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Álvaro Franco-Giraldo
This article presents a Latin American vision of global health from a counterhegemonic perspective, applicable to various countries of the world in similar circumstances. It begins by reviewing several concepts and trends in global health and outlining the differences between conventional public health, international health, and global health, but without seeing them as antagonistic, instead situating them in a model that is based on global health and also includes the other two disciplines. It is understood that global factors influenced earlier theories, schemes, and models of classic international health...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Michelangelo Puliga, Andrea Flori, Giuseppe Pappalardo, Alessandro Chessa, Fabio Pammolli
The role of Network Theory in the study of the financial crisis has been widely spotted in the latest years. It has been shown how the network topology and the dynamics running on top of it can trigger the outbreak of large systemic crisis. Following this methodological perspective we introduce here the Accounting Network, i.e. the network we can extract through vector similarities techniques from companies' financial statements. We build the Accounting Network on a large database of worldwide banks in the period 2001-2013, covering the onset of the global financial crisis of mid-2007...
2016: PloS One
Harinder Singh Chahal, Farrah Kashfipour, Matt Susko, Neelam Sekhri Feachem, Colin Boyle
Medicines Regulatory Authorities (MRAs) are an essential part of national health systems and are charged with protecting and promoting public health through regulation of medicines. However, MRAs in resource-constrained settings often struggle to provide effective oversight of market entry and use of health commodities. This paper proposes a regulatory value chain model (RVCM) that policymakers and regulators can use as a conceptual framework to guide investments aimed at strengthening regulatory systems. The RVCM incorporates nine core functions of MRAs into five modules: (i) clear guidelines and requirements; (ii) control of clinical trials; (iii) market authorization of medical products; (iv) pre-market quality control; and (v) post-market activities...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Celeste Aurora Sánchez González
Objective To review, organize, and share the experience of the regulatory authorities of countries involved in a project headed by the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Americas (ALBA) for the establishment of a regulatory center (ALBAMED) and a single registry to facilitate access to essential medicines while ensuring quality, safety, and effectiveness, as well as to demonstrate how the construction of this forum for regional cooperation has benefited these authorities and their respective regulatory systems...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Marco Miotti, Geoffrey J Supran, Ella J Kim, Jessika E Trancik
Meeting global climate change mitigation goals will likely require that transportation-related greenhouse gas emissions begin to decline within the next two decades and then continue to fall. A variety of vehicle technologies and fuels are commercially available to consumers today that can reduce the emissions of the transportation sector. Yet what are the best options, and do any suffice to meet climate policy targets? Here, we examine the costs and carbon intensities of 125 light-duty vehicle models on the U...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Nazario Martín, Carlos Andradas
The evolution of knowledge and technology in recent decades has brought profound changes in science policy, not only in the countries but also in the supranational organizations. It has been necessary, therefore, to adapt the scientific institutions to new models in order to achieve a greater and better communication between them and the political counterparts responsible for defining the general framework of relations between science and society. The Federationon of Scientific Societies of Spain (COSCE, Confederación de Sociedades Científicas de España) was founded in October 2003 to respond to the urgent need to interact with the political institutions and foster a better orientation in the process of making decisions about the science policy...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Emmanuel Desandes, Daniel P Stark
To design the services for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer, we need to understand the patterns of disease and the other clinical and managerial challenges of the patient group. Cancer occurring between the ages of 15 and 39 years is 4 times less rare than cancer occurring during the first 15 years of life and consists of 2% of all invasive cancer in Europe, about 66,000 patients in Europe each year. AYAs have a unique distribution of cancer types, including the peak in incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) or germ cell tumors...
2016: Progress in Tumor Research
Antonio Oddo
Protecting healthcare staff against the risk of infection caused by injuries when using sharp or pointed instruments has been placed - as a special, common and difficult type of "biological risk" - at the centre of attention in the investigations, studies and research conducted by various countries and subjects that have led to a convergence between the results able to influence European and supranational legislation. This convergence of results is headed towards the recognition of the great potential of the role of technology and, more specifically, of the "protection devices" of paramount and essential importance, as "technical measures", over the other, nevertheless important "organisational" and "personal" measures...
2016: La Medicina del Lavoro
Simone Baldovino, Antoni Montserrat Moliner, Domenica Taruscio, Erica Daina, Dario Roccatello
The European Union defines rare diseases (RDs) as life-threatening or chronically debilitating conditions whose prevalence is less than 5 per 10,000. Moreover, for many RDs, including those of genetic origin, combined efforts are required to reduce morbidity or perinatal and early mortality, and address the considerable decline in an individual's quality of life and socioeconomic potential. Their specificities, i.e., a limited number of patients and scarcity of relevant knowledge and expertise, make RDs a unique condition which requires wide cooperation at a supranational level...
June 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
N R Efimochkinal, E C Bagryantseva, E C Dupouy, S A Khotimchenko, E V Permyakov, S A Sheveleva, O V Arnautov
Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on aglobalscale because ofincreasingnumberoffood-borne diseases andimportance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance...
