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School entry

Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob
Intelligence test scores and educational duration are positively correlated. This correlation could be interpreted in two ways: Students with greater propensity for intelligence go on to complete more education, or a longer education increases intelligence. We meta-analyzed three categories of quasiexperimental studies of educational effects on intelligence: those estimating education-intelligence associations after controlling for earlier intelligence, those using compulsory schooling policy changes as instrumental variables, and those using regression-discontinuity designs on school-entry age cutoffs...
June 1, 2018: Psychological Science
S Medić, V Petrović, V Milosević, Z Lozanov-Crvenković, S Brkić, N Andrews, F de Ory, C Anastassopoulou
The present cross-sectional serosurvey constitutes the first effort to describe the varicella zoster virus (VZV) seroepidemiology in Serbia. An age-stratified serum bank of 3570 residual samples collected between 2015 and 2016 in each of the seven districts of the Vojvodina Province was tested for IgG anti-VZV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Results were standardised into common units according to the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) methodology. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between standardised anti-VZV positivity or logarithmically transformed antibody titres and demographic features of study subjects...
June 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Emily D Wolodiger, Alice W Pope
OBJECTIVE: To examine the reciprocal relationships between parenting stress and psychosocial adjustment of children with congenital craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) at 2 time points: school entry and approximately 2.5 years later, after children had time to adjust to school. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical charts of children with CFAs. SETTING: Department of reconstructive plastic surgery at an urban medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Parents of 42 children aged 3...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Jessica Leung, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Adriana Lopez, Jenny Jeyarajah, Mona Marin
CONTEXT: Since 2007, 2 doses of varicella vaccine have been routinely recommended, with a catch-up second dose recommended for those who received only 1 prior dose. OBJECTIVE: To examine varicella vaccination coverage with 2 or more doses and the proportions of adolescents with evidence of immunity to varicella (≥2 doses of vaccine or varicella history) during 2007-2014. To assess timing of second-dose receipt, factors associated with 2 or more vaccine doses, and missed second-dose opportunities during 2014...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Jonathan A Odukoya, Segun I Popoola, Aderemi A Atayero, David O Omole, Joke A Badejo, Temitope M John, Olalekan O Olowo
In Nigerian universities, enrolment into any engineering undergraduate program requires that the minimum entry criteria established by the National Universities Commission (NUC) must be satisfied. Candidates seeking admission to study engineering discipline must have reached a predetermined entry age and met the cut-off marks set for Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE), Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), and the post-UTME screening. However, limited effort has been made to show that these entry requirements eventually guarantee successful academic performance in engineering programs because the data required for such validation are not readily available...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Tsuyoshi Isojima, Noriko Kato, Susumu Yokoya, Atsushi Ono, Toshiaki Tanaka, Hiroshi Yokomichi, Zentaro Yamagata, Soichiro Tanaka, Hiroko Matsubara, Mami Ishikuro, Masahiro Kikuya, Shoichi Chida, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Shinichi Kuriyama, Shigeo Kure
OBJECTIVES: Healthy-weight children tend to gain weight during winter but lose weight during summer. However, overweight elementary school children have shown accelerated summertime weight gain. Whether this seasonal growth variation occurs during preschool period is of substantial interest. METHODS: Data were derived from a nationwide retrospective cohort of nursery school children. Eight consecutive sets of longitudinal measurements on height and weight were obtained from 15 259 preschool children...
June 5, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Julie Bertram, Kris L'Ecuyer, Bobbi Shatto, Samantha Marquard, Kathleen Carril
This article describes a seminar course designed for a cohort of nursing students in a medium-sized, private Midwestern university. The purpose of the course was to help students develop the nonacademic skills that are important for successful completion of nursing school and entry into the health care workforce. The rationale for developing the course and the sample curriculum are presented, along with implications for future inquiry.
May 1, 2018: Creative Nursing
Ashley Chamberlin, Selena Nguyen-Rodriguez, Virginia B Gray, Wendy Reiboldt, Caitlin Peterson, Donna Spruijt-Metz
BACKGROUND: Existing literature indicates a relationship between stress and emotional eating in adults, yet limited research has examined the impact of school-related stress on emotional eating in adolescents. This study investigated the influence of academic factors on emotional eating among minority adolescents. METHODS: A survey was implemented among a sample of minority adolescents (N = 666) to investigate the relationship between emotional eating and 3 academic factors: academic self-esteem, grade point average (GPA), and academic worries...
July 2018: Journal of School Health
Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Michel Boivin, Jean-Pascal Lemelin, Yulia Kovas, Sophie Parent, Jean R Séguin, Frank Vitaro, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
Little is known about the development of number knowledge (NK) and the antecedents of low-persistent NK profiles in early childhood. We documented the developmental trajectories of NK across the transition from preschool to elementary school, their predictive validity with respect to later math achievement, and the child and family early-life factors associated with low NK profiles. Children's NK was assessed four times at regular intervals between the ages 4 and 7 years in a large, representative population-based sample...
