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Dracunculus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878428/elimination-of-guinea-worm-disease-in-ethiopia-current-status-of-the-disease-s-eradication-strategies-and-challenges-to-the-end-game
#1
Habtamu Bedimo Beyene, Abyot Bekele, Amanu Shifara, Yehenew A Ebstie, Zelalem Desalegn, Zeyede Kebede, Abate Mulugeta, Kebede Deribe, Zerihun Tadesse, Tamrat Abebe, Biruck Kebede, Getaneh Abrha, Daddi Jima
Dracunculiasis, also named Guinea Worm Disease (GWD), is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) caused by a parasitic nematode known as Dracunculus medinensis and has been known since antiquity as 'fiery serpent' from Israelites. It is transmitted to humans via drinking contaminated water containing infective copepods. Given, its feasibility for eradication, the Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP) was launched in 1980 with the aim of eradicating the disease. Since its inception, GWEP has made an extraordinary progress in interrupting transmission...
2017: Ethiopian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820381/possible-role-of-fish-as-transport-hosts-for-dracunculus-spp-larvae
#2
Christopher A Cleveland, Mark L Eberhard, Alec T Thompson, Stephen J Smith, Hubert Zirimwabagabo, Robert Bringolf, Michael J Yabsley
To inform Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm) eradication efforts, we evaluated the role of fish as transport hosts for Dracunculus worms. Ferrets fed fish that had ingested infected copepods became infected, highlighting the importance of recommendations to cook fish, bury entrails, and prevent dogs from consuming raw fish and entrails.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808479/a-multiscale-model-for-the-world-s-first-parasitic-disease-targeted-for-eradication-guinea-worm-disease
#3
Rendani Netshikweta, Winston Garira
Guinea worm disease (GWD) is both a neglected tropical disease and an environmentally driven infectious disease. Environmentally driven infectious diseases remain one of the biggest health threats for human welfare in developing countries and the threat is increased by the looming danger of climate change. In this paper we present a multiscale model of GWD that integrates the within-host scale and the between-host scale. The model is used to concurrently examine the interactions between the three organisms that are implicated in natural cases of GWD transmission, the copepod vector, the human host, and the protozoan worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis), and identify their epidemiological roles...
2017: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737474/artemisia-dracunculus-extracts-obtained-by-organic-solvents-and-supercritical-co2-produce-cytotoxic-and-antitumor-effects-in-mice-with-l5178y-lymphoma
#4
Martha Hilda Navarro-Salcedo, Jorge Ivan Delgado-Saucedo, Victor Hugo Siordia-Sánchez, Luis J González-Ortiz, Gustavo Adolfo Castillo-Herrera, Ana M Puebla-Pérez
We investigated the cytotoxic and antitumor effects of nine leaf extracts from Artemisia dracunculus (Tarragon). Five extracts were obtained using different organic solvents and four by supercritical CO2. The cytotoxic effects were expressed as IC50 in 100, 80, 80, 100, and 80 μg/mL by respective solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetonitrile in L5178Y lymphoma cells. For supercritical CO2 extract A, IC50 was 100 μg/mL; for extracts C and D, IC50 was 150 μg/mL. The antitumor activity was assessed through a tumor growth inhibition test that measured ascites fluid volume and tumor cell counts of BALB/c mice (2 × 10(4) cells L5178Y i...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729836/an-overview-of-herbal-products-and-secondary-metabolites-used-for-management-of-type-two-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Ajda Ota, Nataša P Ulrih
Diabetes mellitus is a common effect of uncontrolled high blood sugar and it is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs. In the adult population, the global prevalence of diabetes has nearly doubled since 1980. Without effective prevention and management programs, the continuing significant rise in diabetes will have grave consequences on the health and lifespan of the world population, and also on the world economy. Supplements can be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or to maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675464/chemical-composition-antimicrobial-and-insecticidal-activity-against-the-lesser-mealworm-alphitobius-diaperinus-panzer-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-of-origanum-vulgare-l-ssp-hirtum-link-and-artemisia-dracunculus-l-essential-oils
#6
Maria Szczepanik, Maciej Walczak, Beata Zawitowska, Marta Michalska-Sionkowska, Antoni Szumny, Czesław Wawrzeńczyk, Maria Swiontek Brzezinska
BACKGROUND: Essential oils (EOs) from Artemisia dracunculus L. and Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum were obtained and the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the extracts was investigated. The insecticidal activity of EOs against the larval stages of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) was studied. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of these oils against pathogens transmitted by this pest was also investigated. RESULTS: The obtained results indicate the possibility of using Greek oregano EO with a high content of carvacrol as a feed additive in poultry nutrition...
