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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909286/three-cases-of-levodopa-resistant-parkinsonism-after-radiation-therapy
#1
Raja Mehanna, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilia Itin
BACKGROUND Unequivocal brain radiation-induced parkinsonism has so far been reported in only in two pediatric patients. However, with the rising incidence rates for brain tumors in industrialized countries and the consequential increased exposure to cranial radiotherapy, clinicians might become more exposed to this entity. CASE REPORT Three patients were treated for intraparenchymal brain tumor with resection, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation. One patient developed leukoencephalopathy and parkinsonism within one year of treatment, one developed it seven years after treatment completion, and one developed dementia, parkinsonism and cerebral infracts 40 years after whole brain radiation...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905022/neurophysiology-of-space-travel-energetic-solar-particles-cause-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-neurotransmission
#2
Sang-Hun Lee, Barna Dudok, Vipan K Parihar, Kwang-Mook Jung, Miklós Zöldi, Young-Jin Kang, Mattia Maroso, Allyson L Alexander, Gregory A Nelson, Daniele Piomelli, István Katona, Charles L Limoli, Ivan Soltesz
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893434/neuroinflammatory-and-cognitive-consequences-of-combined-radiation-and-immunotherapy-in-a-novel-preclinical-model
#3
Gwendolyn J McGinnis, David Friedman, Kristina H Young, Eileen Ruth S Torres, Charles R Thomas, Michael J Gough, Jacob Raber
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients often report behavioral and cognitive changes following cancer treatment. These effects can be seen in patients who have not yet received treatment or have received only peripheral (non-brain) irradiation. Novel treatments combining radiotherapy (RT) and immunotherapy (IT) demonstrate remarkable efficacy with respect to tumor outcomes by enhancing the proinflammatory environment in the tumor. However, a proinflammatory environment in the brain mediates cognitive impairments in other neurological disorders and may affect brain function in cancer patients receiving these novel treatments...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886411/dog-ownership-and-physical-activity-among-breast-prostate-and-colorectal-cancer-survivors
#4
Cynthia C Forbes, Chris M Blanchard, W Kerry Mummery, Kerry S Courneya
BACKGROUND: Dog ownership has been associated with higher rates of physical activity (PA) in several populations but no study to date has focused on cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between dog ownership and PA among cancer survivors; and to examine correlates of dog ownership. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 2062 breast (BCS), prostate (PCS), and colorectal cancer survivors (CRCS) was mailed a questionnaire assessing PA, social-cognitive, dog ownership, demographic, and medical variables...
November 25, 2016: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876394/postnatal-irradiation-induced-hippocampal-neuropathology-cognitive-impairment-and-aging
#5
REVIEW
Feng Ru Tang, Weng Keong Loke, Boo Cheong Khoo
Irradiation of the brain in early human life may set abnormal developmental events into motion that last a lifetime, leading to a poor quality of life for affected individuals. While the effect of irradiation at different early developmental stages on the late human life has not been investigated systematically, animal experimental studies suggest that acute postnatal irradiation with ⩾0.1Gy may significantly reduce neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and endotheliogenesis in cerebral vessels and induce cognitive impairment and aging...
November 19, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865670/radiation-damage-to-neuronal-cells-simulating-the-energy-deposition-and-water-radiolysis-in-a-small-neural-network
#6
Oleg V Belov, Munkhbaatar Batmunkh, Sébastien Incerti, Oidov Lkhagva
Radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) has been an on-going challenge for the last decades primarily due to the issues of brain radiotherapy and radiation protection for astronauts during space travel. Although recent findings revealed a number of molecular mechanisms associated with radiation-induced impairments in behaviour and cognition, some uncertainties exist in the initial neuronal cell injury leading to the further development of CNS malfunction. The present study is focused on the investigation of early biological damage induced by ionizing radiations in a sample neural network by means of modelling physico-chemical processes occurring in the medium after exposure...
