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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745850/noninvasive-ventilation-for-patients-in-acute-respiratory-distress-an-update-digest
#1
Nikita Joshi, Molly K Estes, Kayla Shipley, Hyun-Chul Danny Lee, Milana Zaurova
Over the last 20 years, noninvasive ventilation (NIV) strategies have been used with increasing frequency. The ease of use of NIV makes it applicable to patients presenting in a variety of types of respiratory distress. In this review, the physiology of positive pressure ventilation is discussed, including indications, contraindications, and options for mask type and fit. Characteristics of patients who are most likely to benefit from NIV are reviewed, including those in respiratory distress from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation and cardiogenic pulmonary edema...
February 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745524/should-patients-switched-from-d-to-b-in-the-gold-2017-classification-be-discontinued-from-inhaled-corticosteroids
#2
Matevz Harlander, Miriam Barrecheguren, Matjaz Turel, Marc Miravitlles
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are the cornerstone of the treatment of asthma, but their role in COPD is limited. Several guidelines recommend their use in patients with severe airflow limitation, frequent exacerbations and asthma-COPD overlap (ACO), while the previous GOLD document recommended ICS for patients with high risk of exacerbations and a high level of symptoms (group D). Following the changes in the GOLD document 2017 update, in which impaired lung function is no longer considered as a determinant of exacerbation risk, a high number of COPD patients can now be labeled as group B (low risk of exacerbations and high level of symptoms) instead of D, and hence, no longer fulfill the indication for ICS...
July 26, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743424/blood-eosinophil-to-basophil-ratio-in-patients-with-sinonasal-polyps-does-it-have-a-clinical-role
#3
Giuseppe Brescia, Umberto Barion, Claudia Zanotti, Francesco Cinetto, Luciano Giacomelli, Alessandro Martini, Gino Marioni
BACKGROUND: In a recent preliminary study, eosinophil and basophil counts were calculated in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) using conventional histologic and immunohistochemical methods. The tissue eosinophil-to-basophil ratio differed in the CRSwNP endotypes considered. OBJECTIVE: To compare the blood eosinophil-to-basophil ratio (bEBR) in a large series of patients with CRSwNP with that in a control group of consecutive rhinological patients with no evidence of nasal, paranasal, or systemic inflammatory disorders...
July 22, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743293/assessment-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-use-and-associated-factors-among-asthmatic-patients-attending-tikur-anbessa-specialized-hospital-ethiopia
#4
Yohanes Ayele, Ephrem Engidawork, Tola Bayisa
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are cornerstone therapy for persistent asthma. However, underutilization of ICSs is common and little is known about factors contributing toward this undesirable use. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through interview and chart review among persistent asthmatic patients attending chest clinic of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital from 1 May to 31 September 2014. A total of 131 eligible patients who attended the clinic during study period were included in the study...
July 25, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742120/virus-induced-asthma-attack-the-importance-of-allergic-inflammation-in-response-to-viral-antigen-in-an-animal-model-of-asthma
#5
Christopher Skappak, Ramses Ilarraza, Ying-Qi Wu, Matthew G Drake, Darryl J Adamko
Asthma exacerbation can be a life-threatening condition, and is most often triggered by common respiratory viruses. Poor asthma control and worsening of respiratory function is associated with increased airway inflammation, including eosinophilia. Prevention of asthma exacerbation relies on treatment with corticosteroids, which preferentially inhibit allergic inflammation like eosinophils. Human studies demonstrate that inactivated virus can trigger eosinophil activation in vitro through antigen presentation and memory CD4+ lymphocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741104/a-mathematical-model-for-the-macrophage-response-to-respiratory-viral-infection-in-normal-and-asthmatic-conditions
#6
Junehyuk Lee, Frederick R Adler, Peter S Kim
Respiratory viral infections are common in the general population and one of the most important causes of asthma aggravation and exacerbation. Despite many studies, it is not well understood how viral infections cause more severe symptoms and exacerbations in asthmatics. We develop a mathematical model of two types of macrophages that play complementary roles in fighting viral infection: classically [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] and alternatively activated macrophages [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]...
