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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320106/ctrp3-attenuates-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-through-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#1
Chuantao Cheng, Shuo Yu, Ran Kong, Qinggong Yuan, Yuefeng Ma, Wenbin Yang, Gang Cao, Liyi Xie
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis. C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 3 (CTRP3), a member of CTRPs, was involved in fibrosis. However, little is known about the role of CTRP3 in liver fibrosis. This study aimed to determine its role in liver fibrosis and explore the possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that CTRP3 was lowly expressed in liver fibrosis tissues and activated HSCs. Overexpression of CTRP3 inhibited the proliferation and migration of HSCs, as well as suppressed the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated HSC-T6 cells...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320100/drosophila-melanogaster-a-potential-model-organism-for-identification-of-pharmacological-properties-of-plants-plant-derived-components
#2
REVIEW
Komal Panchal, Anand K Tiwari
Plants/plant-derived components have been used from ancient times to treat/cure several human diseases. Plants and their parts possess several chemical components that play the vital role in the improvement of human health and their life expectancy. Allopathic medicines have been playing a key role in the treatment of several diseases. Though allopathic medicines provide fast relief, long time consumption cause serious health concerns such as hyperallergic reactions, liver damage, etc. So, the study of medicinal plants which rarely cause any side effect is very important to mankind...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320098/inhibition-of-tissue-transglutaminase-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-glial-cells-through-akt-mtor-signal-pathway
#3
Yirong Ding, Ji Zhang, Rui Wang
AIM: In view of the facts that tTG protein expression level and its enzyme activity increase in AD brains of both individuals and transgenic animals and compelling evidence of the involvement of inflammation in AD pathogenesis, tTG could be involved in the inflammation responses in the brain. In the present study, we examined the effects of the irreversible and the competitive inhibitor of tTG on the condition of lipopolysaccharide-induced mimic inflammation models in glial cells. METHODS: Western blot and tTG enzyme activity assay were applied to detect tTG and isopeptide protein levels and tTG enzyme activity...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320097/asiatic-acid-ameliorates-pulmonary-fibrosis-induced-by-bleomycin-blm-via-suppressing-pro-fibrotic-and-inflammatory-signaling-pathways
#4
Shu-Hong Dong, Yan-Wei Liu, Feng Wei, Hui-Zhen Tan, Zhi-Dong Han
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is known as a life-threatening disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic strategies. In addition, the molecular mechanism by which pulmonary fibrosis developed is not fully understood. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid, isolated from Centella asiatica, exhibiting efficient anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. In our study, we attempted to explore the effect of Asiatic acid on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. The findings indicated that pre-treatment with Asiatic acid inhibited BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis progression in mice...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320095/dt-13-a-saponin-monomer-13-of-the-dwarf-lilyturf-tuber-synergized-with-vinorelbine-to-induce-mitotic-arrest-via-activation-of-erk-signaling-pathway-in-nci-h1299-cells
#5
Hongyang Li, Li Sun, Hang Li, Xiaodan Lv, Herve Semukunzi, Ruiming Li, Jun Yu, Shengtao Yuan, Sensen Lin
Vinorelbine (NVB) is a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid that is approved for the clinical therapy of lung cancer. However, the clinical application of NVB was limited because of the acquisition of resistance and inacceptable toxicity. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop low-cytotoxic drugs that can synergize with NVB. DT-13, a saponin monomer 13 of the Dwarf lilyturf tuber, showed inhibitory effects on tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in the previous studies. Here, we found that DT-13 combined with NVB exhibited synergistic effect to inhibit the cell proliferation in human lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells rather than human embryonic lung fibroblasts WI-38...
March 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320094/lncrna-meg3-had-anti-cancer-effects-to-suppress-pancreatic-cancer-activity
#6
Lei Gu, Jiaqiang Zhang, Minmin Shi, Qian Zhan, Baiyong Shen, Chenghong Peng
AIM: The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism of lncRNA MEG 3 in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We were collecting 30 pancreatic cancer patients, taking the sample from these patients. We measured the PI3K protein expressions from 30 patients by IHC and WB methods and MEG 3 expression by RT-PCR, and analyzed the relationship between PI3K protein expression and pancreatic cancer patients' clinical pathology and the correlation between lncRNA MEG 3 and PI3K...