July 4, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653590/guinea-worm-from-robert-leiper-to-eradication
#7
Ahmed Tayeh, Sandy Cairncross, Francis E G Cox
Guinea worm disease, dracunculiasis or dracontiasis, is an ancient disease with records going back over 4500 years, but until the beginning of the 20th century, little was known about its life cycle, particularly how humans became infected. In 1905, Robert Thomas Leiper was sent by the British colonial authorities to West Africa to investigate the spread of Guinea worm disease and to recommend measures to prevent it. While carrying out his investigations, he made important contributions to the aetiology, epidemiology and public health aspects of Guinea worm disease and provided definitive answers to many outstanding questions...
June 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644710/study-of-artemisinin-and-sugar-accumulation-in-artemisia-vulgaris-and-artemisia-dracunculus-hairy-root-cultures
#8
Kateryna O Drobot, Nadiia A Matvieieva, Andriy M Ostapchuk, Maxim A Kharkhota, Volodymyr P Duplij
We studied the effect of genetic transformation on biologically active compound (artemisinin and its co-products (ART) as well as sugars) accumulation in Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia dracunculus "hairy" root cultures. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and mannitol were accumulated in A. vulgaris and A. dracunculus "hairy" root lines. Genetic transformation has led in some cases to the sugar content increasing or appearing of nonrelevant for the control plant carbohydrates. Sucrose content was 1.6 times higher in A...
June 23, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196301/guinea-worm-infection-in-northern-nigeria-reflections-on-a-disease-approaching-eradication
#9
Brian Greenwood, Alice Greenwood, Andrew Bradley
Global eradication of the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) is near, although perhaps delayed a little by the discovery of a transmission cycle in dogs. It is therefore an appropriate time to reflect on the severe impact of this infection on the life of the communities where it was endemic prior to the start of the global eradication programme in 1981. From 1971 to 1974, we conducted a series of unpublished studies on guinea worm in a group of villages in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, where the infection was highly endemic...
May 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193253/artemisia-spp-essential-oils-against-the-disease-carrying-blowfly-calliphora-vomitoria
#10
Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Francesca Cosci, Roberta Ascrizzi, Maria Cristina Echeverria, Lucia Guidi, Marco Landi, Andrea Lucchi, Barbara Conti
BACKGROUND: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975537/in-vitro-%C3%AE-amylase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibitory-activity-of-extracts-and-compounds-from-cultivated-artemisia-dracunculus
#11
B Dursunoğlu, H Yuca, S Gözcü, H Özbek, Z Güvenalp, L Ö Demirezer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876985/in-vitro-anti-leishmanial-activity-of-satureja-hortensis-and-artemisia-dracunculus-extracts-on-leishmania-major-promastigotes
#12
Farzaneh Mirzaei, Ali Fattahi Bafghi, Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh, Hossein Zarei Jaliani, Roghiyeh Faridnia, Hamed Kalani
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the important skin diseases with diverse clinical manifestations. With an incidence of 0.7-1.3 million cases annually, this disease is often reported from six countries, including Iran. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-leishmanial effect of the three plant hydroalcoholic extracts including fleawort (Plantago psyllium L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) on Leishmania major promastigotes. The hydroalcoholic extract from each plant was extracted and its anti-leishmanial effect was evaluated in different concentrations (100-1000 µg/ml) and at various hours (24, 48 and 72 h)...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761422/estragole-and-methyl-eugenol-free-extract-of-artemisia-dracunculus-possesses-immunomodulatory-effects
#13
Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani, Leila Zarei, Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Bahman Mansori Motlagh
OBJECTIVE: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon), may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736840/progress-toward-global-eradication-of-dracunculiasis-january-2015-june-2016
#14
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Sharon L Roy, Adam J Weiss
Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by Dracunculus medinensis, a parasitic worm. Approximately 1 year after a person acquires infection from drinking contaminated water, the worm emerges through the skin, usually on the leg. Pain and secondary bacterial infection can cause temporary or permanent disability that disrupts work and schooling. The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis worldwide began in 1980 at CDC. In 1986, the World Health Assembly called for dracunculiasis elimination (1), and the global Guinea Worm Eradication Program, led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries where dracunculiasis was endemic...
