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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103443/effects-of-childhood-asthma-on-the-development-of-obesity-among-school-aged-children
#1
Zhanghua Chen, Muhammad T Salam, Tanya L Alderete, Rima Habre, Theresa M Bastain, Kiros Berhane, Frank D Gilliland
RATIONALE: Asthma and obesity often occur together in children. It is unknown whether asthma contributes to the childhood obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the effects of asthma and asthma medication use on the development of childhood obesity. METHODS: The primary analysis was conducted among 2,171 non-obese children who were 5-8 years of age at study enrollment in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS) and were followed for up to 10 years...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102620/when-does-speech-sound-disorder-matter-for-literacy-the-role-of-disordered-speech-errors-co-occurring-language-impairment-and-family-risk-of-dyslexia
#2
Marianna E Hayiou-Thomas, Julia M Carroll, Ruth Leavett, Charles Hulme, Margaret J Snowling
BACKGROUND: This study considers the role of early speech difficulties in literacy development, in the context of additional risk factors. METHOD: Children were identified with speech sound disorder (SSD) at the age of 3½ years, on the basis of performance on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology. Their literacy skills were assessed at the start of formal reading instruction (age 5½), using measures of phoneme awareness, word-level reading and spelling; and 3 years later (age 8), using measures of word-level reading, spelling and reading comprehension...
February 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065195/programming-maternal-and-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-the-context-of-undernutrition-current-evidence-and-key-considerations-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#3
Lindsay M Jaacks, Justine Kavle, Abigail Perry, Albertha Nyaku
The goals of the present targeted review on maternal and child overweight and obesity were to: (i) understand the current situation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) with regard to recent trends and context-specific risk factors; and (ii) building off this, identify entry points for leveraging existing undernutrition programmes to address overweight and obesity in LMIC. Trends reveal that overweight and obesity are a growing problem among women and children in LMIC; as in Ghana, Kenya, Niger, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zimbabwe, where the prevalence among urban women is approaching 50 %...
January 9, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062925/impact-of-vocational-interests-previous-academic-experience-gender-and-age-on-situational-judgement-test-performance
#4
Nienke R Schripsema, Anke M van Trigt, Jan C C Borleffs, Janke Cohen-Schotanus
Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116)...
January 6, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056975/impact-of-medical-student-origins-on-the-likelihood-of-ultimately-practicing-in-areas-of-low-vs-high-socio-economic-status
#5
Ian B Puddey, Denese E Playford, Annette Mercer
INTRODUCTION: Medical schools are in general over-represented by students from high socio-economic status backgrounds. The University of Western Australia Medical School has been progressively widening the participation of students from a broader spectrum of the community both through expanded selection criteria and quota-based approaches for students of rural, indigenous and other socio-educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We proposed that medical students entering medical school from such backgrounds would ultimately be more likely to practice in areas of increased socio-economic disadvantage...
January 5, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056962/an-investigation-of-professionalism-reflected-by-student-comments-on-formative-virtual-patient-encounters
#6
Ting Dong, William Kelly, Meredith Hays, Norman B Berman, Steven J Durning
BACKGROUND: This study explored the use of virtual patient generated data by investigating the association between students' unprofessional patient summary statements, which they entered during an on-line virtual patient case, and detection of their future unprofessional behavior. METHOD: At the USUHS, students complete a number of virtual patient encounters, including a patient summary, to meet the clerkship requirements of Internal Medicine, Family Medicine, and Pediatrics...
January 6, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035056/factors-associated-with-medical-student-test-anxiety-in-objective-structured-clinical-examinations-a-preliminary-study
#7
Kyong-Jee Kim
Objectives: To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029343/smoking-in-movies-and-adolescent-smoking-initiation-a-longitudinal-study-among-argentinian-adolescents
#8
Raul Mejia, Adriana Pérez, Lorena Peña, Christy Kollath-Cattano, Paola Morello, Sandra Braun, James W Hardin, James F Thrasher, James D Sargent
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to movie smoking is associated with cigarette smoking among Argentinian adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A school-based longitudinal study involving 33 secondary schools in Argentina was performed. The sample included 2502 never smokers (average age at entry = 12.5 years), 1700 (67.9%) of whom completed follow-up surveys 17 months later. Exposure to the top 100 highest-grossing films for each year between 2009 and 2013 was assessed by content-coding films for tobacco and then by asking adolescents whether they had seen each of 50 titles, randomly selected from the larger pool, then parsing exposure into tertiles...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017441/extensive-swelling-of-the-limb-and-systemic-symptoms-after-a-fourth-dose-of-acellular-pertussis-containing-vaccines-in-england-in-children-aged-3-6years
#9
Jo Southern, Pauline A Waight, Nick Andrews, Elizabeth Miller
Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling >100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or high dose diphtheria (DTaP/IPV) vaccine; 2 of the 3 DTaP/IPV vaccines also contained Haemophilus influenza b conjugate vaccine (Hib)...
