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Hypothyroid children rct

William Thompson, Ginny Russell, Genevieve Baragwanath, Justin Matthews, Bijay Vaidya, Jo Thompson-Coon
BACKGROUND: In the last 2 decades, several studies have examined the association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and shown conflicting results. AIM: This systematic review aimed to assess the evidence for an association between maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental disorders in children. We also sought to assess whether levothyroxine treatment for maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency improves child neurodevelopment outcomes...
April 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Kimberly B Harding, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Angela C Webster, Constance My Yap, Brian A Payne, Erika Ota, Luz Maria De-Regil
BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, which are responsible for regulating growth, development and metabolism. Iodine requirements increase substantially during pregnancy and breastfeeding. If requirements are not met during these periods, the production of thyroid hormones may decrease and be inadequate for maternal, fetal and infant needs. The provision of iodine supplements may help meet the increased iodine needs during pregnancy and the postpartum period and prevent or correct iodine deficiency and its consequences...
March 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Helmuth G Dörr, Markus Bettendorf, Gerhard Binder, Beate Karges, Carolin Kneppo, Heinrich Schmidt, Egbert Voss, Martin Wabitsch, Jörg Dötsch
BACKGROUND: Levothyroxine (L-T4) treatment of euthyroid children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is a controversial issue. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Out of 79 identified euthyroid patients, 59 started the study; 25 patients (21 female, 4 male; age: 11.8 ± 2.3 years) received L-T4 at a mean dose of 1.6 µg/kg (SD, 0.8) daily, and 34 (27 female, 7 male; age: 12.6 ± 1.2 years) were not treated. Patients developing subclinical hypothyroidism during follow-up (n = 13) were treated with L-T4 and removed from the observation group...
2015: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Debika Nandi-Munshi, Craig E Taplin
BACKGROUND: Thyroid hormones exert critical roles throughout the body and play an important and permissive role in neuroendocrine, neurological, and neuromuscular function. METHODS: We performed a PubMed search through June 2014 with search terms including "hypothyroidism," "hyperthyroidism," "neurological complications," "neuropathy," "myopathy," "congenital hypothyroidism," and "encephalopathy." Relevant publications reviewed included case series, individual case reports, systematic reviews, retrospective analyses, and randomized controlled trials...
April 2015: Pediatric Neurology
Danijela Ristić-Medić, Romana Novaković, Maria Glibetić, Mirjana Gurinović
Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and current recommendations for intake are based on urinary iodine excretion, assessment of thyroid size, thyroidal iodine accumulation and turnover, radioactive iodine uptake, balance studies, and epidemiological studies. Dietary iodine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed. The prevalence of inadequate iodine intake is high: 29% of the world's population lives in iodine-deficient areas and 44% of Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. To assess current data and update evidence for setting dietary recommendations for iodine, the EURRECA Network of Excellence has undertaken systematic review and evaluation of (i) the usefulness of iodine status biomarkers (ii) the relationship between iodine status biomarkers and dietary iodine intake, and (iii) the relationship between iodine intake and health outcomes (endemic goiter, hypothyroidism, and cognitive function)...
2013: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
K King, C O'Gorman, S Gallagher
INTRODUCTION: This article is an evidence-based review of thyroid disease in children with Down syndrome, including a comparison between various professional guidelines for the management of thyroid disease in children with Down syndrome. Aspects of thyroid disease which are discussed include: congenital hypothyroidism; autoimmune thyroid disease; subclinical hypothyroidism; and hyperthyroidism. The national professional guidelines of Ireland, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Australia and Canada are reviewed and compared...
March 2014: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Roberto Negro, Offie P Soldin, Maria-Jesus Obregon, Alex Stagnaro-Green
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the peer-reviewed literature on iodine deficiency and hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy. METHODS: We review published studies on isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnancy, methodology of free thyroxine (T4) assays, impact of iodine deficiency on free T4 levels, and status of ongoing prospective randomized trials of isolated hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy. RESULTS: Hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy is common. Studies have demonstrated the pivotal role exerted by maternal T4 on fetal brain development and the negative impact of hypothyroxinemia on neurobehavioral performance in offspring...
