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Pulmonary function testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#1
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449412/hemodynamic-characteristics-in-significant-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-primary-mitral-valve-regurgitation-at-rest-and-during-exercise
#2
Rine Bakkestrøm, Ann Banke, Nicolaj L Christensen, Redi Pecini, Akhmadjon Irmukhamedov, Mads Andersen, Barry A Borlaug, Jacob E Møller
BACKGROUND: In severe asymptomatic primary mitral valve regurgitation without risk factors, surgery strategy is controversial. We sought to clarify whether being symptomatic corresponds to the hemodynamic burden and reduced exercise capacity. A better understanding of this may contribute to optimize timing of surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects with asymptomatic (New York Heart Association functional class I, n=29) or symptomatic (New York Heart Association functional class II and III, n=28) significant primary mitral valve regurgitation (effective regurgitant orifice, ≥0...
February 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446377/therapeutic-effects-of-a-long-acting-cholinergic-receptor-blocker-tiotropium-bromide-on-asthma
#3
Li Zhang, Guangyin Huang, Long Jin, Shuhua Han
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of tiotropium bromide on asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 patients with moderate persistent asthma were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=40): the 3 control groups were given fluticasone propionate aerosol (group A), salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group B), and tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with salmeterol-fluticasone propionate inhalant (group C), respectively, and the experimental group received tiotropium bromide inhalation powder combined with fluticasone propionate aerosol (group D) and salbutamol was used to relieve symptoms when necessary...
February 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445634/evaluation-of-respiratory-symptoms-among-workers-in-an-automobile-manufacturing-factory-iran
#4
Bahram Harati, Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri, Ali Karimi, Kamal Azam, Alireza Ahmadi, Maryam Afzali Rad, Ali Harati
Background: This study estimated the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and disorders among workers exposed to exposure to volatile organic compound (VOCs) in an automobile manufacturing factory in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Methods: Subjects of this case-control research were included 80 samples including 40 workers exposed to different level of BTEX as well as 40 unexposed individuals were considered as control group. Methods 1501 and 7602 presented by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) were used for the sampling and analysis of compounds in the air...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445270/alterations-of-the-default-mode-network-and-cognitive-impairments-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Xianwei Hu, Haibao Wang, Youhui Tu, Mengdi Fei, Minmin Yin, Guanghe Fei, Yongqiang Yu
Background and objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common extrapulmonary comorbidity in COPD patients. The default mode network (DMN) plays a critical role in maintaining the normal activities of humans, and its function can be evaluated by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between cognition and function changes of the DMN in COPD patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen eligible participants including 30 control subjects and 83 COPD patients matched for demographic characteristics were recruited...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444178/heterogeneity-in-pulmonary-emphysema-analysis-of-ct-attenuation-using-gaussian-mixture-model
#6
Mizuho Nishio, Yutaka Tanaka
PURPOSE: To utilize Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the quantification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate the combined use of multiple types of quantification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients (67 men, 20 women; age, 67.4 ± 11.0 years) who had undergone computed tomography (CT) and pulmonary function test (PFT) were included. The heterogeneity of CT attenuation in emphysema (HC) was obtained by analyzing a distribution of CT attenuation with GMM...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443739/effects-of-exercise-on-secretion-transport-inflammation-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-noncystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Daniele Oliveira Dos Santos, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, José Antônio Baddini-Martinez, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Ada Clarice Gastaldi
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is characterized by pathological and irreversible bronchial dilatation caused by the inefficient mucus and microorganism clearance and progression of inflammatory processes. The most frequent characteristic is the increase in bronchial mucus production resulting in slower transport and damage to the mucociliary transport. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of exercise on mucus transport, inflammation, and resistance of the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems and subsequent effects on quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis who are enrolled in a pulmonary rehabilitation program...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443707/pulmonary-impairment-and-risk-assessment-in-a-diacetyl-exposed-population-microwave-popcorn-workers
#8
Robert M Park, Stephen J Gilbert, Christine Whittaker
OBJECTIVES: The butter flavoring additive, diacetyl (DA), can cause bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) by inhalation. A risk assessment was performed using data from a microwave popcorn manufacturing plant. METHODS: Current employees' medical history and pulmonary function tests together with air sampling over a 2.7 yr period were used to analyze FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. The exposure responses for declining pulmonary function and for possible early onset of BO were estimated using multiple regression methods...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440833/hemodynamic-rounds-can-we-mimic-a-temporary-pulmonary-artery-band-in-catheterization-laboratory-in-corrected-transposition-of-great-arteries-with-severe-tricuspid-regurgitation
#9
Avinash Anantharaj, Kothandam Sivakumar
Right ventricular (RV) geometry is altered by septal shift after pulmonary artery banding. This may reduce tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and improve ventricular function in patients with corrected transposition of great arteries and systemic right ventricle. However, banding is risky in sick patients with severe RV failure. There are no predictive models in clinical practice to test this septal shift hypothesis before a risky surgery. A transcatheter model to mimic a pulmonary artery band is presented in corrected transposition of great arteries with failing right ventricle and severe TR...