November 16, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858090/dramatic-increase-in-the-utilization-of-multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-detection-and-management-of-prostate-cancer
#7
Daniel T Oberlin, David D Casalino, Frank H Miller, Joshua J Meeks
PURPOSE: Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate is an evolving technology that provides functional information of the prostate that helps distinguish benign from malignant lesions. We hypothesized that mpMRI is rapidly adopted in the US to fill the unmet need for a non-invasive, accurate screening tool. The aim of this study is to assess the increasing utilization of mpMRI for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of an institutional clinical data repository of four million patients...
November 17, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857854/commentary-on-effect-of-radiosurgery-alone-vs-radiosurgery-with-whole-brain-radiation-therapy-on-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-1-3-brain-metastases-by-brown-et-al-jama-2016-316-401-9
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824925/impact-of-strategically-located-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-cognition-in-memory-clinic-patients-with-small-vessel-disease
#9
J Matthijs Biesbroek, Nick A Weaver, Saima Hilal, Hugo J Kuijf, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Xin Xu, Boon Yeow Tan, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Albert Postma, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher P L H Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Studies on the impact of small vessel disease (SVD) on cognition generally focus on white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume. The extent to which WMH location relates to cognitive performance has received less attention, but is likely to be functionally important. We examined the relation between WMH location and cognition in a memory clinic cohort of patients with sporadic SVD. METHODS: A total of 167 patients with SVD were recruited from memory clinics...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796732/white-matter-microstructure-of-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-its-relation-to-inhibitory-control
#10
M Koini, S A R B Rombouts, I M Veer, M A Van Buchem, S C J Huijbregts
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is commonly associated with deficits in executive functions such as working memory and inhibitory control. A valid biomarker to describe the pathological basis of these deficits in NF1 is not available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether any abnormalities in white matter integrity of the executive function related anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), cingulate bundle (CB), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) may be regarded as a pathological basis for inhibitory control deficits in adolescents with NF1...
October 29, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789448/white-matter-injury-and-general-movements-in-high-risk-preterm-infants
#11
C Peyton, E Yang, M E Msall, L Adde, R Støen, T Fjørtoft, A F Bos, C Einspieler, Y Zhou, M D Schreiber, J D Marks, A Drobyshevsky
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, <1500 g) are at increased risk of cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed "General Movement Assessment." The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements...
October 27, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789343/mitigating-effect-of-euk-207-on-radiation-induced-cognitive-impairments
#12
J Raber, M J Davis, T Pfankuch, R Rosenthal, S R Doctrow, J E Moulder
The brain could be exposed to irradiation as part of a nuclear accident, radiological terrorism (dirty bomb scenario) or a medical radiological procedure. In the context of accidents or terrorism, there is considerable interest in compounds that can mitigate radiation-induced injury when treatment is initiated a day or more after the radiation exposure. As it will be challenging to determine the radiation exposure an individual has received within a relatively short time frame, it is also critical that the mitigating agent does not negatively affect individuals, including emergency workers, who might be treated, but who were not exposed...
October 24, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783100/micro-structural-white-matter-abnormalities-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-dti-study-using-tbss-analysis
#13
Xin Tan, Peng Fang, Jie An, Huan Lin, Yi Liang, Wen Shen, Xi Leng, Chi Zhang, Yanting Zheng, Shijun Qiu
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have usually been found cognitive impairment associated with brain white matter (WM) abnormalities. However, findings have varied across studies, and any potential relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the whole-brain WM integrity of T2DM patients and to compare our findings with those of published AD cases. METHODS: In this study, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate whole-brain WM abnormalities in 48 T2DM patients and 48 healthy controls...