2016: Voprosy Pitaniia
Madeleine J Murtagh, Andrew Turner, Joel T Minion, Michaela Fay, Paul R Burton
The social structures that govern data/sample release aim to safeguard the confidentiality and privacy of cohort research participants (without whom there would be no data or samples) and enable the realization of societal benefit through optimizing the scientific use of those cohorts. Within collaborations involving multiple cohorts and biobanks, however, the local, national, and supranational institutional and legal guidelines for research (which produce a multiplicity of data access governance structures and guidelines) risk impeding the very science that is the raison d'etre of these consortia...
June 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
César Ernesto Abadía-Barrero, Adriana Gisela Martínez-Parra
This article offers a conceptual framework that arises out of the Latin American Social Medicine/Collective Health (LASM/CH) tradition to comprehend inequalities in oral health. We conducted a dialogue between the LASM/CH proposal called social determination of health (in particular one of its nuclear categories 'ways of living together') and studies that address social inequalities and oral health. This dialogue allowed us to redefine oral health-disease-treatment as a process that either promotes or harms well-being and is modulated by different ways of living together where not only patients and professionals, but also governments, supranational bodies, and national and international markets represented by food, pharmaceutical, insurance, personal care, and cosmetic companies interact...
April 15, 2016: Global Public Health
Ruvandhi R Nathavitharana, Doris Hillemann, Samuel G Schumacher, Birte Schlueter, Nazir Ismail, Shaheed Vally Omar, Welile Sikhondze, Joshua Havumaki, Eloise Valli, Catharina Boehme, Claudia M Denkinger
Less than 30% of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are currently diagnosed, due to laboratory constraints. Molecular diagnostics enable rapid and simplified diagnosis. Newer-version line probe assays have not been evaluated against the WHO-endorsed Hain GenoType MTBDRplus (referred to as Hain version 1 [V1]) for the rapid detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. A two-phase noninferiority study was conducted in two supranational reference laboratories to allow head-to-head comparisons of two new tests, Hain Genotype MTBDRplus version 2 (referred to as Hain version 2 [V2]) and Nipro NTM+MDRTB detection kit 2 (referred to as Nipro), to Hain V1...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
P K Franklin
OBJECTIVES: This article reviews how Organized Civil Society (OCS) groups in the field of public health work across the boundaries between European institutions and policy areas. In particular, it explores 1) how the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is conducted by these groups informally within the formal governance structures, and 2) how this advocacy work creates space for public health within the broader political determinants of health. STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative mixed-methods framework...
July 2016: Public Health
S M John, M Trakatelli, R Gehring, K Finlay, C Fionda, M Wittlich, M Augustin, G Hilpert, J M Barroso Dias, C Ulrich, G Pellacani
1. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most common cancer diagnosed in westernized countries, and one of the few almost preventable cancers if detected and treated early as up to 90% of NMSC may be attributed to excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 2. The incidence of NMSC is increasing: 2-3 million people are diagnosed worldwide annually, with an average yearly increase of 3-8% among white populations in Australia, Europe, the US and Canada over the last 30 years. 3. The link between solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and certain forms of NMSC is clearly recognized...
April 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Ariadna Ripoll Servent, Florian Trauner
This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after 'communitarization', it argues that its 'policy core' has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round...
September 14, 2014: Journal of European Public Policy
T Soliman, A MacLeod, J D Mumford, T P L Nghiem, H T W Tan, S K Papworth, R T Corlett, L R Carrasco
A key justification to support plant health regulations is the ability of quarantine services to conduct pest risk analyses (PRA). Despite the supranational nature of biological invasions and the close proximity and connectivity of Southeast Asian countries, PRAs are conducted at the national level. Furthermore, some countries have limited experience in the development of PRAs, which may result in inadequate phytosanitary responses that put their plant resources at risk to pests vectored via international trade...
May 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Tea Golob, Matej Makarovič, Jana Suklan
The purpose of the article is to test the relationship between national identities and modernisation. We test the hypotheses that not all forms of identity are equally compatible with modernisation as measured by Human Development Index. The less developed societies are characterised by strong ascribed national identities based on birth, territory and religion, but also by strong voluntarist identities based on civic features selected and/or achieved by an individual. While the former decreases with further modernisation, the latter may either decrease or remain at high levels and coexist with instrumental supranational identifications, typical for the most developed countries...
2016: PloS One
Máté Julesz
The institution of active euthanasia has been legal in Colombia since 2015. In California, the regulation on physician-assisted suicide will come into effect on January 1, 2016. The legal institution of active euthanasia is not accepted under the law of the United States of America, however, physician-assisted suicide is accepted in an increasing number of member states. The related regulation in Oregon is imitated in other member states. In South America, Colombia is not the first country to legalize active euthanasia: active euthanasia has been legal in Uruguay since 1932...
January 31, 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Azger Dusthackeer, Gomathi Sekar, Shambhavi Chidambaram, Vanaja Kumar, Pranav Mehta, Soumya Swaminathan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: There is limited information available about the drug resistance patterns in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), especially from high burden countries. This may be due to difficulty in obtaining extrapulmonary specimens and limited facilities for drug susceptibility testing. This study was undertaken to review and report the first and second-line anti-TB drug susceptibility patterns in extrapulmonary specimens received at the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, India, between 2005 and 2012...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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