July 24, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740537/the-anti-inflammatory-effects-of-invigorating-kidney-and-supplementing-qi-chinese-herbal-formulae-in-asthma-patients
#7
Lingwen Kong, Hongying Zhang, Yuxue Cao, Jingjing Le, Jinfeng Wu, Baojun Liu, Meixia Chen, Yijie Du, Jia Wang, Genfa Wang, Tao Yi, Xianmei Zhou, Gang Wang, Qing Miao, Suyun Li, Naiqing Zhao, Jingcheng Dong
BACKGROUND: The theories of Shen-reinforcement and Qi-supplementation are important in asthma treatment based on traditional Chinese medicine theories. Early studies suggested that Invigorating Kidney and Supplementing Qi herbal formulae, Bu Shen Fang Chuan (BSFC) and Bu Shen Yi Qi (BSYQ), conveyed promising results in asthma treatment. However, the efficacy and safety of the formulae need to be further investigated by a randomized double-blind clinical trial. METHODS: 328 eligible patients were randomly sent to BSFC, BSYQ, and placebo group...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740378/active-smoking-and-copd-phenotype-distribution-and-impact-on-prognostic-factors
#8
Juan Antonio Riesco, Bernardino Alcázar, Juan Antonio Trigueros, Anna Campuzano, Joselín Pérez, José Luis Lorenzo
PURPOSE: Smoking can affect both the phenotypic expression of COPD and factors such as disease severity, quality of life, and comorbidities. Our objective was to evaluate if the impact of active smoking on these factors varies according to the disease phenotype. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a Spanish, observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study of patients with a diagnosis of COPD. Smoking rates were described among four different phenotypes (non-exacerbators, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome [ACOS], exacerbators with emphysema, and exacerbators with chronic bronchitis), and correlated with disease severity (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exacerbations [BODEx] index and dyspnea grade), quality of life according to the COPD assessment test (CAT), and presence of comorbidities, according to phenotypic expression...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737932/ins-and-outs-in-environmental-and-occupational-safety-studies-of-asthma-and-engineered-nanomaterials
#9
Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Michael R Shurin, Valerian E Kagan, Anna A Shvedova
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 25 million Americans suffer from asthma. The disease total annual cost is about $56 billion and includes both the direct and indirect costs of medications, hospital stays, missed work, and decreased productivity. Air pollution with xenobiotics, bacterial agents, and industrial nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, contribute to the exacerbation of this condition and are a point of particular attention in environmental toxicology as well as in occupational health and safety research...
July 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737507/leukotrienes-and-sex-strange-bedfellows
#10
Lewis J Smith
Leukotrienes are proinflammatory lipid mediators that have been shown to be upregulated in several diseases, including asthma, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), inflammatory bowel disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Leukotrienes have been explored as therapeutic targets for these diseases and others; however, leukotriene inhibitors have had limited success in the clinic. There are noted differences in the incidence of leukotriene-mediated diseases in males and females, but sex as a factor in the response to leukotriene inhibitors has not been fully explored...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737051/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-drug-evaluation-of-benralizumab-for-the-treatment-of-asthma
#11
Maria Gabriella Matera, Luigino Calzetta, Barbara Rinaldi, Mario Cazzola
In many severe asthmatics, eosinophils cause inflammation and airways hyperresponsiveness, resulting in frequent exacerbations, impaired lung function, and reduced quality of life. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is a key cytokine for eosinophil growth, differentiation, recruitment, activation, and survival. Anti-IL-5-based therapies (mepolizumab and reslizumab are humanized monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) that recognize free IL-5, benralizumab is a hmAb directed at the α subunit of the IL-5R) target the IL-5-signaling in eosinophilic asthma...
