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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471378/communicative-function-use-of-preschoolers-and-mothers-from-differing-racial-and-socioeconomic-groups
#1
Danai Kasambira Fannin, Oscar A Barbarin, Elizabeth R Crais
Purpose: This study explores whether communicative function (CF: reasons for communicating) use differs by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, or gender among preschoolers and their mothers. Method: Mother-preschooler dyads (N = 95) from the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (2005) study of family and social environments were observed during 1 structured learning and free-play interaction. CFs were coded by trained independent raters. Results: Children used all CFs at similar rates, but those from low SES homes produced fewer utterances and less reasoning, whereas boys used less self-maintaining and more predicting...
February 22, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470636/migration-background-and-childhood-overweight-in-the-hannover-region-in-2010-2014-a-population-based-secondary-data-analysis-of-school-entry-examinations
#2
Yusheng Zhou, Thomas von Lengerke, Ulla Walter, Maren Dreier
Overweight and obesity constitute a global epidemic with rates that are increasing rapidly in children. The aim of the present study was to examine ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight in pre-school children in a multicultural context. Data were collected from a compulsory school entry examination in the Hannover Region, Germany (n = 50,716) from 2010 to 2014. The prevalence of overweight (including pre-obesity and obesity status) and obesity was estimated using a German national reference...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470122/a-qualitative-comparative-analysis-of-combined-state-health-policies-related-to-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-uptake-in-the-united-states
#3
Megan C Roberts, Taylor Murphy, Jennifer L Moss, Christopher W Wheldon, Wayne Psek
OBJECTIVES: To examine how combinations of state policies, rather than single policies, are related to uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. METHODS: Using publicly available records and the literature, we characterized policies for each US state and Washington, DC, in 2015 (n = 51), including (1) Medicaid expansion, (2) policies permitting HPV vaccination in pharmacies, (3) school-entry requirements, (4) classroom sex education mandates, and (5) parental education mandates...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468357/sensitive-fathering-buffers-the-effects-of-chronic-maternal-depression-on-child-psychopathology
#4
Adam Vakrat, Yael Apter-Levy, Ruth Feldman
Maternal depression across the first years of life carries long-term negative consequences for children's well-being; yet, few studies focused on fathers as potential source of resilience in the context of chronic maternal depression. Utilizing an extreme-case design, a community birth cohort of married/cohabitating mothers (N = 1983) with no comorbid risk was repeatedly tested for maternal depression across the first year and again at 6 years, leading to two matched cohorts; 46 mothers with chronic depression and 103 non-depressed controls...
February 21, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466067/a-narrative-analysis-examining-the-transition-to-practice-for-the-full-time-secondary-school-athletic-trainer
#5
Stephanie M Mazerolle, Jessica Kirby, Stacy E Walker
CONTEXT:   The transition to clinical practice is an important topic in athletic training as it is viewed as a stressful time that is accompanied by self-doubt. Mentorship and previous experience support the transition to practice, but little information is available on the organizational entry of the athletic trainer (AT) who is employed full time in the secondary school setting. OBJECTIVE:   To understand the experiences of newly credentialed ATs in full-time positions in the secondary school setting...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463525/maternal-thyroid-function-and-child-educational-attainment-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Scott M Nelson, Caroline Haig, Alex McConnachie, Naveed Sattar, Susan M Ring, George D Smith, Debbie A Lawlor, Robert S Lindsay
OBJECTIVE: To determine if first trimester maternal thyroid dysfunction is a critical determinant of child scholastic performance and overall educational attainment. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 4615 mother-child pairs with an available first trimester sample (median 10 weeks gestation, interquartile range 8-12). EXPOSURES: Free thyroxine, thyroid stimulating hormone, and thyroid peroxidase antibodies assessed as continuous measures and the seven clinical categories of maternal thyroid function...
February 20, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459193/personal-domains-assessed-in-multiple-mini-interviews-mmis-for-healthcare-student-selection-a-narrative-synthesis-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Alison Callwood, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Grigorios Kotronoulas, Annegret Schneider, Liane Lewis, Vishna Devi Nadarajah
OBJECTIVES: To examine the personal domains multiple mini interviews (MMIs) are being designed to assess, explore how they were determined and contextualise such domains in current and future healthcare student selection processes DESIGN: A systematic review of empirical research reporting on MMI model design was conducted from database inception to November 2017. DATA SOURCES: Twelve electronic bibliographic databases. REVIEW METHODS: Evidence was extracted from original studies, and integrated in a narrative synthesis guided by the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews...
