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Transient diabetes mellitus

H Viisanen, H Chapman, H Wei, M Lasierra Losada, A Koivisto, K E Akerman, A Pertovaara
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive carbonyl compound generated in diabetes mellitus. MG is an established transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel agonist that contributes to TRPA1-mediated diabetic pain hypersensitivity. Here we studied whether exposure to diabetes and thereby to elevated endogenous MG modulates hypersensitivity induced by intradermal MG. Moreover, since diabetes induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we compared the role of TRPA1 in diabetes and ER stress by assessing whether tunicamycin-induced ER stress, without diabetes, produces TRPA1-mediated pain hypersensitivity and by assessing whether ER stress and diabetes have similar modulatory effects on MG-induced hypersensitivity...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Rachel Wong, Rhenan Nealon, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Howe
OBJECTIVE: Having shown that resveratrol consumption can improve flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery, we tested its effects on CVR to hypercapnia in adults with T2DM, a risk population for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairments. DESIGN AND METHOD: In a double-blind crossover trial, 34 adults with T2DM consumed 0, 75, 150 and 300 mg of synthetic trans-resveratrol (one dose per week in random order). Before and 1-2 hr after dosing, transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to assess CVR to a hypercapnic stimulus (breathing Carbogen gas for 3 min) in the middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter Appelros, Maria Háls Berglund, Jakob O Ström
BACKGROUND: In the absence of active management, the stroke risk after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be high. Almost 10 years ago, the results of the EXPRESS and SOS-TIA studies called for a more rapid management of TIA patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the other stroke risks in the longer term, after the implementation of a more active approach to TIA. We also wanted to assess the predictive value of the ABCD2 score in this context. METHODS: Riksstroke is the national stroke registry in Sweden...
October 18, 2016: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Nan Zhang, Shengchang Yang, Chang Wang, Jianghua Zhang, Lifang Huo, Yiru Cheng, Chuan Wang, Zhanfeng Jia, Leiming Ren, Lin Kang, Wei Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type II diabetes mellitus (DM2) are the most common aging-related diseases and are characterized by β-amyloid and amylin accumulation, respectively. Multiple studies have indicated a strong correlation between these two diseases. Amylin oligomerization in the brain appears to be a novel risk factor for developing AD. Although amylin aggregation has been demonstrated to induce cytotoxicity in neurons through altering Ca(2+) homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully explored...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Hisa Hui Ling Tseng, Chi Teng Vong, Yiu Wa Kwan, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Maggie Pui Man Hoi
Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hyperglycemia increased the secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Although high glucose (HG)-induced oxidative stress and aberrant Ca(2+) channels activity causes an increase in transmembrane Ca(2+) influx, however the relative contribution of Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels is not well studied. Here, we identified that HG (30 mM glucose for 48 h) induced the activation of the NLRP3-ASC inflammasome, leading to caspase-1 activation, and IL-1β and IL-18 secretion in human monocytic cell lines...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christian T Ruff, Robert P Giugliano, Eugene Braunwald, Sabina A Murphy, Karen Brown, Petr Jarolim, Michele Mercuri, Elliott M Antman, David A Morrow
Importance: Treatment decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are based on clinical assessment of risk. The CHA2DS2-VASc (cardiac failure or dysfunction, hypertension, age 65-74 [1 point] or ≥75 years [2 points], diabetes mellitus, and stroke, transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [2 points]-vascular disease, and sex category [female]) risk score is pragmatic and widely used but has only moderate discrimination. Objective: To develop and test a cardiovascular biomarker score for indication of risk in patients with AF...
October 5, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
William K Karlsson, Caspar G Sørensen, Christina Kruuse
Endothelial dysfunction (ED), in particular cerebral ED, may be an essential biomarker for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, there is no consensus on methods to best estimate cerebral ED. In this systematic review, we evaluate the use of L-arginine and N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) for assessment of cerebral ED. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was done. We included studies investigating cerebrovascular response to L-arginine or L-NMMA in human subjects with vascular risk factors or ischemic cerebrovascular disease...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Levent Cerit, Hatice Kemal, Kamil Gulsen, Barcin Ozcem, Zeynep Cerit, Hamza Duygu
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many diverse cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation. The relationship between Vitamin D and the development of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between Vitamin D and the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after CABG. METHODS: Medical records of consecutive patients who underwent CABG surgery were retrospectively reviewed for the development of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period...
August 2, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
A Patnaik, L J Appleman, A W Tolcher, K P Papadopoulos, M Beeram, D W Rasco, G J Weiss, J C Sachdev, M Chadha, M Fulk, S Ejadi, J M Mountz, M T Lotze, F G S Toledo, E Chu, M Jeffers, C Peña, C Xia, S Reif, I Genvresse, R K Ramanathan
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of copanlisib, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced solid tumors or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Phase I dose-escalation study including patients with advanced solid tumors or NHL, and a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients received three weekly intravenous infusions of copanlisib per 28-day cycle over the dose range 0...
October 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Aarti A Patel, Winnie W Nelson, Jeff Schein
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report on the effect of using CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years [doubled], type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack or thromboembolism [doubled], vascular disease [prior myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, or aortic plaque], age 65-75 years, sex category [female]) rather than CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke) to determine candidacy for anticoagulant prophylaxis in insured patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)...