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440142/overtesting-and-undertesting-in-primary-care-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Jack W O'Sullivan, Ali Albasri, Brian D Nicholson, Rafael Perera, Jeffrey K Aronson, Nia Roberts, Carl Heneghan
BACKGROUND: Health systems are currently subject to unprecedented financial strains. Inappropriate test use wastes finite health resources (overuse) and delays diagnoses and treatment (underuse). As most patient care is provided in primary care, it represents an ideal setting to mitigate waste. OBJECTIVE: To identify overuse and underuse of diagnostic tests in primary care. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES AND ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We searched MEDLINE and Embase from January 1999 to October 2017 for studies that measured the inappropriateness of any diagnostic test (measured against a national or international guideline) ordered for adult patients in primary care...
February 11, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438332/diaphragmatic-palsy
#11
REVIEW
Laxmi Kokatnur, Mohan Rudrappa
The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration, and its weakness can lead to respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic palsy can be caused by various causes. Injury to the phrenic nerve during thoracic surgeries is the most common cause for diaphragmatic palsy. Depending on the cause, the symptoms of diaphragmatic palsies vary from completely asymptomatic to disabling dyspnea requiring mechanical ventilation. On pulmonary function tests, there will be a decrease in the maximum respiratory muscle power. Spirometry shows reduced lung functions and a significant drop of lung function in supine position is typical of diaphragmatic palsy...
February 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435737/clinical-determinants-of-incremental-shuttle-walk-test-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis
#12
Sulenur Yildiz, Deniz Inal-Ince, Ebru Calik-Kutukcu, Naciye Vardar-Yagli, Melda Saglam, Hulya Arikan, Lutfi Coplu
INTRODUCTION: Exercise capacity is impaired in patients with bronchiectasis. Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) stresses cardiorespiratory system physiologically to symptom-limited maximal exercise capacity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical determinants of ISWT in adults with non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. METHODS: Forty-one clinically stable bronchiectasis patients aged 18-72 years (27 females, 14 males) participated in the study...
February 12, 2018: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434062/glucose-tolerance-insulin-secretion-sensitivity-characteristics-in-indian-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-pilot-study
#13
Vandana Jain, Santosh Kumar, Naval K Vikram, Mani Kalaivani, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Rajni Sharma, Kumar Kabra Sushil
Background & objectives: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting genetic condition resulting in chronic respiratory infections, pancreatic enzyme insufficiency and associated complications. This pilot study was undertaken to assess the glucose tolerance and insulin secretion and sensitivity among Indian children with CF. Methods: Children with CF under regular follow up at the Paediatric Pulmonology Clinic of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India, were enrolled...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433561/pregnancy-outcome-in-a-pregnant-patient-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Farid Rashidi, Hossein Sate
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is a rare and progressive condition which is aggravated by the physiologic changes during pregnancy. Because of high mortality rate, most physicians recommend early termination of pregnancy in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of a 30-year-old primigravida Caucasian housewife with functional class 1 idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension and a positive vasoreactive response to adenosine who had a full-term non-complicated delivery...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433489/predictors-of-inappropriate-and-excessive-use-of-reliever-medications-in-asthma-a-16-year-population-based-study
#15
Hamid Tavakoli, J Mark FitzGerald, Larry D Lynd, Mohsen Sadatsafavi
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors associated with the inappropriate or excessive use of short-acting beta agonists (SABA) can help develop better policies. METHODS: We used British Columbian (BC)'s administrative health data (1997-2014) to create a retrospective cohort of asthma patients aged between 14 and 55 years. The primary and secondary outcomes were, respectively, inappropriate and excessive use of SABA based on a previously validated definition. Exposures were categorised into groups comprising socio-demographic variables, indicators of type and quality of asthma care, and burden of comorbid conditions...