May 2011: Endocrine Practice
Beate Karges, Rainer Muche, Ina Knerr, Waldemar Ertelt, Thomas Wiesel, Regine Hub, Andreas Neu, Albrecht Klinghammer, Julia Aufschild, Andrea Rapp, Andreas Schirbel, Bernhard O Boehm, Klaus M Debatin, Eberhard Heinze, Wolfram Karges
CONTEXT: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether levothyroxine (l-T(4)) treatment prevents the clinical manifestation of AIT in euthyroid subjects with T1D. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a prospective, randomized, open, controlled clinical trial at six tertiary care centers for pediatric endocrinology and diabetes. PATIENTS: Of 611 children and adolescents with T1D, 89 individuals (14...
May 2007: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
D A Osborn, R W Hunt
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown an association between transiently low thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants in the first weeks of life (transient hypothyroxinaemia) and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Thyroid hormone replacement might prevent this. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether prophylactic thyroid hormones given to preterm infants without congenital hypothyroidism result in clinically important changes in neonatal and long term outcomes...
January 24, 2007: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Frances E Biagioli, Jennifer E DeVoe, Andrew Hamilton, Vince WinklerPrins
There is adequate evidence for screening neonates for hemoglobinopathies, congenital hypothyroidism, phenylketonuria (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A), and cystic fibrosis (SOR: B). Vision screening should be done for those younger than age 5 years (SOR: B). High-risk children should be tested for tuberculosis (TB) (SOR: B) and lead toxicity (SOR: B). Few data exist to guide frequency and timing of these screening tests, so the following timing recommendations are based on consensus opinion (SOR: C): test for visual acuity yearly starting at age 3 years; test for TB and lead once between the ages of 9 and 12 months, and repeat for high risk or exposure...
September 2006: Journal of Family Practice
Charmian A Quigley, Anne M Gill, Brenda J Crowe, Kristen Robling, John J Chipman, Susan R Rose, Judith L Ross, Fernando G Cassorla, Anne M Wolka, Jan M Wit, Lyset T M Rekers-Mombarg, Gordon B Cutler
CONTEXT: Recombinant human GH was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2003 for the treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS). However, to date, the safety of GH in this patient population has not been rigorously studied. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to address the safety of GH treatment in children with ISS compared with GH safety in patient populations for which GH has been approved previously: Turner syndrome (TS) and GH deficiency (GHD)...
September 2005: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ihor Hrytsiuk, Ruth Gilbert, Stuart Logan, Sima Pindoria, Charles G D Brook
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of levothyroxine sodium starting dose on cognitive development, growth, or behavior in children with congenital hypothyroidism identified by neonatal screening. DESIGN: Systematic review of cohort studies. Two analyses were performed: a between-study comparison of mean starting dose with mean developmental score and an analysis of the within-study effects of starting dose on cognitive development, growth, or behavior. RESULTS: The between-study comparison (14 cohort studies based on 1321 patients) found that the standardized mean IQ or developmental quotient scores ranged from 90 to 115 but were not associated with the mean starting dose of levothyroxine (P =...
May 2002: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
C Dezateux
A UK national programme to screen all newborn infants for phenylketonuria was introduced in 1969, followed in 1981 by a similar programme for congenital hypothyroidism. Decisions to start these national programmes were informed by evidence from observational studies rather than randomised controlled trials. Subsequently, outcome for affected children has been assessed through national disease registers, from which inferences about the effectiveness of screening have been made. Both programmes are based on a single blood specimen, collected from each infant at the end of the first week of life, and stored as dried spots on a filter paper or 'Guthrie' card...
1998: British Medical Bulletin
T V Brogan, S L Bratton, A M Lynn
OBJECTIVES: Cardiopulmonary bypass has profound effects on thyroid hormone metabolism. These effects may be exacerbated in infants because they are able to absorb large quantities of iodine transcutaneously. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that preoperative povidone-iodine contributes to postoperative thyroid depression in infants who undergo cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Seattle, WA...
September 1997: Critical Care Medicine
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