October 25, 2016: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779254/brain-white-matter-plasticity-and-functional-reorganization-underlying-the-central-pathogenesis-of-trigeminal-neuralgia
#14
Tian Tian, Linying Guo, Jing Xu, Shun Zhang, Jingjing Shi, Chengxia Liu, Yuanyuan Qin, Wenzhen Zhu
Peripheral nerve damage does not fully explain the pathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Central nervous system changes can follow trigeminal nerve dysfunction. We hypothesized that brain white matter and functional connectivity changes in TN patients were involved in pain perception, modulation, the cognitive-affective system, and motor function; moreover, changes in functional reorganization were correlated with white matter alterations. Twenty left TN patients and twenty-two healthy controls were studied...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776994/combined-effects-of-antiorthostatic-suspension-and-ionizing-radiation-on-the-behaviour-and-neurotransmitters-changes-in-different-brain-structures-of-rats
#15
V S Kokhan, M I Matveeva, A S Bazyan, V S Kudrin, A Mukhametov, A S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. In contrast to an orbital flight, leaving the Earth's magnetic field is fraught with the dangers of exposure to ionizing radiation and more specifically, the high-energy nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays. Microgravity, just another critical non-radiation factor, significantly affects the normal functioning of the CNS. Some morphological structures of the brain, such as the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, that are rich in monoaminergic and acetylcholinergic neurones, are the most sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation and non-radiation spaceflight factors (SFF)...
October 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757722/mechanisms-of-post-radiation-injury-cerebral-microinfarction-not-a-significant-factor
#16
J A Molad, D T Blumenthal, F Bokstein, M Findler, I Finkel, N M Bornstein, S Yust-Katz, E Auriel
Post-radiation leukoencephalopathy is characterized by cognitive impairment and white matter alternations on imaging. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is one of several suggested etiologies. Cerebral microinfarction (CMI) is a recently described marker of SVD. We sought to examine the rate of CMI as a biomarker of ongoing ischemia among patients who underwent brain radiotherapy (RT). 110 patients treated with RT for primary or metastatic brain tumors were enrolled. A total of 685 brain MRI tests performed 1-108 months post-radiation were examined...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756690/risk-of-defeats-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-deep-space-missions
#17
REVIEW
Viktor S Kokhan, Marina I Matveeva, Azat Mukhametov, Andrey S Shtemberg
Space flight factors (SFF) significantly affect the operating activity of astronauts during deep space missions. Gravitational overloads, hypo-magnetic field and ionizing radiation are the main SFF that perturb the normal activity of the central nervous system (CNS). Acute and chronic CNS risks include alterations in cognitive abilities, reduction of motor functions and behavioural changes. Multiple experimental works have been devoted to the SFF effects on integrative functional activity of the brain; however, the model parameters utilized have not always been ideal and consistent...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753163/structural-explanation-of-poor-prognosis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-in-the-non-demented-state
#18
H-J Kim, S-I Oh, M de Leon, X Wang, K-W Oh, J-S Park, A Deshpande, M Buj, S H Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a motor neuron disease, is associated with various cortical symptoms including mild cognitive decline with behavior changes, suggesting the involvement of extra-motor areas in ALS. Our aim was to investigate the specific patterns of brain atrophy in sporadic, impaired ALS patients without commonly known genetic mutations using voxel-based morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients with sporadic ALS and 28 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746120/mr-diffusion-tractography-to-identify-and-characterize-microstructural-white-matter-tract-changes-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients
#19
RaviK Shastri, GaurangV Shah, Page Wang, Patricia Cagnoli, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Joseph McCune, Richard Harris, PiaC Sundgren
PURPOSE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a predominantly female autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are found in 25-70% of SLE patients. Using diffusion tensor imaging, various studies have reported changes in white matter integrity in SLE patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSLE patients). The purpose of this study was to investigate if changes can be detected in the individual white matter tracts in SLE patients regardless if neuropsychiatric symptoms are present or not...
November 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740889/long-term-cognitive-functioning-in-single-dose-total-body-gamma-irradiated-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#20
David B Hanbury, Ann M Peiffer, Greg Dugan, Rachel N Andrews, J Mark Cline
In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated using Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability...
November 2016: Radiation Research
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