February 12, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431283/predictive-value-of-presuperior-cavopulmonary-anastomosis-cardiac-catheterization-at-increased-altitude
#16
Michael V Di Maria, Matthew Mulvahill, James Jaggers, David Dunbar Ivy, Adel K Younoszai
OBJECTIVE: Infants with single ventricle physiology typically undergo cardiac catheterization prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (SCPA) to assess operative suitability. Predictors of poor outcome at sea level include elevated pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), indexed pulmonary vascular resistance (PVRi), age <3 months, significant atrioventricular valve regurgitation, among others. Increased altitude has vasoconstrictive effects on the pulmonary vasculature, which may affect pre-SCPA hemodynamics and outcomes...
February 12, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429251/-comparison-of-the-pulmonary-function-between-adolescent-patients-with-chiari-malformation-associated-scoliosis-and-idiopathic-scoliosis
#17
Y C Zhang, S F Sha, E Z Jiang, W B Li, Y Qiu, Z Z Zhu
Objective: To compare the pulmonary function between adolescent patients with Chiari malformation associated scoliosis (CMS) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 52 patients with CMS, and 52 patients with AIS were selected as the control group to match the CMS patients by age, sex, and Cobb angle. Preoperative pulmonary function tests were completed by all the patients, including vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), and ratio of FEV(1) to FVC...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429028/molecules-of-damage-associated-patterns-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-and-serum-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Beata Brajer-Luftmann, Agata Nowicka, Mariusz Kaczmarek, Magdalena Wyrzykiewicz, Senan Yasar, Tomasz Piorunek, Marcin Grabicki, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Jan Sikora, Halina Batura-Gabryel
Chronic exposure to detrimental environmental factors may induce immunogenic cell death of structural airway cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is a family of heterogeneous molecules released from injured or dead cells, which activate innate and adaptive immune responses on binding to the pattern recognition receptors on cells. This study seeks to define the content of DAMPs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum of COPD patients, and the possible association of these molecules with clinical disease features...
February 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427984/controlling-the-risk-domain-in-pediatric-asthma-through-personalized-care
#19
William C Anderson, Stanley J Szefler
Strategies to control the risk domain of NHLBI EPR-3 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Expert Panel Report-3) asthma guidelines, which includes exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids, reduction in lung growth, and progressive loss of lung function, and treatment-related adverse effects, are evolving in children and adolescents. Increasing evidence demonstrates that children and adolescents with asthma are at risk of a reduction in lung growth, leading to lower lung function and potentially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as adults...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426066/screening-high-resolution-computed-tomography-of-the-chest-to-detect-interstitial-lung-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-global-survey-of-rheumatologists
#20
Elana J Bernstein, Dinesh Khanna, David J Lederer
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) affects approximately 40-60% of adults with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is the leading cause of death and hospitalization in this population (1-4). Despite the life-threatening nature of ILD and the availability of existing therapies (5, 6), there are no clinical practice guidelines that recommend screening for ILD in SSc. Although pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are widely used by rheumatologists as a screening test for SSc-ILD, studies have shown that they are neither sensitive nor specific for the detection of ILD in this population (3)...
February 9, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
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