July 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734844/tlr3-blockade-in-rhinovirus-induced-experimental-asthma-exacerbations-a-randomized-controlled-study
#12
Philip E Silkoff, Susan Flavin, Robert Gordon, Mathew J Loza, Peter J Sterk, Rene Lutter, Zuzana Diamant, Ronald B Turner, Brian J Lipworth, David Proud, Dave Singh, Andreas Eich, Vibeke Backer, James E Gern, Christian Herzmann, Scott A Halperin, Tjeert T Mensinga, Alfred M Del Vecchio, Patrick Branigan, Lani San Mateo, Frédéric Baribaud, Elliot S Barnathan, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV) commonly precipitate asthma exacerbations. TLR3, an innate pattern-recognition receptor, is triggered by HRV driving inflammation that may worsen asthma. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an inhibitory monoclonal antibody to TLR3, CNTO3157, on experimental HRV-16 inoculation in healthy and asthmatic subjects. METHODS: In this double-blind multicenter randomized parallel-group study in North America and Europe, healthy and mild-moderate stable asthmatic subjects received single or multiple doses of CNTO 3157 or placebo, respectively, and were then inoculated with HRV-16 within 72 hours...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734637/-asthma-and-heroin-use
#13
Michel Underner, Jean Perriot, Gérard Peiffer, Nematollah Jaafari
INTRODUCTION: Heroin use can be responsible for many respiratory complications including asthma. OBJECTIVES: Systematic literature review of data on asthma in heroin users. DOCUMENTARY SOURCES: Medline(®), on the period 1980-2017 with the following keywords: keywords: "asthma" or "bronchospasm" and "heroin" or "opiate" or "opiates", limits "title/abstract"; the selected languages were English or French. Among 97 articles, 67 abstracts have given use to a dual reading to select 23 studies...
July 19, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733686/comparison-of-the-proportion-and-healthcare-utilisation-of-adult-patients-with-uncontrolled-severe-asthma-versus-non-severe-asthma-seen-in-a-southeast-asian-hospital-based-respiratory-specialist-clinic
#14
Tunn Ren Tay, Hang Siang Wong, Rosna Ihsan, Hsiao Peng Toh, Xuening Choo, Augustine Kh Tee
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the burden of uncontrolled severe asthma is essential for disease-targeted healthcare planning. There is a scarcity of data regarding the proportion, healthcare utilisation and costs of patients with uncontrolled severe asthma in Asia. This study aimed to plug the knowledge gap in this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with asthma managed in our respiratory specialist clinic were evaluated prospectively. Healthcare utilisation comprising unscheduled asthma-related primary care visits, emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions were obtained from the national health records system...
June 2017: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732840/characteristics-of-asthmatics-with-detectable-il-32%C3%AE-in-induced-sputum
#15
Jae-Woo Kwon, Hun Soo Chang, Jeong-Seok Heo, Da-Jeong Bae, Jong-Uk Lee, Chang An Jung, Ji-Hye Son, Jong Sook Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Kyung-Up Min, Choon-Sik Park
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-32(IL-32)γ is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the development and severity of chronic inflammatory diseases, but its role in asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship of IL-32γ levels in sputum with the severity of asthma. METHODS: IL-32γ levels in the supernatant of induced sputum obtained from 89 patients with stable asthma were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732831/initiating-or-changing-to-a-fixed-dose-combination-of-fluticasone-propionate-formoterol-over-fluticasone-propionate-salmeterol-a-real-life-effectiveness-and-cost-impact-evaluation
#16
Simon Wan Yau Ming, John Haughney, Iain Small, Stephanie Wolfe, John Hamill, Kevin Gruffydd-Jones, Cathal Daly, Joan B Soriano, Elizabeth Gardener, Derek Skinner, Martina Stagno d'Alcontres, David B Price
