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radiation cognition

Daniëlle Bp Eekers, Lieke In 't Ven, Erik Roelofs, Alida Postma, Claire Alapetite, Neil G Burnet, Valentin Calugaru, Inge Compter, Ida E M Coremans, Morton Høyer, Maarten Lambrecht, Petra Witt Nyström, Alejandra Méndez Romero, Frank Paulsen, Ana Perpar, Dirk de Ruysscher, Laurette Renard, Beate Timmermann, Pavel Vitek, Damien C Weber, Hiske L van der Weide, Gillian A Whitfield, Ruud Wiggenraad, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. METHODS: CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published...
March 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Kenneth A Schwartz, Mary Noel, Michele Nikolai, Howard T Chang
Survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with the current recommended treatment is poor. Reported median survivals are approximately 8-15 months. Based on recent publications from animal models, combining cancer drugs, radiation, and diet-metabolic treatments may be a new route to better survivals. To investigate this possibility, we have begun a clinical trial that has enrolled 15 subjects using a ketogenic diet (KD) as an addition to current standard treatments that include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Nathan Perlis, Murray D Krahn, Kirstin E Boehme, Shabbir Mh Alibhai, Munir Jamal, Antonio Finelli, Srikala S Sridhar, Peter Chung, Rushi Gandhi, Jennifer Jones, George Tomlinson, Karen E Bremner, Girish Kulkarni
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is important in bladder cancer care and clinical decision-making because patients must choose between diverse treatment modalities with unique morbidities. A patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure of overall HRQOL for bladder cancer regardless of disease severity and treatment could benefit clinical care and research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective questionnaire development was completed in three parts. In study 1, the Bladder Utility Symptom Scale (BUSS) questions were created by experts using a conceptual framework of BC HRQOL generated through patient focus groups...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Urology
Giuseppe Curcio
In the past 20 years of research regarding effects of mobile phone-derived electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human cognition, attention has been one of the first and most extensively investigated functions. Different domains investigated covered selective, sustained, and divided attention. Here, the most relevant studies on this topic have been reviewed and discussed. A total of 43 studies are reported and summarized: of these, 31 indicated a total absence of statistically significant difference between real and sham signal, 9 showed a partial improvement of attentional performance (mainly increase in speed of performance and/or improvement of accuracy) as a function of real exposure, while the remaining 3 showed inconsistent results (i...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Vyacheslav L Murzin, Kaley Woods, Vitali Moiseenko, Roshan Karunamuni, Kathryn R Tringale, Tyler M Seibert, Michael J Connor, Daniel R Simpson, Ke Sheng, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Incidental irradiation of normal brain tissue during radiotherapy is linked to cognitive decline, and may be mediated by damage to healthy cortex. Non-coplanar techniques may be used for cortical sparing. We compared normal brain sparing and probability of cortical atrophy using 4π radiation therapy planning vs. standard fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plans from previously irradiated brain tumor patients ("original IMRT", n = 13) were re-planned to spare cortex using both 4π optimization ("4π") and IMRT optimization ("optimized IMRT")...
March 5, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Li Rebekah Feng, Alexandra Espina, Leorey N Saligan
PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue is a common complaint during cancer treatment and is often associated with cognitive impairment. This study examined cognitive deficits that were associated with fatigue symptoms during external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS: A total of 36 participants were enrolled and followed up at baseline, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days after EBRT initiation, at midpoint, and at completion of EBRT. Fatigue was measured by self-report using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Fatigue (FACT-F), and cognitive impairment by the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI®)...
March 7, 2018: Oncology
Laura Milanese, Chiara Martini, Carla Scaroni, Francesca Dassie, Filippo Ceccato, Alessandro Della Puppa, Luca Denaro, Giulia Bommarito, Valentina Citton, Mario Ermani, Pietro Maffei, Renzo Manara
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy (RT) effectiveness on hormonal reduction is proven in acromegaly; however, collateral long-term effects are still undetermined. This transversal neuroimaging study on a large cohort of acromegalic patients aimed to investigate the rate of parenchymal and vascular changes after RT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six acromegalic patients underwent RT (RT+) after unsuccessful surgery and were compared to RT- acromegalic patients matched for age, gender, adenoma features, clinical and surgical history...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
March 2018: Radiation Research
Bicky Thapa, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Alireza M Mohammadi, Manmeet Ahluwalia
The incidence of brain metastases range from 10 to 20% of all adult patients with cancer and lung cancer is associated with one of the highest incidences of brain metastases. In geriatric patients, who already have limited cognitive function, whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) can be a problem. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a one day, outpatient treatment with minimal effect to normal brain and could particularly be useful in elderly patients. We report the case of a geriatric patient with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma who had multiple brain metastases and recurrences, who responded well to the stereotactic radiosurgery (six sessions) with acceptable tumor control...
December 22, 2017: Curēus
Basem A Dahshan, Malcolm D Mattes, Sanjay Bhatia, Mary Susan Palek, Christopher P Cifarelli, Joshua D Hack, John A Vargo
The role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of multiple brain metastases is controversial. While whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) has historically been the mainstay of treatment, its value is increasingly being questioned as emerging data supports that SRS alone can provide comparable therapeutic outcomes for limited (one to three) intracranial metastases with fewer adverse effects, including neurocognitive decline. Multiple recent studies have also demonstrated that patients with multiple (> 3) intracranial metastases with a low overall tumor volume have a favorable therapeutic response to SRS, with no significant difference compared to patients with limited metastases...