September 23, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Rachel Wong, Rhenan Nealon, Daniel Raederstorff, Peter Howe
OBJECTIVE: Having shown that resveratrol consumption can improve flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery, we tested its effects on CVR to hypercapnia in adults with T2DM, a risk population for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairments. DESIGN AND METHOD: In a double-blind crossover trial, 34 adults with T2DM consumed 0, 75, 150 and 300 mg of synthetic trans-resveratrol (one dose per week in random order). Before and 1-2 hr after dosing, transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to assess CVR to a hypercapnic stimulus (breathing Carbogen gas for 3 min) in the middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Devina Willard, Jagriti Upadhyay, Chan Kim, Devin Steenkamp
CONTEXT: Type B insulin resistance syndrome is a rare disease which occurs due to the development of autoantibodies to the insulin receptor and can result in either severe insulin resistance and hyperglycemia or conversely hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is often severe, usually transient and poorly responsive to exogenous insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an unusual consequence of this most severe form of transient diabetes mellitus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 39 year old Nigerian woman presented with significant weight loss, severe diabetic ketoacidosis and severe insulin resistance requiring massive doses of exogenous insulin...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Tze-Fan Chao, Gregory Y H Lip, Chia-Jen Liu, Ta-Chuan Tuan, Su-Jung Chen, Kang-Ling Wang, Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Li-Wei Lo, Yu-Feng Hu, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Chern-En Chiang, Shih-Ann Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The age threshold for an increased stroke risk for patients with atrial fibrillation may be different for Asians and non-Asians. We hypothesized that a modified CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, female) scheme, mCHA2DS2-VASc, which assigned one point for patients aged 50 to 74 years, may perform better than CHA2DS2-VASc score for stroke risk stratification in Asians...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Wenying Yang, Linong Ji, Zhiguang Zhou, Valerie A Cain, Kristina M Johnsson, C David Sjöström
BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, has been demonstrated predominantly in Western populations. METHODS: The present analysis examined the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from eight Phase IIb/III double-blind trials of up to 24 weeks, treated with placebo (N = 497), dapagliflozin 5 mg (N = 491) or dapagliflozin 10 mg (N = 465). RESULTS: Demographic and baseline characteristics were comparable across treatment groups...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Anna Carolina Ratto-Tespestini, Paula Juliana Pérez-Chaparro, Giuseppe Alexandre Romito, Luciene Cristina Figueiredo, Marcelo Faveri, Hilana Paula Carillo, Priscila Larcher, Magda Feres
INTRODUCTION: Oral-derived bacteremia may occur after several dental procedures and routine daily activities. Some conditions of the oral cavity may favor episodes of bacteremia. This would be the case of patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontitis, who exhibit exacerbated gingival inflammation and may be more prone to developing oral-derived bacteremia.  OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of an independent culture method (quantitative real-time PCR- qCR) and the most commonly used method (BacT-ALERT 3D®) for the diagnosis of bacteremia...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Leonie van Meer, Matthijs Moerland, Marloes van Dongen, Bas Goulouze, Marieke de Kam, Erica Klaassen, Adam Cohen, Jacobus Burggraaf
ISIS 388626 is an antisense sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor designed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by induction of glucosuria. ISIS 388626 was demonstrated to be safe and effective in preclinical trails in several species. We undertook the present study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 13 weekly doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg of ISIS 388626 in humans. ISIS 388626 increased 24-hour urinary glucose excretion dose dependently with 508.9 ± 781.45 mg/day in the 100-mg and 1299.8 ± 1833...
November 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Takuya Fukuda, Masahide Hamaguchi, Takao Kojima, Kazuteru Mitsuhashi, Yoshitaka Hashimoto, Akihiro Ohbora, Takahiro Kato, Naoto Nakamura, Michiaki Fukui
INTRODUCTION: It is unclear how the transient remission of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we sought to determine the effect of the transient remission of NAFLD on incident T2DM in Japanese men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a population-based health check-up program. The primary outcome was set as incident T2DM. We divided the participants who showed NAFLD at the time of enrollment into three groups according to their clinical course of NAFLD: the Regression group, in which the participants showed a regression of NAFLD and no relapse during the follow-up period; the Transient Remission group, in which participants achieved a transient remission of NAFLD, but had a relapse of NAFLD; and the Persistent group, in which participants showed NAFLD throughout the follow-up...
September 3, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
S S Ahmad, A Misra, A Glenn, R C Temple
Acute cataract is recognized as a rare complication in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and may be associated with rapid improvement in glycaemia in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes. Transient cataracts, which resolve following improved metabolic control, and irreversible cataracts requiring surgery have also previously been documented. Development or progression of retinopathy may complicate pregnancy in women with diabetes. To our knowledge, we present the first case report of an acute cataract developing postpartum in a woman with type 1 diabetes...
June 2009: Obstetric Medicine
Stéphanie Perrier, Nicolas Meyer, Tam Hoang Minh, Tarek Announe, Jonathan Bentz, Philippe Billaud, Arnaud Mommerot, Jean-Philippe Mazzucotelli, Michel Kindo
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to identify preoperative predictors of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) by using a Bayesian analysis that included information from prior studies. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study from October 2008 to December 2013 of 1,481 patients who underwent isolated CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass and had no history of AF. Bayesian analysis was used to study the preoperative risks factors for POAF...
August 28, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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