March 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320092/inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway-promotes-autophagy-of-articular-chondrocytes-and-attenuates-inflammatory-response-in-rats-with-osteoarthritis
#7
Jian-Feng Xue, Zhong-Min Shi, Jian Zou, Xiao-Lin Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the relationship between PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy of articular chondrocytes in rats with osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Rat articular chondrocytes were isolated and cultured, and then induced by protein inhibitors of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Chondrocytes were assigned into blank group, IL-1β induction group (IL-1β group), PI3K inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (PI3Ki+IL-1β group), AKT inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (AKTi+IL-1β group) and mTOR inhibitor+IL-1β induction group (mTORi+IL-1β group)...
March 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320088/flower-extract-of-allium-atroviolaceum-triggered-apoptosis-activated-caspase-3-and-down-regulated-antiapoptotic-bcl-2-gene-in-hela-cancer-cell-line
#8
Somayeh Khazaei, Vasudevan Ramachandran, Roslida Abdul Hamid, Norhaizan Mohd Esa, Ali Etemad, Sara Moradipoor, Patimah Ismail
Cervical cancer accounts for the second most frequent cancer and also third leading cause of cancer mortality (15%) among women worldwide. The major problems of chemotherapeutic treatment in cervical cancer are non-specific cytotoxicity and drug resistance. Plant-derived products, known as natural therapies, have been used for thousands of years in cancer treatment with a very low number of side effects. Allium atroviolaceum is a species in the genus Allium and Liliaceae family, which could prove to have beneficial effects on cancer treatment, although there is a lack of corresponding attention...
March 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320085/down-regulation-of-microrna-142-5p-attenuates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation-induced-neuron-injury-through-up-regulating-nrf2-are-signaling-pathway
#9
Ning Wang, Lingmin Zhang, Yang Lu, Mingxin Zhang, Zhenni Zhang, Kui Wang, Jianrui Lv
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. miR-142-5p is reported to be an important regulator of cellular survival. However, little is known about the role of miR-142-5p in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, we aimed to investigate the precise function and mechanism of miR-142-5p in the regulation of neuron ischemia/reperfusion injury using a cellular model of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced injury in hippocampal neurons in vitro...
March 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319896/a-dynamic-sandwich-assay-on-magnetic-beads-for-selective-detection-of-single-nucleotide-mutations-at-room-temperature
#10
Junxiu Wang, Guoliang Xiong, Liang Ma, Shihui Wang, Xu Zhou, Lei Wang, Lehui Xiao, Xin Su, Changyuan Yu
Single-nucleotide mutation (SNM) has proven to be associated with a variety of human diseases. Development of reliable methods for the detection of SNM is crucial for molecular diagnosis and personalized medicine. The sandwich assays are widely used tools for detecting nucleic acid biomarkers due to their low cost and rapid signaling. However, the poor hybridization specificity of signal probe at room temperature hampers the discrimination of mutant and wild type. Here, we demonstrate a dynamic sandwich assay on magnetic beads for SNM detection based on the transient binding between signal probe and target...
March 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#11
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319891/time-and-cell-resolved-dynamics-of-redox-sensitive-nrf2-hif-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activities-in-3d-spheroids-enriched-for-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Anna P Kipp, Stefanie Deubel, Elias S J Arnér, Katarina Johansson
Cancer cells have an altered redox status, with changes in intracellular signaling pathways. The knowledge of how such processes are regulated in 3D spheroids, being well-established tumor models, is limited. To approach this question we stably transfected HCT116 cells with a pTRAF reporter that enabled time- and cell-resolved activity monitoring of three redox-regulated transcription factors Nrf2, HIF and NF-κB in spheroids enriched for cancer stem cells. At the first day of spheroid formation, these transcription factors were activated and thereafter became repressed...
March 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319807/targeting-nf-kappa-b-signaling-by-artesunate-restores-sensitivity-of-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-to-antiandrogens
#13
Jessica J Nunes, Swaroop K Pandey, Anjali Yadav, Sakshi Goel, Bushra Ateeq
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the most preferred treatment for men with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, the disease eventually progresses and develops resistance to ADT in majority of the patients, leading to the emergence of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Here, we assessed artesunate (AS), an artemisinin derivative, for its anticancer properties and ability to alleviate resistance to androgen receptor (AR) antagonists. We have shown AS in combination with bicalutamide (Bic) attenuates the oncogenic properties of the castrate-resistant (PC3, 22RV1) and androgen-responsive (LNCaP) PCa cells...
