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perinatal tuberculosis

Enkhjin Surenjav, Tugsdelger Sovd, Yoshitoku Yoshida, Eiko Yamamoto, Joshua A Reyer, Nobuyuki Hamajima
Amenable mortality (AM) is an indicator of medical care quality. This study aimed to assess the trend and magnitude of AM in Mongolia, with the purpose of providing evidence for decisions on resource allocation. This is the first study on AM trends in Mongolia. Retrospective analysis was done on mortality statistics for the period 2007-2014. Causes of death were coded according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Nolte & McKee's classification of AM was used for the estimation of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in Mongolia...
February 2016: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
Karen Carter, Viran Tovu, Jeffrey Tila Langati, Michael Buttsworth, Lester Dingley, Andy Calo, Griffith Harrison, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Alicja Budnik, Grazyna Liczbińska
Seasonal fluctuations in mortality and their causes in the nineteenth century Polish rural populations: wealthy, agriculturally and economically advanced populations from Wielkopolska, and poor populations from Silesia and Galicia (southern Poland) were described. Data-sources included parish death registers from the Roman Catholic parish of Dziekanowice in the region of Wielkopolska, Prussian statistical yearbooks for the Pozna Province as well as information from previous publications regarding Silesia and Galicia...
September 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
Paolo Denti, Neil Martinson, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Jennifer Hoffmann, Reginah Msandiwa, Sandra Castel, Lubbe Wiesner, Richard E Chaisson, Helen McIlleron, Kelly E Dooley
Effective treatment of tuberculosis during pregnancy is essential for preventing maternal and fetal mortality, but little is known about the effects of pregnancy on the disposition of antituberculosis drugs. We explored the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of rifampin, the key sterilizing drug in tuberculosis treatment, in Tshepiso, a prospective cohort study involving pregnant HIV-infected women with or without tuberculosis in Soweto, South Africa. Participants receiving standard first-line tuberculosis treatment underwent sparse sampling for rifampin at 37 weeks' gestation or delivery and then postpartum...
December 7, 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Zahra Movahedi, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Nasrin Keshavarz Valian, Farah Sabouni, Amitis Ramezani, Abbas Bahador, Setareh Mamishi
Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Gayatri Mirani, Paige L Williams, Miriam Chernoff, Mark J Abzug, Myron J Levin, George R Seage, James M Oleske, Murli U Purswani, Rohan Hazra, Shirley Traite, Bonnie Zimmer, Russell B Van Dyke
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has resulted in a dramatic decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related opportunistic infections and deaths in US youth, but both continue to occur. METHODS: We estimated the incidence of complications and deaths in IMPAACT P1074, a long-term US-based prospective multicenter cohort study conducted from April 2008 to June 2014. Incidence rates of selected diagnoses and trends over time were compared with those from a previous observational cohort study, P219C (2004-2007)...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Anna K Blakney, Christophe Toukam Tchakoute, Anneke C Hesseling, Elvis B Kidzeru, Christine E Jones, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Donald L Sodora, Clive M Gray, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is effective in preventing disseminated tuberculosis (TB) in children but may also have non-specific benefits, and is thought to improve immunity to unrelated antigens through trained innate immunity. In HIV-infected infants, there is a risk of BCG-associated adverse events. We aimed to explore whether delaying BCG vaccination by 8 weeks, in utero or perinatal HIV infection is excluded, affected T-cell responses to B. pertussis (BP) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
September 11, 2015: Vaccine
Johnface F Mdala, Robert Mash
INTRODUCTION: Many countries, especially those from sub-Saharan Africa, are unlikely to reach the Millennium Development Goal for under-5 mortality reduction by 2015. This study aimed to identify the causes of mortality and associated modifiable health care factors for under-5 year-old children admitted to Onandjokwe Hospital, Namibia. METHOD: A descriptive retrospective review of the medical records of all children under five years who died in the hospital for the period of 12 months during 2013, using two different structured questionnaires targeting perinatal deaths and post-perinatal deaths respectively...
2015: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Pilleriin Soodla, Heli Rajasaar, Radko Avi, Kai Zilmer, Kersti Kink, Liilia Novikova, Kristi Huik, Matti Maimets, Irja Lutsar
BACKGROUND: Estonia is experiencing the new Eastern Europe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, with the highest incidence of new infections in the EU. We describe demographic changes, HIV-related laboratory parameters and co-infections during the concentrated HIV epidemic using the Estonian HIV Cohort Study (E-HIV) database, founded in 2009. METHODS: All 3750 subjects in the E-HIV database on December 31, 2013 were included. Subjects were divided into risk groups: people who inject drugs (PWIDs), sexual transmission (heterosexual/homosexual), and other (perinatal) or unknown risk group...
2015: Infectious Diseases
Ernawati, Erry Gumilar, Kuntoro, Joewono Soeroso, Gus Dekker
OBJECTIVE: To present the outcome of expectant management of preterm preeclampsia in Indonesia, and the effect of ongoing treatment with methylprednisolone (MP) on maternal and perinatal outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective RCT on 48 patients with early-onset preeclampsia. Following the administration of dexamethasone for fetal lung maturation, patients were randomized to receive 25 mg MP group IV for the first week, decreasing to 12.5 mg during 2nd week and continued till birth, or matching IV placebo treatment (PL group)...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Melkamu Beyene Kassahun, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Alemayehu Shimeka Teferra
BACKGROUND: Immunization against childhood disease is one of the most important public health interventions with cost effective means to preventing childhood morbidity, mortality and disability. However, complete immunization coverage remains low particularly in rural areas of Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the level of immunization coverage and associated factors in Lay Armachiho District, North Gondar zone, Northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in March, 2014 among 751 pairs of mothers to children aged 12-23 months in Lay Armachiho District...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Jean-François Magnaval, Christian Oosterbosch, Michel Mandl
BACKGROUND: The Tubu are nomadic people who live in remote parts of the central Sahara, primarily in the Tibesti massif (Chad), and in both Northeastern Niger and Southern Libya. No data about the Tubu's health and sanitary status are currently available. METHODS: In 1970, the "Mission Anthropologique Belge au Niger" (MABN) investigated a Tubu tribe named Broaya that lived on the northeastern rim of the Tenere desert. One hundred and fifty-one adult volunteers were investigated...