January 31, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444782/are-efforts-to-attract-graduate-applicants-to-uk-medical-schools-effective-in-increasing-the-participation-of-under-represented-socioeconomic-groups-a-national-cohort-study
#8
Ben Kumwenda, Jennifer Cleland, Rachel Greatrix, Rhoda Katharine MacKenzie, Gordon Prescott
INTRODUCTION: Attracting graduates was recommended as a means of diversifying the UK medical student population. Graduates now make up nearly a quarter of the total medical student population. Research to date has focused on comparing the sociodemographic characteristics of applicants to and/or students on traditional and graduate entry programmes (GEMs), yet GEMs account for only 40% of the graduate medical student population. Thus, we aimed to compare the sociodemographic characteristic and outcomes of graduates and non-graduate applicants across a range of programmes...
February 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439270/should-we-use-sentence-or-text-level-tasks-to-measure-oral-language-proficiency-in-year-one-students-following-whole-class-intervention
#9
Maria Lennox, Marleen F Westerveld, David Trembath
AIMS: To compare students' oral language proficiency on sentence- versus text-level tasks at school entry and following tier 1 intervention in their first year of formal schooling. METHODS: 104 students participated in this study. Participants were part of a broader longitudinal study and were enrolled at 3 low socioeconomic, linguistically diverse Australian primary schools. Tasks were administered to all students at the beginning and end of the school year. Performance on the sentence-level task, the Renfrew Action Picture Test (RAPT), was analysed for information and grammar as per the test manual...
February 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425634/quantifying-medical-student-clinical-experiences-via-an-icd-code-logging-app
#10
Fred Rawlins, Cameron Sumpter, Dean Sutphin, Harold R Garner
OBJECTIVES: The logging of ICD Diagnostic, Procedure and Drug codes is one means of tracking the experience of medical students' clinical rotations. The goal is to create a web-based computer and mobile application to track the progress of trainees, monitor the effectiveness of their training locations and be a means of sampling public health status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have developed a web-based app in which medical trainees make entries via a simple and quick interface optimized for both mobile devices and personal computers...
March 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424005/the-gift-of-time-school-starting-age-and-mental-health
#11
Thomas S Dee, Hans Henrik Sievertsen
Using linked Danish survey and register data, we estimate the causal effect of age at kindergarten entry on mental health. Danish children are supposed to enter kindergarten in the calendar year in which they turn 6 years. In a "fuzzy" regression-discontinuity design based on this rule and exact dates of birth, we find that a 1-year delay in kindergarten entry dramatically reduces inattention/hyperactivity at age 7 (effect size = -0.73), a measure of self-regulation with strong negative links to student achievement...
February 9, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423420/trends-in-kindergarten-rates-of-vaccine-exemption-and-state-level-policy-2011-2016
#12
Saad B Omer, Rachael M Porter, Kristen Allen, Daniel A Salmon, Robert A Bednarczyk
Background: Kindergarten-entry vaccination requirements have played an important role in controlling vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Forty-eight states and the District of Colombia offer nonmedical exemptions to vaccines, ranging in stringency. Methods: We analyzed state-level exemption data from 2011 to 2012 through 2015 to 2016 school years. States were categorized by exemption ease and type of exemption allowed. We calculated nonmedical exemption rates for each year in the sample and stratified by exemption ease, type, and 2 trend categories: 2011-12 through 2012-13 and 2013-14 through 2015-16 school years...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417379/a-snapshot-of-type-two-diabetes-mellitus-management-in-general-practice-prior-to-the-introduction-of-diabetes-cycle-of-care
#13
Jennifer V Gettings, Raymond O'Connor, Jane O'Doherty, Ailish Hannigan, Walter Cullen, Louise Hickey, Andrew O'Regan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with complications, including coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and amputation, and ultimately is a major cause of disability and death worldwide. Adherence to best practice guidelines is limited in unstructured diabetes management in primary care settings. AIMS: This study aims to establish what data was being collected in general practice prior to the introduction of the Cycle of Care, which is a proactive model of diabetes management introduced in Ireland...