June 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Min Jeong Kim, Young-Mee Lee, Jae Jin Han, Seok Jin Choi, Tae-Yoon Hwang, Min Jeong Kwon, Hyouk-Soo Kwon, Man-Sup Lim, Won Min Hwang, Min Cheol Joo, Jong-Tae Lee, Eunbae B Yang
The Korean Association of Medical Colleges (KAMC) developed graduate outcomes based on "The role of Korean doctor, 2014" to serve as guidelines regarding outcome-based education in Korea. The working group in this study analyzed 65 competencies proposed in "The role of Korean doctor, 2014" according to the developmental principle that certain outcomes should be demonstrated at the point of entry into the graduate medical education. We established 34 competencies as "preliminary graduate outcomes" (PGOs)...
June 2018: Korean Journal of Medical Education
Alain Reinberg, Olivier Reinberg, Mohamed Mechkouri, Yvan Touitou, Michael H Smolensky
Details of serious injuries to children ≤16 yrs. of age that necessitated urgent surgical intervention by the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland were recorded into a database registry. Some 15 110 entries listed the precise time of injury, and 3114 (20.6%) of these resulted from participating in sport-associated activities. Time-of-day, day-of-week and month-of-year differences in the total number of children's accidental sport injuries (CASI) were validated...
May 2018: Chronobiology International
Ashlesha Datar, Paul J Chung
BACKGROUND: Whether self-control at school entry and changes in self-control in the early school years are predictive of BMI change and obesity onset over the next 8 years using longitudinal data on a nationally representative sample of US children. METHODS: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class 1998 were analyzed. The analysis sample included 7060 children with data from kindergarten (mean age = 6 years) until eighth grade (mean age = 14 years)...
May 29, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Tasha R Wyatt, Elena A Wood, John McManus, Kevin Ma, Paul M Wallach
BACKGROUND: Previous research on Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) programs as an early clinical experience indicates that medical students' confidence in patient care and team-building skills increases with participation. However, very little is known about the unplanned, long-term effects of EMT courses on medical students once they enter medical school. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the immediate outcomes produced by the month-long summer EMT course and the unplanned outcomes that students reported 1 year later...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Susan M Fowler, Mary C Knowlton, Amy W Putnam
Clinical immersion is a method used by various academic programs to narrow the theory-to-practice gap and assist students to transition from school to a new work environment. In the clinical immersion model, students embark upon a concentrated and intensive clinical experience, typically at the end of a semester or program. This literature review explored the various methods by which programs carry out the immersion clinical experience model and if the experience improved students' readiness for entry level positions...
May 3, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Tesfahun Yonas Bogale, Elazar Tadesse Bala, Minyahil Tadesse, Benedict Oppong Asamoah
BACKGROUND: Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015...
May 24, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lazaro M Mwandigha, Paul A Tiffin, Lewis W Paton, Adetayo S Kasim, Jan R Böhnke
OBJECTIVES: University academic achievement may be inversely related to the performance of the secondary (high) school an entrant attended. Indeed, some medical schools already offer 'grade discounts' to applicants from less well-performing schools. However, evidence to guide such policies is lacking. In this study, we analyse a national dataset in order to understand the relationship between the two main predictors of medical school admission in the UK (prior educational attainment (PEA) and performance on the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT)) and subsequent undergraduate knowledge and skills-related outcomes analysed separately...
May 23, 2018: BMJ Open
Linda M Niccolai, Anna L North, Alison Footman, Caitlin E Hansen
Background: A strong recommendation from a clinician is one of the best predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among adolescents, yet many clinicians do not provide effective recommendations. The objective of this study was to understand how the lack of school entry requirements for HPV vaccination influences clinicians' recommendations. Design and Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 32 clinicians were conducted in 2015 in Connecticut USA...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
Alison M Buttenheim, Malia Jones, Caitlin Mckown, Daniel Salmon, Saad B Omer
Recent measles and pertussis outbreaks in the US have focused national attention on state laws governing exemptions from mandatory vaccines for school entry. After several years of increases in nonmedical exemptions in California, the state assembly passed Assembly Bill 2109 in 2012, making nonmedical exemptions more difficult to obtain by requiring parents to obtain a signature from a health care provider. We used data from the California Department of Public Health to describe changes in the overall prevalence of personal belief exemptions and compositional changes in immunization status for the school years 2012-2013 through 2015-2016...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
Paula Magalhães, Rosa Mourão, Raquel Pereira, Raquel Azevedo, Almerinda Pereira, Madalena Lopes, Pedro Rosário
Hospitalization, despite its duration, is likely to result in emotional, social, and academic costs to school-age children and adolescents. Developing adequate psychoeducational activities and assuring inpatients' own class teachers' collaboration, allows for the enhancement of their personal and emotional competences and the maintenance of a connection with school and academic life. These educational programs have been mainly designed for patients with long stays and/or chronic conditions, in the format of Hospital Schools, and typically in pediatric Hospitals...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Marenda A Wilson, Anthony DePass, Andrew J Bean
The faculty and student populations in academia are not representative of the diversity in the U.S. POPULATION: Thus, research institutions and funding agencies invest significant funds and effort into recruitment and retention programs that focus on increasing the flow of historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) pipeline. Here, we outline challenges, interventions, and assessments by the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (GSBS) that increased the diversity of the student body independently of grade point averages and Graduate Record Examination scores...
June 2018: CBE Life Sciences Education
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