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Elbow strength and baseball

Jorge Delgado, Diego Jaramillo, Nancy A Chauvin
Increased physical activity in childhood has resulted in a large number of sports-related injuries. Although there is overlap between the sports-related injuries seen in pediatric and adult patients, important differences exist in the injury patterns of pediatric patients. These differences are related to the continuous changes in the developing skeleton and its relationship with adjacent soft tissues. The imbalance in strength between the growing bones and the nearby tendons and ligaments makes the bones prone to acute and chronic injuries...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Kevin Laudner, Jose Vazquez, Noelle Selkow, Keith Meister
CONTEXT: Baseball players, specifically pitchers, with symptomatic neurovascular occlusion often initially complain of arm fatigue, loss of ball control, and velocity. As the compression continues complaints may manifest into dull pain, paresthesia, and decreased grip strength. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between upper extremity blood flow volume and grip strength among baseball pitchers. DESIGN: cross-sectional. SETTING: Athletic training room...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Benjamin L Oshlag, Tracy R Ray
Baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes place their elbows under tremendous stresses, making them vulnerable to a number of unique injuries. Skeletally immature throwers in particular are at a greater risk for growth plate and other bony injuries, due to the relative strengths of these tissues and the kinematics involved in throwing. Care should be taken to fully evaluate these injuries based on the particular history and presentation to properly direct treatment and rehabilitation. Patients, as well as other athletes, coaches, and families, also should be made aware of the significant risk factors for these injuries, especially those regarding pitch limits, proper mechanics, and sufficient rest...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Jun Sakata, Emi Nakamura, Makoto Suzukawa, Atsushi Akaike, Kuniaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. PURPOSE: To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Alberto Naoki Miyazaki, Marcelo Fregoneze, Pedro Doneux Santos, Luciana Andrade da Silva, Guilherme do Val Sella, Adriano Fernando Mendes Junior, André Lopes Soares, Leandro Jun Aihara, Sérgio Luiz Checchia
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between shoulder mobility and strength and the presence of pain among baseball players. METHODS: Between April and July 2009, 55 baseball players were assessed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the School of Medical Sciences, Santa Casa de Misericórdia, São Paulo. They were all males, aged between 15 and 33 years (mean of 21); they attended an average of three training sessions per week and had been doing this sport for a mean of 10 years...
March 2011: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
Kevin Laudner, Jose Vazquez, Noelle Selkow, Keith Meister
CONTEXT: Baseball players, specifically pitchers, with symptomatic neurovascular occlusion often initially complain of arm fatigue, loss of ball control, and velocity. As the compression continues complaints may manifest into dull pain, paresthesia, and decreased grip strength. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between upper extremity blood flow volume and grip strength among baseball pitchers. DESIGN: cross-sectional. SETTING: Athletic training room...
February 26, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
D Trey Remaley, Bryce Fincham, Bryan McCullough, Kirk Davis, Charles Nofsinger, Charles Armstrong, Julie M Stausmire
BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigating the windmill softball pitch have focused primarily on shoulder musculature and function, collecting limited data on elbow and forearm musculature. Little information is available in the literature regarding the forearm. This study documents forearm muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity that has not been previously published. PURPOSE: Elbow and upper extremity overuse injuries are on the rise in fast-pitch softball pitchers...
January 2015: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
J Craig Garrison, Chris Johnston, John E Conway
BACKGROUND: Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) tears are common in baseball players. Alterations in rotator cuff strength are believed to be associated with injury to the shoulder and/or elbow in baseball players. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Baseball players diagnosed with a UCL tear will demonstrate decreased internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) force as an indication of isometric muscular strength in the throwing arm compared to IR and ER force of the throwing arm in healthy baseball players...
August 2015: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Hitoshi Shitara, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto, Daisuke Shimoyama, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Tsuyoshi Tajika, Toshihisa Osawa, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi
PURPOSE: To prospectively identify preseason physical factors for shoulder and elbow injuries during the season in high school baseball pitchers. METHODS: The study included 105 high school baseball pitchers [median age 16 (15-17) years]. The range of motion of the shoulder (90° abducted external and internal rotation) and elbow (extension/flexion), shoulder muscle strength (abduction and prone internal and external rotation), shoulder and elbow laxity, horizontal flexion, and scapular dyskinesis were assessed...
August 4, 2015: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Jeffrey S Corben, Sara A Cerrone, Julie E Soviero, Susan Y Kwiecien, Stephen J Nicholas, Malachy P McHugh
BACKGROUND: Monitoring pitch count is standard practice in minor league baseball but not in softball because of the perception that fast-pitch softball pitching is a less stressful motion. PURPOSE: To examine muscle fatigue after fast-pitch softball performances to provide an assessment of performance demand. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. METHODS: Bilateral strength measurements (handheld dynamometer) were made on 19 female softball pitchers (mean age [±SD], 15...
August 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Matthew J Solomito, Erin J Garibay, Jessica R Woods, Sylvia Õunpuu, Carl W Nissen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of upper extremity injuries in baseball pitchers is increasing. Over the past decade there has been a great deal of research attempting to elucidate the cause of these injuries, focusing mainly on the mechanics of the pitching arm with no examination of other key segments, such as the trunk. This is surprising, as coaches will often comment on trunk position in an effort to improve pitching outcomes. PURPOSE: To determine the association between contralateral trunk lean and ball velocity and the moments about the elbow and glenohumeral joint...