OBJECTIVE: Asthma has a substantial impact on quality of life and health care resources. The identification of a more cost-effective, yet equally efficacious, treatment could positively influence the economic burden of this disease. Fluticasone propionate/Formoterol (FP/FOR) may be as effective as Fluticasone Salmeterol (FP/SAL). We evaluated non-inferiority of asthma control in terms of the proportion of patients free from exacerbations, and conducted a cost impact analysis. METHODS: This historical, matched cohort database study evaluated two treatment groups in the Optimum Patient Care Research Database in the UK: 1) an FP/FOR cohort of patients initiating treatment with FP/FOR or changing from FP/SAL to FP/FOR and; 2) an FP/SAL cohort comprising patients initiating, or remaining on FP/SAL pMDI combination therapy...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732827/the-variability-of-respiratory-symptoms-and-associated-factors-in-copd
#17
Marc Miravitlles, José Luis Izquierdo, Cristina Esquinas, Maite Pérez, Myriam Calle, José Luis López-Campos, José Miguel Rodríguez González-Moro, Ciro Casanova, Cristóbal Esteban, Pilar de Lucas
Few studies have investigated the variability of COPD-related symptoms or factors related to symptom variability. This observational, prospective, multicentre study was conducted to describe the number and intensity of morning and night-time respiratory symptoms and their variability over one week using the Night-time and Early Morning Symptoms of COPD Instruments (NiSCI and EMSCI) to evaluate stable COPD patients. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with symptom variability...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731127/pidotimod-exacerbates-allergic-pulmonary-infection-in-an-ova-mouse-model-of-asthma
#18
Luo-Qin Fu, Ya-Li Li, Ai-Kun Fu, Yan-Ping Wu, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Sheng-Lan Hu, Wei-Fen Li
Pidotimod is a synthetic dipeptide with biological and immuno‑modulatory properties. It has been widely used for treatment and prevention of recurrent respiratory infections. However, its impact on the regulation of allergic pulmonary inflammation is still not clear. In the current study, an ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma model was used to investigate the immune‑modulating effects of pidotimod on airway eosinophilia, mucus metaplasia and inflammatory factor expression compared with dexamethasone (positive control)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728272/-the-level-of-asthma-control-in-china-from-a-national-asthma-control-survey
#19
J T Lin, W Q Wang, X Zhou, C Z Wang, M Huang, S X Cai, P Chen, Q C Lin, J Y Zhou, Y H Gu, Y D Yuan, D J Sun, X H Yang, L Yang, J M Huo, Z C Chen, P Jiang, J Zhang, X W Ye, H G Liu, H P Tang, R Y Liu, C T Liu, W Zhang, C P Hu, Y Q Chen, X J Liu, L M Dai, W Zhou, Y J Huang, J Y Xu
Objective: To assess the overall asthma control level in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out in 30 provinces in China (except Tibet). Asthmatic outpatients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited consecutively from 30 sub-centers from October 2015 to May 2016. Data of demographic characteristics, asthma control, asthma management, asthma exacerbations and self-management, and disease perception were collected by face-to-face interviews. Results: Totally 3 875 asthmatic outpatients were recruited...
July 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724795/alx-receptor-ligands-define-a-biochemical-endotype-for-severe-asthma
#20
Isabell Ricklefs, Ioanna Barkas, Melody G Duvall, Manuela Cernadas, Nicole L Grossman, Elliot Israel, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, Serpil C Erzurum, John V Fahy, Benjamin M Gaston, Loren C Denlinger, David T Mauger, Sally E Wenzel, Suzy A Comhair, Andrea M Coverstone, Merritt L Fajt, Annette T Hastie, Mats W Johansson, Michael C Peters, Brenda R Phillips, Bruce D Levy
BACKGROUND: In health, inflammation resolution is an active process governed by specialized proresolving mediators and receptors. ALX/FPR2 receptors (ALX) are targeted by both proresolving and proinflammatory ligands for opposing signaling events, suggesting pivotal roles for ALX in the fate of inflammatory responses. Here, we determined if ALX expression and ligands were linked to severe asthma (SA). METHODS: ALX expression and levels of proresolving ligands (lipoxin A4 [LXA4], 15-epi-LXA4, and annexin A1 [ANXA1]), and a proinflammatory ligand (serum amyloid A [SAA]) were measured in bronchoscopy samples collected in Severe Asthma Research Program-3 (SA [n = 69], non-SA [NSA, n = 51] or healthy donors [HDs, n = 47])...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
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