February 7, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395530/impact-of-introduction-of-the-9-valent-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-on-vaccination-coverage-of-youth-in-north-carolina
#14
Justin G Trogdon, Paul Shafer, Brianna Lindsay, Tamera Coyne-Beasley
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of introduction of 9vHPV vaccine on HPV vaccination uptake (doses per capita) and initiation (≥1 doses), completion (≥3 doses) and compliance (≥3 doses within 12 months) by adolescents. METHODS: We used a retrospective cohort analysis using North Carolina Immunization Registry (NCIR) data from January 2008 through October 2016. The sample included Vaccines for Children eligible adolescents aged 9 to 17 years in 2016, for whom the NCIR contains complete vaccination history...
January 29, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388087/testing-for-medical-school-selection-what-are-prospective-doctors-experiences-and-perceptions-of-the-gamsat-and-what-are-the-consequences-of-testing
#15
K Kumar, C Roberts, E Bartle, D S Eley
Written tests for selection into medicine have demonstrated reliability and there is accumulating evidence regarding their validity, but we know little about the broader impacts or consequences of medical school selection tests from the perspectives of key stakeholders. In this first Australian study of its kind, we use consequential validity as a theoretical lens to examine how medical school students and applicants view and experience the Graduate Medical Schools Admission Test (GAMSAT), and the consequences of testing...
January 31, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384413/having-the-headspace-for-compassion-toward-self-and-others-a-qualitative-study-of-medical-students-views-and-experiences
#16
Stephanie Tierney, Cameron-Tosh Ozer, Sophie Perry
Phenomenon: Debate about compassion exhibited by healthcare professionals has escalated, following a perceived decline over recent years. At the same time, a growing interest in self-compassion has emerged, which is seen as facilitating compassion toward others. Little research has explored, in depth, what compassion to self and others means to medical students. Therefore, a study was designed to address this gap in knowledge. APPROACH: A qualitative study was conducted, involving students from all 4 years of a graduate-entry medical school in the United Kingdom...
January 31, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375630/youths-experiences-of-school-re-integration-following-psychiatric-hospitalization
#17
Michèle Preyde, Shrenik Parekh, John Heintzman
Objective: The purpose of this study was to report youths' experiences of school re-integration post-discharge from psychiatric hospital. No reports of school reintegration from the patient perspective could be located; hence, a second objective was to explore school-related and clinical factors associated with youth who reported an unfavourable school re-integration experiences. Methods: Patients were recruited while in hospital for acute psychiatric care. They provided informed consent to be contacted post discharge regarding their perceptions of their school reintegration experience...
January 2018: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370852/multiple-mini-interview-mmi-for-general-practice-training-selection-in-australia-interviewers-motivation
#18
Annette Burgess, Chris Roberts, Premala Sureshkumar, Karyn Mossman
BACKGROUND: Multiple Mini Interviews (MMIs) are being used by a growing number of postgraduate training programs and medical schools as their interview process for selection entry. The Australian General Practice and Training (AGPT) used a National Assessment Centre (NAC) approach to selection into General Practice (GP) Training, which include MMIs. Interviewing is a resource intensive process, and implementation of the MMI requires a large number of interviewers, with a number of candidates being interviewed simultaneously...
January 25, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367807/rhythm-production-at-school-entry-as-a-predictor-of-poor-reading-and-spelling-at-the-end-of-first-grade
#19
Kjersti Lundetræ, Jenny M Thomson
Rhythm plays an organisational role in the prosody and phonology of language, and children with literacy difficulties have been found to demonstrate poor rhythmic perception. This study explored whether students' performance on a simple rhythm task at school entry could serve as a predictor of whether they would face difficulties in word reading and spelling at the end of grade 1. The participants were 479 Norwegian 6-year-old first graders randomized as controls in the longitudinal RCT on track (n = 1171)...
2018: Reading and Writing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355068/predicting-performance-of-junior-doctors-association-of-workplace-based-assessment-with-demographic-characteristics-emotional-intelligence-selection-scores-and-undergraduate-academic-performance
#20
Sandra E Carr, Antonio Celenza, Annette M Mercer, Fiona Lake, Ian B Puddey
INTRODUCTION: Predicting workplace performance of junior doctors from before entry or during medical school is difficult and has limited available evidence. This study explored the association between selected predictor variables and workplace based performance in junior doctors during their first postgraduate year. METHODS: Two cohorts of medical students (n = 200) from one university in Western Australia participated in the longitudinal study. Pearson correlation coefficients and multivariate analyses utilizing linear regression were used to assess the relationships between performance on the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool (JDAT) and its sub-components with demographic characteristics, selection scores for medical school entry, emotional intelligence, and undergraduate academic performance...
January 21, 2018: Medical Teacher
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