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Transient diabetes mellitus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048742/permanent-neonatal-diabetes-caused-by-abnormalities%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-chromosome%C3%A2-6q24
#1
B Y Cao, C X Gong, D Wu, X Q Li
BACKGROUND: Methylation defects at chromosome 6q24 usually induce transient neonatal diabetes mellitus. There are few reports of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus caused by abnormalities of 6q24. We report the first case of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus to be associated with confirmed methylation defects at chromosome 6q24. CASE REPORT: A baby girl, small for her gestational age, was found to have high blood glucose 1 day after birth, with no systematic congenital anomalies...
October 19, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038244/overactivity-of-liver-related-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-electrophysiological-findings-in-db-db-mice
#2
Hong Gao, Adrien Jr Molinas, Kayoko Miyata, Xin Qiao, Andrea Zsombok
Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029531/efficacy-and-safety-of-pramlintide-injection-adjunct-to-insulin-therapy-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Yong-Chao Qiao, Wei Ling, Yan-Hong Pan, Yin-Ling Chen, Dan Zhou, Yan-Mei Huang, Xiao-Xi Zhang, Hai-Lu Zhao
AIMS: We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of pramlintide plus insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We included clinical studies comparing pramlintide plus insulin to placebo plus insulin. Efficacy was reflected by glycemic control and reduction in body weight and insulin use. Safety concerns were hypoglycemia and other adverse events. Subgroup analysis was performed for different doses (30, 60, 90 µg/meal) and durations (≤4, 26, 29, >29 weeks) of the treatment...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020307/follow-up-blood-cultures-in-gram-negative-bacteremia-are-they-needed
#4
Christina N Canzoneri, Bobak J Akhavan, Zehra Tosur, Pedro E Alcedo Andrade, Gabriel M Aisenberg
Background: Bloodstream infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia is typically transient and usually resolves rapidly after the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy and source control. The optimal duration of treatment and utility of follow-up blood cultures (FUBC) have not been studied in detail. Currently, the management of Gram-negative bacteremia is determined by clinical judgment. To investigate the value of repeat blood cultures, we analyzed 500 episodes of bacteremia to determine frequency of FUBC and identify risk factors for persistent bacteremia...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985358/identification-of-plagl1-zac1-binding-sites-and-target-genes-establishes-its-role-in-the-regulation-of-extracellular-matrix-genes-and-the-imprinted-gene-network
#5
Annie Varrault, Christelle Dantec, Anne Le Digarcher, Laëtitia Chotard, Benoit Bilanges, Hugues Parrinello, Emeric Dubois, Stéphanie Rialle, Dany Severac, Tristan Bouschet, Laurent Journot
PLAGL1/ZAC1 undergoes parental genomic imprinting, is paternally expressed, and is a member of the imprinted gene network (IGN). It encodes a zinc finger transcription factor with anti-proliferative activity and is a candidate tumor suppressor gene on 6q24 whose expression is frequently lost in various neoplasms. Conversely, gain of PLAGL1 function is responsible for transient neonatal diabetes mellitus, a rare genetic disease that results from defective pancreas development. In the present work, we showed that Plagl1 up-regulation was not associated with DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest...
July 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981243/-treatments-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
T Gustot
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases are highly prevalent in Western countries and associated with insulin resitance and metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by lobular inflammation and hepatocellular ballooning, and may be associated with liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and its complications as hepatocarcinoma. The presence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus or increased liver enzymes in patients with metabolic syndrome should prompt non-invasive screening (liver ultrasound, serum markers and/or transient elastography) to predict steatosis, NASH and fibrosis...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980280/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibition-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-left-atrial-appendage-thrombosis-formation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#7
Ya Suo, Yue Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Meng Yuan, Sayuri Kariyawasam, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Huaying Fu, Guangping Li
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin axis can reduce the likelihood of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on thrombogenicity in AF remain incompletely elucidated. Thisretrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of ACEI or ARB could reduce the incidence of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) and spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in patients with AF...
