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Elbow range of motion and risk factor and baseball

Elliot M Greenberg, J Todd R Lawrence, Alicia Fernandez-Fernandez, Kshamata Shah, Casey McKenna, Marcus L Rowan, JongMyung Kim, Phillip McClure
Background: Identifying risk factors that contribute to shoulder and elbow pain within youth baseball players is important for improving injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies. Hypothesis: Differences will exist between youth baseball players with and without a history of upper extremity pain on measures related to growth, shoulder performance, and baseball exposure. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 84 youth baseball players were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported history of throwing-related arm pain...
November 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Christopher L Camp, John M Zajac, David B Pearson, Alec M Sinatro, Andrea M Spiker, Brian C Werner, David W Altchek, Struan H Coleman, Joshua S Dines
PURPOSE: The primary aims of this work were to (1) describe normal range of motion (ROM) profiles for elite pitchers, (2) describe the characteristics of shoulder and elbow injuries in professional pitchers over a 6-year period in one Major League Baseball organization, and (3) identify ROM measures that were independently associated with a future shoulder or elbow injury. METHODS: Over 6 seasons (2010-2015), a preseason assessment was performed on all pitchers invited to Major League Baseball Spring Training for a single organization...
September 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Sakiko Oyama, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonplace in high school baseball. Although altered shoulder range of motion (ROM) and humeral retrotorsion angles have been associated with injuries, the efficacy of preseason screening of these characteristics remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted preseason screenings for shoulder internal and external rotation ROM and humeral retrotorsion on 832 high school baseball players and tracked their exposure and incidence on throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries during a subsequent season...
July 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Jun Sakata, Emi Nakamura, Makoto Suzukawa, Atsushi Akaike, Kuniaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started...
January 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
T Tajika, T Kobayashi, A Yamamoto, T Kaneko, H Shitara, D Shimoyama, Y Iizuka, K Okamura, Y Yonemoto, T Warita, T Ohsawa, I Nakajima, H Iizuka, K Takagishi
PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors for elbow injury and its association with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit among young baseball players. METHODS: 229 baseball players aged 9 to 14 (mean, 11) years completed a self-administered questionnaire with items related to years of playing baseball, hours of training per weekday, days of training per week, and past and present experience of elbow pain. Two orthopaedic surgeons measured the range of motion of both shoulders and elbows...
April 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Benton E Heyworth, Dennis E Kramer, Daniel J Martin, Lyle J Micheli, Mininder S Kocher, Donald S Bae
BACKGROUND: With rising participation in youth sports such as baseball, proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, or Little League shoulder (LLS), is being seen with increasing frequency. However, there remains a paucity of literature regarding the causes, natural history, or treatment outcomes of LLS. PURPOSE: To analyze the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic features of a population of LLS patients, with an emphasis on identifying underlying risk factors for the development and recurrence of LLS after nonoperative treatment...
June 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Manabu Saito, Tomonori Kenmoku, Kentaro Kameyama, Ryo Murata, Takashi Yusa, Nobuyasu Ochiai, Takehiro Kijima, Naonobu Takahira, Kensuke Fukushima, Noriyuki Ishige, Masashi Takaso
BACKGROUND: Repetitive tensile stresses from valgus torque can induce elbow injury in adolescent baseball players. Insufficient hip range of motion (ROM) can change throwing mechanics, reducing the transfer of energy from the lower to the upper extremities. Thus, hip ROM limitations may force the upper extremities to bear the burden of a strong throw. Improper pitching mechanics caused by insufficient hip ROM are thought to increase valgus torque on the elbow when throwing, increasing the risk of elbow injury...
May 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Hitoshi Shitara, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto, Daisuke Shimoyama, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Tsuyoshi Tajika, Toshihisa Osawa, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi
PURPOSE: To prospectively identify preseason physical factors for shoulder and elbow injuries during the season in high school baseball pitchers. METHODS: The study included 105 high school baseball pitchers [median age 16 (15-17) years]. The range of motion of the shoulder (90° abducted external and internal rotation) and elbow (extension/flexion), shoulder muscle strength (abduction and prone internal and external rotation), shoulder and elbow laxity, horizontal flexion, and scapular dyskinesis were assessed...
August 4, 2015: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Timothy F Tyler, Michael J Mullaney, Michael R Mirabella, Stephen J Nicholas, Malachy P McHugh
BACKGROUND: Shoulder strength and motion deficits in high school baseball pitchers have been implicated in injury risk. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To prospectively determine if preseason strength and range of motion (ROM) are predictive of injury in high school baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that ROM asymmetries and weakness would be predictive of injury. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Preseason strength and ROM measurements were made on 101 pitchers from 4 different high schools over 4 seasons (total 166 pitcher-seasons: 25 freshman, 46 junior varsity, and 95 varsity player-seasons)...
August 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Elizabeth E Hibberd, Sakiko Oyama, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is the difference in internal rotation range of motion (IRROM) between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Pathological GIRD of greater than 15° to 25° has previously been linked to shoulder and elbow injuries in baseball players. Because of its relationship to shoulder and elbow disorders, research has focused on understanding the underlying factors that contribute to changes in IRROM and ultimately GIRD. The rotation deficit reportedly increases during adolescence, but it remains unclear whether this change is caused by changes in osseous properties or soft tissue tightness...