December 19, 2017: Curēus
Ping C Mamiya, Todd L Richards, Patricia K Kuhl
Executive function (EF) skills enhance learning across domains, and are particularly linked to the acquisition of a second language. Previous studies have shown that bilingual individuals show enhanced EF skills in cognitive tasks where they attended a targeted dimension of a stimulus while inhibiting other competing cues. Brain imaging revealed that bilingual young adults' performances in the Stroop color-naming task were related to the volume of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal lobe. Subjects who had greater white-matter in the frontal cortex showed enhanced performances in the same task, suggesting that brain fiber pathways connecting ACC to the frontal region may be related to the Stroop color-naming task...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Bernard M Rabin, Kirsty L Carrihill-Knoll, Marshall G Miller, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Exposure to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles) can produce decrements in cognitive performance. A series of experiments exposing rats to different HZE particles was run to evaluate whether the performance decrement was dependent on the age of the subject at the time of irradiation. Fischer 344 rats that were 2-, 11- and 15/16-months of age were exposed to16 O,48 Ti, or4 He particles at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. As previously observed following exposure to56 Fe particles, exposure to the higher LET48 Ti particles produced a disruption of cognitive performance at a lower dose in the older subjects compared to the dose needed to disrupt performance in the younger subjects...
February 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Wietske C M Schimmel, Eline Verhaak, Patrick E J Hanssens, Karin Gehring, Margriet M Sitskoorn
BACKGROUND: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly applied in patients with multiple brain metastases and is expected to have less adverse effects in cognitive functioning than whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Effective treatment with the least negative cognitive side effects is increasingly becoming important, as more patients with brain metastases live longer due to more and better systemic treatment options. There are no published randomized trials yet directly comparing GKRS to WBRT in patients with multiple brain metastases that include objective neuropsychological testing...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
S Buratovic, B Stenerlöw, S Sundell-Bergman, A Fredriksson, H Viberg, T Gordh, P Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Radiological methods for screening, diagnostics and therapy are frequently used in healthcare. In infants and children, anaesthesia/sedation is often used in these situations to relieve the patients' perception of stress or pain. Both ionising radiation (IR) and ketamine have been shown to induce developmental neurotoxic effects and this study aimed to identify the combined effects of these in a murine model. METHODS: Male mice were exposed to a single dose of ketamine (7...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Shengjun Ji, Xin Ding, Jiang Ji, Haohao Wu, Rui Sun, Xiaoyang Li, Liyuan Zhang, Ye Tian
Impairment of neurogenesis in the hippocampus following whole-brain irradiation is the most important mechanism of radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure, meaning an ideal therapeutic target has not been identified. Evidence indicates that DNA methylation in neurons regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal network activity. In the present study, the expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) in the hippocampus was analyzed to investigate their potential function in radiation-induced neurogenesis impairment...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Mona L Martin, Steven I Blum, Hiltrud Liedgens, Donald M Bushnell, Kelly P McCarrier, Noël V Hatley, Abhilasha Ramasamy, Rainer Freynhagen, Mark Wallace, Charles Argoff, Mariёlle Eerdekens, Maurits Kok, Donald L Patrick
We describe the mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative) development and preliminary validation of the Patient Assessment for Low Back Pain - Symptoms (PAL-S), a patient-reported outcome measure for use in chronic low back pain (cLBP) clinical trials. Qualitative methods (concept elicitation, cognitive interviews) were used to identify and refine symptom concepts and quantitative methods (Classical test theory, Rasch measurement theory) were used to evaluate item- and scale-level performance of the measure using an iterative approach...
February 7, 2018: Pain
Sarah M Smith, Charles L Limoli
Purpose of review: To encapsulate past and current research efforts focused on stem cell transplantation strategies to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Recent Findings: Transplantation of human stem cells in the irradiated brain was first shown to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in a landmark paper by Acharya et al., appearing in PNAS in 2009. Since that time, work from the same laboratory as well as other groups have reported on the beneficial (as well as detrimental) effects of stem cell grafting after cranial radiation exposure...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
Eric C Ford, Suzanne Evans
Incident learning is a key component for maintaining safety and quality in healthcare. Its use is well-established and supported by professional society recommendations, regulations and accreditation, and objective evidence. There is an active interest in incident learning systems (ILS) in radiation oncology, with over forty publications since 2010. This article is intended as a comprehensive topic review of ILS in radiation oncology, including: history and summary of existing literature, nomenclature and categorization schemas, operational aspects of ILS at the institutional level including event handling and root-cause analysis, and national and international ILS for shared learning...
February 8, 2018: Medical Physics
Yanhui Hao, Wenchao Li, Hui Wang, Jing Zhang, Chao Yu, Shengzhi Tan, Haoyu Wang, Xinping Xu, Ji Dong, Binwei Yao, Hongmei Zhou, Li Zhao, Ruiyun Peng
To explore how autophagy changes and whether autophagy is involved in the pathophysiological process of synaptic plasticity injury caused by microwave radiation, we established a 30 mW/cm2 microwave-exposure in vivo model, which caused reversible injuries in rat neurons. Microwave radiation induced cognitive impairment in rats and synaptic plasticity injury in rat hippocampal neurons. Autophagy in rat hippocampal neurons was activated following microwave exposure. Additionally, we observed that synaptic vesicles were encapsulated by autophagosomes, a phenomenon more evident in the microwave-exposed group...
February 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
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