May 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Scott T Watson, Douglas J Wyland
BACKGROUND: Treatment of type III acromioclavicular (AC) separations is controversial, especially in the dominant shoulder of a high-level throwing athlete. This case report describes the return to play after nonoperative management of a collegiate baseball pitcher with a severe type III AC separation in his throwing shoulder. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Case report of return to play with nonoperative management of a type III AC separation in the throwing shoulder of a collegiate pitcher...
February 2015: Physician and Sportsmedicine
James H Buffi, Katie Werner, Tom Kepple, Wendy M Murray
Baseball pitching imposes a dangerous valgus load on the elbow that puts the joint at severe risk for injury. The goal of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal modeling approach to enable evaluation of muscle-tendon contributions to mitigating elbow injury risk in pitching. We implemented a forward dynamic simulation framework that used a scaled biomechanical model to reproduce a pitching motion recorded from a high school pitcher. The medial elbow muscles generated substantial, protective, varus elbow moments in our simulations...
February 2015: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Joshua D Harris, David M Lintner
The athlete's elbow is a remarkable example of motion, strength, and durability. The stress placed on the elbow during sport, including the throwing motion, may lead to soft-tissue ligamentous and nerve injury. The thrower's elbow illustrates one example of possible nerve injury about the elbow in sport, related to chronic repetitive tensile and compressive stresses to the ulnar nerve associated with elbow flexion and valgus position. Besides the throwing athlete, nerve injury from high-energy direct-impact forces may also damage nerves around the elbow in contact sports...
September 2014: Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review
Courtney D Warren, David J Szymanski, Merrill R Landers
Baseball pitching has been described as an anaerobic activity from a bioenergetics standpoint with short bouts of recovery. Depending on the physical conditioning and muscle fiber composition of the pitcher as well as the number of pitches thrown per inning and per game, there is the possibility of pitchers fatiguing during a game, which could lead to a decrease in pitching performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 3 recovery protocols: passive recovery, active recovery (AR), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on range of motion (ROM), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate concentration in baseball pitchers during a simulated game...
November 2015: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Timothy F Tyler, Michael J Mullaney, Michael R Mirabella, Stephen J Nicholas, Malachy P McHugh
BACKGROUND: Shoulder strength and motion deficits in high school baseball pitchers have been implicated in injury risk. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To prospectively determine if preseason strength and range of motion (ROM) are predictive of injury in high school baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that ROM asymmetries and weakness would be predictive of injury. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Preseason strength and ROM measurements were made on 101 pitchers from 4 different high schools over 4 seasons (total 166 pitcher-seasons: 25 freshman, 46 junior varsity, and 95 varsity player-seasons)...
August 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Stephanie D Moore, Tim L Uhl, W Ben Kibler
BACKGROUND: The posterior shoulder muscles play key roles in maintaining shoulder function in throwing. Arm fatigue has been identified as a risk factor for shoulder and elbow pain in youth baseball pitchers. However, endurance of the posterior shoulder muscles in overhead athletes is not routinely examined or conditioned. HYPOTHESIS: Upper extremity muscular endurance can be improved in adolescent baseball players during a 20-week preseason training program. Secondarily, strength will be improved...
May 2013: Sports Health
Koji Miyashita, Yukio Urabe, Hirokazu Kobayashi, Kiyoshi Yokoe, Sentaro Koshida, Morio Kawamura, Kunio Ida
The amount of stress imposed on shoulder and elbow appears to be directly correlated with the degree of maximum shoulder external rotation (MER) during throwing motions. Therefore, identifying risk factors contributing to the increase of MER angle may help to decrease the throwing injuries occurrence in baseball players. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the correlation between MER and the kinematic variables at stride foot contact (SFC) during the early cocking phase, the passive range of motion (ROM), and the shoulder strength...
2008: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Stacy H Bishop, Robert L Herron, Gregory A Ryan, Charles P Katica, Phillip A Bishop
The throwing arm of a baseball pitcher is subjected to high stress as a result of the repetitive activity of pitching. Intermittent cryotherapy may facilitate recovery from this repeated high stress, but few researchers have investigated cryotherapy's efficacy in an ecologically valid setting. This study investigated the effects of intermittent cryotherapy on pitching velocity and subjective measures of recovery and exertion in a simulated baseball game. Trained college-aged male baseball pitchers (n = 8) threw 12 pitches (1 pitch every 20 seconds) per inning for 5 total innings during a simulated pitching start...
April 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Lin-Hwa Wang, Li-Chieh Kuo, Sheng-Wen Shih, Kuo-Cheng Lo, Fong-Chin Su
Previous research on baseball pitchers' wrists, elbows, and should joints contributes to our understanding of pitchers' control over delicate joint motion and ball release. However, limited research on forearm, wrist, and hand joints prevents full comprehension of the throwing mechanism. The present descriptive laboratory study quantifies angular performances of hand and wrist joints while pitching breaking balls, including fastballs, curveballs and sliders, among pitchers with different skill levels. Nineteen baseball pitchers performed required pitching tasks (10 from university and 9 from high school)...
August 2013: Human Movement Science
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