October 5, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962189/risk-factors-and-preventive-measures-of-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-carotid-artery-interventional-therapy
#8
Shibo Wang, Jing Han, Lei Cheng, Nengpeng Li
This study sought to investigate the risk factors for cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) after carotid artery interventional therapy, and to explore potential preventive measures. Three hundred and eighty-two patients treated with carotid artery stenting at the Huanhu Hospital (Tianjin, China) between January 2010 and January 2016 were divided into CHS and non-CHS groups. A retrospective analysis of patient clinical data was made. The CHS group had more patients presenting coronary heart disease, diabetes, progressive neurological disease and transient recurrent cerebral hemorrhage than the non-CHS group...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957425/a-tissue-specific-promoter-derived-from-a-sine-retrotransposon-drives-biallelic-expression-of-plagl1-in-human-lymphocytes
#9
Claire E L Smith, Alexia Alexandraki, Sarah F Cordery, Rekha Parmar, David T Bonthron, Elizabeth M A Valleley
The imprinted gene PLAGL1 is an important regulator of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Loss of its expression has been implicated in tumorigenesis in a range of different cancers, and overexpression during fetal development causes transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). PLAGL1 lies within an imprinted region of chromosome 6q24, and monoallelic expression from the major, differentially methylated promoter (P1) occurs in most human tissues. However, in peripheral blood leukocytes, the active promoter (P2) is non-imprinted and drives biallelic transcription...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947134/elevated-body-mass-index-is-a-risk-factor-associated-with-possible-liver-cirrhosis-across-different-etiologies-of-chronic-liver%C3%A2-disease
#10
Yi-Hao Yen, Kuo-Chin Chang, Ming-Chao Tsai, Po-Lin Tseng, Ming-Tsung Lin, Cheng-Kun Wu, Jung-Ting Lin, Tsung-Hui Hu, Jing-Houng Wang, Chien-Hung Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Metabolic risk factors are associated with liver fibrosis. Whether or not metabolic risk factors affect the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), or risk factors associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate this by transient elastography. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 1513 patients who presented with chronic liver disease (CLD) at a tertiary hospital...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943514/a-novel-kcnj11-mutation-associated-with-transient-neonatal-diabetes
#11
Evangelia Gole, Stavroula Oikonomou, Sian Ellard, Elisa De Franco, Kyriaki Karavanaki
BACKGROUND: Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare type of monogenic diabetes that presents in the first 6 months of life. Activating mutations in the KCNJ11 gene encoding for the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channel can lead to transient (TNDM) or permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). CASE REPORT: A female infant presented at the 22nd day of life with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis (glucose: 907mg/dl, blood gas pH: 6.84, HCO3: 6mmol/l). She was initially managed with intravenous (IV) fluids and IV insulin...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939672/cha2ds2-vasc-score-for-identifying-truly-low-risk-atrial-fibrillation-for-stroke-a-korean-nationwide-cohort-study
#12
Tae-Hoon Kim, Pil-Sung Yang, Daehoon Kim, Hee Tae Yu, Jae-Sun Uhm, Jong-Youn Kim, Hui-Nam Pak, Moon-Hyoung Lee, Boyoung Joung, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: As the threshold of stroke risk for initiating oral anticoagulants is lowered after the introduction of the nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants, the focus of stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation has shifted away from predicting high-risk patients toward initially identifying patients with a truly low risk of ischemic stroke, who do not need antithrombotic therapy. We tested the predictive ability of the congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled; CHADS2), congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65 to 74, female (CHA2DS2-VASc), and Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) risk stratification schemes in oral anticoagulants naive patients with atrial fibrillation in a Korean nationwide sample cohort...
September 22, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#13
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911141/glucagon-decreases-igf-1-bioactivity-in-humans-independently-of-insulin-by-modulating-its-binding-proteins
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Zeinab Sarem, Christiane Bumke-Vogt, Ayman M Mahmoud, Biruhalem Assefa, Martin O Weickert, Aikatarini Adamidou, Volker Bähr, Jan Frystyk, Matthias Möhlig, Joachim Spranger, Stefanie Lieske, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ayman M Arafat
Context: Depending on its lipolytic activity, glucagon plays a promising role in obesity treatment. Glucagon-induced growth hormone (GH) release can promote its effect on lipid metabolism, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well-defined. Objective: The present study highlights the glucagon effect on the GH/insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis in vivo and in vitro, taking into consideration insulin as a confounding factor...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904869/high-glucose-stimulates-expression-of-aldosterone-synthase-cyp11b2-and-secretion-of-aldosterone-in-human-adrenal-cells
#15
Hiroki Shimada, Naotaka Kogure, Erika Noro, Masataka Kudo, Kaori Sugawara, Ikuko Sato, Kyoko Shimizu, Makoto Kobayashi, Dai Suzuki, Rehana Parvin, Takako Saito-Ito, Akira Uruno, Akiko Saito-Hakoda, William E Rainey, Sadayoshi Ito, Atsushi Yokoyama, Akira Sugawara
Aldosterone synthase is the key rate-limiting enzyme in adrenal aldosterone production, and induction of its gene (CYP11B2) results in the progression of hypertension. As hypertension is a frequent complication among patients with diabetes, we set out to elucidate the link between diabetes mellitus and hypertension. We examined the effects of high glucose on CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone production using human adrenal H295R cells and a stable H295R cell line expressing a CYP11B2 5'-flanking region/luciferase cDNA chimeric construct...