2014: Military Medical Research
Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Thalita Abreu, Fabiana G Ferreira, Noris Pavia Ruz, Carol Worrell, Rohan Hazra
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence, clinical presentations and diagnostic methods for tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-infected infants, children and adolescents from Latin America. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of children with tuberculosis and HIV was performed within a prospective observational cohort study conducted at multiple clinical sites in Latin America. RESULTS: Of 1114 HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents followed from 2002 to 2011, 69 that could be classified as having confirmed or presumed tuberculosis were included in this case series; 52...
January 2015: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ermanno Ruffini, Luigina Compagnoni, Lucia Tubaldi, Giovanna Infriccioli, Patrizia Vianelli, Roberto Genga, Vitaliana Bonifazi, Alessandra Dieni, Domenico Guerrini, Gabriella Basili, Patrizia Salvatori, Rosa DeColli, Luciano Leone, Rosaria Gesuita
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological data regarding congenital and perinatal infections in the Marche region to verify the existence of differences in relation to maternal country of origin. This prospective study was conducted from May 2001 to April 2012, and it involved all the maternity units of the Marche region. A total of 10232 pregnant women were included, 25.1% of whom were of foreign nationality while the number of births totalled 10371. Estimated uptake of antenatal screening was 80...
September 2014: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Ole F Norheim, Prabhat Jha, Kesetebirhan Admasu, Tore Godal, Ryan J Hum, Margaret E Kruk, Octavio Gómez-Dantés, Colin D Mathers, Hongchao Pan, Jaime Sepúlveda, Wilson Suraweera, Stéphane Verguet, Addis T Woldemariam, Gavin Yamey, Dean T Jamison, Richard Peto
BACKGROUND: The UN will formulate ambitious Sustainable Development Goals for 2030, including one for health. Feasible goals with some quantifiable, measurable targets can influence governments. We propose, as a quatitative health target, "Avoid in each country 40% of premature deaths (under-70 deaths that would be seen in the 2030 population at 2010 death rates), and improve health care at all ages". Targeting overall mortality and improved health care ignores no modifiable cause of death, nor any cause of disability that is treatable (or also causes many deaths)...
January 17, 2015: Lancet
Claire von Mollendorf, Cheryl Cohen, Linda de Gouveia, Nireshni Naidoo, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Sonwabo Lindani, David P Moore, Gary Reubenson, Mamokgethi Moshe, Brian Eley, Ute M Hallbauer, Heather Finlayson, Shabir A Madhi, Laura Conklin, Elizabeth R Zell, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Anne von Gottberg
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) causes significant disease burden, especially in developing countries, even in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and maternal-to-child HIV transmission prevention programs. We evaluated factors that might increase IPD risk in young children in a high HIV prevalence setting. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study using IPD cases identified at 24 Group for Enteric, Respiratory and Meningeal disease Surveillance-South Africa program sites (2010-2012)...
January 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Derege Kebede, Chris Zielinski, Peter Ebongue Mbondji, Issa Sanou, Wenceslas Kouvividila, Paul-Samson Lusamba-Dikassa
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the sources of funds for health research (revenue) and the uses of these funds (expenditure). DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was used to solicit financial information from health research institutions. SETTING: Forty-two sub-Saharan African countries. PARTICIPANTS: Key informants in 847 health research institutions in the 42 sub-Saharan African countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Expenditure on health research by institutions, funders and subject areas...
June 9, 2014: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
Rebecca A Coffin
In the name of public safety, the US government forcibly removed more than 110 000 Japanese Americans from their homes along the West Coast of the United States during World War II. Incarcerated in crude barracks located in remote locations, Japanese Americans were suddenly required to share laundry facilities, toilets, showers, and mess halls with hundreds of likewise incarcerated Japanese Americans. With conditions ripe for spreading communicable disease, public health nurses relied on health promotion techniques of the time to prevent epidemic outbreaks of diseases such as measles, polio, and tuberculosis...
July 2014: Family & Community Health
Ricardo Martínez-Verónica, Laura López-Vargas, Luis Manuel Avalos-Huizar, Lizeth Dimelza Aviz-Vinaña, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Padilla
Case report of 18-year old female patient with clinical signs of pulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy at beginning of fourth month into term, with airway impairment, as evidenced by dry cough, fever and night sweats, as well as a 6 kg. weightloss. Twenty-two days after giving birth, the patient was hospitalized with high fever and deteriorated health conditions, requiring treatment in the intensive care unit due to complications such as severe malnutrition, septic shock, pulmonary abscess, pachypleuritis, empyema and bronchopleural fistula...
March 2014: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Carolyn K Burr, Deborah S Storm, Mary Jo Hoyt, Loretta Dutton, Linda Berezny, Virginia Allread, Sindy Paul
Injection drug users are at a high risk for a number of preventable diseases and complications of drug use. This article describes the implementation of a nurse-led health promotion and disease prevention program in New Jersey's syringe access programs. Initially designed to target women as part of a strategy to decrease missed opportunities for perinatal HIV prevention, the program expanded by integrating existing programs and funding streams available through the state health department. The program now offers health and prevention services to both men and women, with 3,488 client visits in 2011...
January 2014: Public Health Reports
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