April 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Stephanie D Moore, Tim L Uhl, W Ben Kibler
BACKGROUND: The posterior shoulder muscles play key roles in maintaining shoulder function in throwing. Arm fatigue has been identified as a risk factor for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers. However, endurance of the posterior shoulder muscles in overhead athletes is not routinely examined or conditioned. HYPOTHESIS: Upper extremity muscular endurance can be improved in adolescent baseball players during a 20-week preseason training program. Secondarily, strength will be improved...
May 2013: Sports Health
Ellen Shanley, Chuck Thigpen
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents ranging in age from 11-15 (early-mid adolescence) comprise the largest percentage of baseball and softball athletes in the United States. Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonly experienced by these athletes with baseball pitchers and softball position players most likely to be injured. COMMON INJURIES: Physeal injury often termed "Little League" shoulder or elbow is common and should be differentiated from soft tissue injuries such as biceps, rotator cuff, or UCL injuries...
October 2013: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Koji Miyashita, Yukio Urabe, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yokoe, Sentaro Koshida, Morio Kawamura, Kunio Ida
The amount of stress imposed on shoulder and elbow appears to be directly correlated with the degree of maximum shoulder external rotation (MER) during throwing motions. Therefore, identifying risk factors contributing to the increase of MER angle may help to decrease the throwing injuries occurrence in baseball players. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the correlation between MER and the kinematic variables at stride foot contact (SFC) during the early cocking phase, the passive range of motion (ROM), and the shoulder strength...
2008: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Koji Miyashita, Yukio Urabe, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yokoe, Sentaro Koshida, Morio Kawamura, Kunio Ida
The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER), the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER) during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury) and two within-factors (ER and MER) was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group)...
2008: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Joseph B Myers, Sakiko Oyama, Elizabeth E Hibberd
HYPOTHESIS AND BACKGROUND: Though commonly suggested as an injury risk factor, scapular dysfunction has not been established as a prospective cause of throwing-related upper extremity injury in baseball players. The purpose is to determine whether scapular dysfunction identified during preseason screening is predictive of increased risk of throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball players. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presence or absence of scapular dysfunction was obtained prospectively during preseason screenings in 246 high school baseball players over the 2010 and 2011 seasons...
September 2013: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Veronica J Aragon, Sakiko Oyama, Scott M Oliaro, Darin A Padua, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Throwing is a whole-body motion that requires the transfer of momentum from the lower extremity to the upper extremity via the trunk. No research to date examines the association between a history of shoulder or elbow injury and trunk flexibility in overhead athletes. OBJECTIVE: To determine if injury history and trunk-rotation flexibility are associated and to compare trunk-rotation flexibility measured using 3 clinical tests: half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the back, half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the front, and seated rotation test in softball position players with or without a history of shoulder or elbow injury...
September 2012: Journal of Athletic Training
Yung-Hsien Huang, Ting-Yu Wu, Kenneth E Learman, Yung-Shen Tsai
Risk factors in throwing factors associated to little league elbow have not been adequately explored. Whether these factors also affect the players' performance is also important to elucidate while modifying throwing pattern to reduce injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in throwing kinematics between youth baseball players with or without a history of medial elbow pain (MEP) and to determine the relationship between their throwing kinematics and ball speed. Fifteen players with previous MEP were matched with 15 healthy players by age, height and weight...
June 30, 2010: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Ellen Shanley, Mitchell J Rauh, Lori A Michener, Todd S Ellenbecker, J Craig Garrison, Charles A Thigpen
BACKGROUND: Range of motion deficits in shoulder external rotation (ER), internal rotation (IR), total rotation range of motion (ER + IR), and horizontal adduction (HA) have been retrospectively associated with overhand athletes' arm injuries. HYPOTHESIS: The authors expected the incidence of upper extremity injury in high school softball and baseball players with side-to-side shoulder range of motion deficits to be greater than the incidence of upper extremity injury in players with normal shoulder range of motion...
September 2011: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Mikio Harada, Masatoshi Takahara, Nariyuki Mura, Junya Sasaki, Tomokazu Ito, Toshihiko Ogino
HYPOTHESIS: There are some risk factors that could predispose a young baseball player to elbow injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study participants were 294 baseball players aged 9 to 12 years old. A questionnaire, physical examination, and ultrasound imaging to investigate elbow injuries were performed. Data for the groups with and without elbow injuries were analyzed statistically using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Ultrasound imaging showed that 60 participants had elbow injuries, including medial epicondylar fragmentation in 58 and osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum in 2...
June 2010: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
David W Keeley, Thomas Hackett, Mike Keirns, Michelle B Sabick, Michael R Torry
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that nearly 6% of youth baseball participants seek medical attention for injuries sustained during play. Most injuries are overuse injuries, and 26% are to the shoulder or upper arm. By quantifying youth pitching biomechanics, knowledge can be gained concerning the manner in which these injuries are sustained during play. METHODS: Sixteen healthy right hand-dominant baseball pitchers participated in this study. After digitization of 21 bony landmarks, kinematic calculations were conducted using the 3-dimensional coordinates from each video frame...
June 2008: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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