the disease necessitates the development of effectual anti-Alzheimer drugs. Several mechanisms have been reported underlying the association of the two disorders, diabetes and dementia, one among which is the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) which is known to degrade insulin as well beta-amyloid peptides...
January 30, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130700/higher-fasting-plasma-glucose-is-associated-with-increased-cortical-thinning-over-12-years-the-path-through-life-study
#20
Marnie E Shaw, Julia Nettersheim, Perminder S Sachdev, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Recent evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with accelerated brain ageing, consistent with the observation of increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in affected individuals. Even non-diabetic individuals with impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) levels have shown increased cerebral atrophy, compared to individuals with normal glucose levels. We tested whether longitudinal rates of age-related cortical thinning were associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a large sample (n = 322) of early-old age individuals (60-66 years) who were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1...
January 27, 2017: Brain Topography
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