October 14, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607516/evaluation-of-dna-barcode-candidates-for-the-discrimination-of-artemisia-l
#15
Geyu Liu, Huixia Ning, Nurbolati Ayidaerhan, Haji Akber Aisa
Because of the very similar morphologies and wide diversity of Artemisia L. varieties, they are difficult to identify, and there have been many arguments about the systematic classification Artemisia L., especially concerning the division of species. DNA barcode technology is used to rapidly identify species based on standard short DNA sequences. To evaluate seven candidate DNA barcodes (ITS, ITS2, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, rpoB, and rpoC1) regarding their ability to identify closely related species of the Artemisia genus in Xinjiang...
September 8, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560598/guinea-worm-dracunculus-medinensis-infection-in-a-wild-caught-frog-chad
#16
Mark L Eberhard, Christopher A Cleveland, Hubert Zirimwabagabo, Michael J Yabsley, Philippe Tchindebet Ouakou, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben
A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts.
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434418/possible-role-of-fish-and-frogs-as-paratenic-hosts-of-dracunculus-medinensis-chad
#17
Mark L Eberhard, Michael J Yabsley, Hubert Zirimwabagabo, Henry Bishop, Christopher A Cleveland, John C Maerz, Robert Bringolf, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben
Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2-3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae...
August 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27329067/behaviour-feeding-habits-and-ecology-of-the-blind-catfish-phreatobius-sanguijuela-ostariophysi-siluriformes
#18
W M Ohara, I D Da Costa, M L Fonseca
The subterranean fish Phreatobius sanguijuela, originally described from Bolivia, was captured in different wells near São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia State, Brazil. Thirty wells were investigated in April and July 2012, and September 2013. These surveys resulted in the capture of 58 individuals from eight wells and comprised three to 14 individuals per well. The capture of the individuals allowed a detailed evaluation of their colours in life, behaviour in the field and in captivity, aspects of their biology, confirmation of the species identification and provided new diagnostic characteristics to distinguish between P...
August 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162746/dracunculiasis-in-oral-and-maxillofacial-surgery
#19
REVIEW
Soung Min Kim
Dracunculiasis, otherwise known as guinea worm disease (GWD), is caused by infection with the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. This nematode is transmitted to humans exclusively via contaminated drinking water. The transmitting vectors are Cyclops copepods (water fleas), which are tiny free-swimming crustaceans usually found abundantly in freshwater ponds. Humans can acquire GWD by drinking water that contains vectors infected with guinea worm larvae. This disease is prevalent in some of the most deprived areas of the world, and no vaccine or medicine is currently available...
April 2016: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097076/effect-of-artemisia-dracunculus-administration-on-glycemic-control-insulin-sensitivity-and-insulin-secretion-in-patients-with-impaired-glucose-tolerance
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Miriam Méndez-Del Villar, Ana M Puebla-Pérez, María J Sánchez-Peña, Luis J González-Ortiz, Esperanza Martínez-Abundis, Manuel González-Ortiz
To evaluate the effect of Artemisia dracunculus on glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 24 patients with diagnosis of IGT. Before and after the intervention, glucose and insulin levels were measured every 30 min for 2 h after a 75-g dextrose load, along with glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and lipid profile. Twelve patients received A. dracunculus (1000 mg) before breakfast and dinner for 90 days; the remaining 12 patients received placebo...
May 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
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