September 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880473/nmdar-antagonists-for-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-current-status-and-future-directions
#16
REVIEW
Alena Welters, Carina Klüppel, Jessica Mrugala, Laura Wörmeyer, Thomas Meissner, Ertan Mayatepek, Christian Heiss, Daniel Eberhard, Eckhard Lammert
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronically elevated blood glucose levels accelerated by a progressive decline of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreatic islets. Although medications are available to transiently adjust blood glucose to normal levels, the effects of current drugs are limited when it comes to preservation of a critical mass of functional β-cells to sustainably maintain normoglycemia. In this review, we recapitulate recent evidence on the role of pancreatic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in β-cell physiology, and summarize effects of morphinan-based NMDAR antagonists that are beneficial for insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and islet cell survival...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867885/serious-visual-ocular-complications-in-pre-eclampsia-and-eclampsia
#17
Thangappah Radha Bai Prabhu
INTRODUCTION: Complete loss of vision is an uncommon ocular complication of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. The conditions which lead to visual loss in pre-eclampsia include cortical blindness, retinal detachment, retinal vascular thrombosis and optic nerve atrophy. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to describe the cause, clinical course and prognosis in blindness complicating pre-eclampsia. METHODOLOGY: This is a prospective observational study conducted at the Govt...
October 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855164/human-papillomavirus-status-and-the-risk-of-cerebrovascular-events-following-radiation-therapy-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#18
Daniel Addison, Sara B Seidelmann, Sumbal A Janjua, Hamed Emami, Pedro V Staziaki, Travis R Hallett, Bálint Szilveszter, Michael T Lu, Richard P Cambria, Udo Hoffmann, Annie W Chan, Lori J Wirth, Tomas G Neilan
BACKGROUND: Radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment for head and neck cancer; however, it is associated with inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, and cerebrovascular events (CVEs; stroke or transient ischemic attack). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in nearly half of head and neck cancers and is associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. Whether HPV confers an increased risk of CVEs after RT is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using an institutional database, we identified all consecutive patients treated with RT from 2002 to 2012 for head and neck cancer who were tested for HPV...
August 30, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851729/assessment-of-remote-heart-rhythm-sampling-using-the-alivecor-heart-monitor-to-screen-for-atrial-fibrillation-the-rehearse-af-study
#19
Julian P J Halcox, Kathie Wareham, Antonia Cardew, Mark Gilmore, James P Barry, Ceri Phillips, Michael B Gravenor
Background -Asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly common in the aging population and implicated in many ischemic strokes. Earlier identification of AF with appropriate anticoagulation may decrease stroke morbidity and mortality. Methods -We conducted a randomized controlled trial of AF screening using an AliveCor Kardia monitor attached to a WiFi-enabled iPod to obtain ECGs (iECGs) in ambulatory patients. Patients ≥65 years of age with a CHADS-VASc score ≥2 free from AF were randomized to the iECG arm or routine care (RC)...
August 28, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845890/long-term-aspirin-does-not-lower-risk-of-stroke-and-increases-bleeding-risk-in-low-risk-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-patients
#20
Victoria Jacobs, Heidi T May, Tami L Bair, Brian G Crandall, Michael J Cutler DO, John D Day, Charles Mallender, Jeffrey S Osborn, J Peter Weiss, T Jared Bunch
BACKGROUND: Stroke risk is a significant concern in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Low stroke risk patients (CHADS2 VASc 0-2) are often treated long-term with aspirin after catheter ablation. Defining the long-term risks versus benefits of aspirin therapy, after an ablation, is essential to validate this common clinical approach. METHODS: A total of 4,124 AF ablation patients undergoing their index ablation were included in this retrospective observational study...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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