March 16, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319733/plasma-cell-and-memory-b-cell-differentiation-from-the-germinal-center
#14
REVIEW
Dan Suan, Christopher Sundling, Robert Brink
Germinal centers (GCs) form in secondary lymphoid tissues in response to antigenic challenge and are the site of somatic hypermutation, generating GC B cells with increasing affinity for the inciting agent that are positively selected over time. However, it is not until GC B cells differentiate into memory B cells and plasma cells and egress from the GC back into the circulation that effective long-lived humoral immunity is conferred upon the host. Here we review what is known about the signals that initiate the transition from a GC B cell into the memory B cell and plasma cell compartments and the downstream transcriptional regulation of these processes...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319728/modulation-of-host-cell-apoptotic-pathways-by-intracellular-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
Anja Friedrich, Julian Pechstein, Christian Berens, Anja Lührmann
Nearly all steps of the host cell apoptotic cascade can be subverted by intracellular microorganisms. Some pathogens modulate early steps and interfere with sensing of extracellular signals, cellular stress or signal transduction; others target Bcl-2 proteins, caspases, or inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). In many cases the exact molecular mechanisms leading to interference with the host cell apoptotic cascade are still unknown. However, there are some examples where bacterial factors that modulate host cell death have been identified...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319616/dna-probes-for-monitoring-dynamic-and-transient-molecular-encounters-on-live-cell-membranes
#16
Mingxu You, Yifan Lyu, Da Han, Liping Qiu, Qiaoling Liu, Tao Chen, Cuichen Sam Wu, Lu Peng, Liqin Zhang, Gang Bao, Weihong Tan
Cells interact with the extracellular environment through molecules expressed on the membrane. Disruption of these membrane-bound interactions (or encounters) can result in disease progression. Advances in super-resolution microscopy have allowed membrane encounters to be examined, however, these methods cannot image entire membranes and cannot provide information on the dynamic interactions between membrane-bound molecules. Here, we show a novel DNA probe that can transduce transient membrane encounter events into readable cumulative fluorescence signals...
March 20, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319610/capillary-k-sensing-initiates-retrograde-hyperpolarization-to-increase-local-cerebral-blood-flow
#17
Thomas A Longden, Fabrice Dabertrand, Masayo Koide, Albert L Gonzales, Nathan R Tykocki, Joseph E Brayden, David Hill-Eubanks, Mark T Nelson
Blood flow into the brain is dynamically regulated to satisfy the changing metabolic requirements of neurons, but how this is accomplished has remained unclear. Here we demonstrate a central role for capillary endothelial cells in sensing neural activity and communicating it to upstream arterioles in the form of an electrical vasodilatory signal. We further demonstrate that this signal is initiated by extracellular K(+) -a byproduct of neural activity-which activates capillary endothelial cell inward-rectifier K(+) (KIR2...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319609/developmental-alterations-in-huntington-s-disease-neural-cells-and-pharmacological-rescue-in-cells-and-mice
#18
(no author information available yet)
Neural cultures derived from Huntington's disease (HD) patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells were used for 'omics' analyses to identify mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. RNA-seq analysis identified genes in glutamate and GABA signaling, axonal guidance and calcium influx whose expression was decreased in HD cultures. One-third of gene changes were in pathways regulating neuronal development and maturation. When mapped to stages of mouse striatal development, the profiles aligned with earlier embryonic stages of neuronal differentiation...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#19
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319593/profiles-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-hypertensive-rats-long-noncoding-rna-xr007793-regulates-cyclic-strain-induced-proliferation-and-migration-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#20
Qing-Ping Yao, Zhi-Wei Xie, Kai-Xuan Wang, Ping Zhang, Yue Han, Ying-Xin Qi, Zong-Lai Jiang
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are being discovered in multiple diseases at a rapid pace. However, the contribution of lncRNAs to hypertension remains largely unknown. In hypertension, the vascular walls are exposed to abnormal mechanical cyclic strain, which leads to vascular remodelling. Here, we investigated the mechanobiological role of lncRNAs in hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: Differences in the lncRNAs and mRNAs between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were screened using a gene microarray...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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