December 22, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012514/school-entry-level-tele-hearing-screening-in-a-town-in-south-india-lessons-learnt
#10
Saleth D Monica, Vidya Ramkumar, Mark Krumm, Nitya Raman, Roopa Nagarajan, Lakshmi Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: School screening is warranted in developing countries that do not have newborn hearing screening as schools provide access to a large number of young children between 3 and 5 years of age. Due to scarcity of technical manpower and equipment, hearing screening programs are not often conducted in developing countries. In these circumstances, telehealth services appear to be a reasonable solution. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of school hearing screening using telehealth technology operated by a practitioner located 400 kms away at a distant hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010994/pelvic-floor-muscle-training-for-secondary-prevention-of-pelvic-organ-prolapse-prevprol-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Suzanne Hagen, Cathryn Glazener, Doreen McClurg, Christine Macarthur, Andrew Elders, Peter Herbison, Don Wilson, Philip Toozs-Hobson, Christine Hemming, Jean Hay-Smith, Marissa Collins, Sylvia Dickson, Janet Logan
BACKGROUND: Pelvic floor muscle training can reduce prolapse severity and symptoms in women seeking treatment. We aimed to assess whether this intervention could also be effective in secondary prevention of prolapse and the need for future treatment. METHODS: We did this multicentre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial at three centres in New Zealand and the UK. Women from a longitudinal study of pelvic floor function after childbirth were potentially eligible for inclusion...
December 20, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001911/sustained-professional-development-on-cooperative-learning-impact-on-six-teachers-practices-and-students-learning
#12
Victoria A Goodyear
PURPOSE: It has been argued, extensively and internationally, that sustained school-based continuous professional development (CPD) has the potential to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional one-off CPD programs. Yet, the evidence base on more effective or less effective forms of CPD is contradictory. The mechanisms by which sustained support should be offered are unclear, and the impacts on teachers' and students' learning are complex and difficult to track. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a sustained school-based, tailored, and supported CPD program on teachers' practices and students' learning...
December 21, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993128/high-school-versus-graduate-entry-in-a-saudi-medical-school-is-there-any-difference-in-academic-performance-and-professionalism-lapses
#13
Ahmed Rumayyan Al Rumayyan, Abdulaziz Ahmed Al Zahrani, Tahir Kamal Hameed
BACKGROUND: King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) was the first university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia offering both high school entry and graduate entry (GE) students into medical school. We compared the academic performance and professionalism lapses of high school entry and GE students who undertook the same curriculum and examinations in the College of Medicine, Riyadh, KSAU-HS. METHODS: Examination scores of 196 high school graduates and 54 GE students over a 4-year period (2010-2014) were used as a measure of academic achievement...
December 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988918/scholastic-achievements-graduate-entry-vs-school-leaver-entry-medical-students
#14
Tetsuya Urano, Munetaka Haida, Shunichiro Izumi, Yutaka Imai, Koichiro Asano, Tadashi Abe
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to conduct a retrospective analysis comparing graduate-entry program (GEP) and school-leaver-entry program (SEP) students from the perspective of scholastic achievements from admission through the national examination for medical practitioners. METHODS: The number of students who repeated one or more years, because of their poor results on examinations, the scores of graduation examinations, and the pass rates for the national examination for medical practitioners were compared, retrospectively, over the last 8 academic years between GEP and SEP students at Tokai University School of Medicine...
December 20, 2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984417/association-between-age-of-beginning-primary-school-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Sebla Gökçe, Yanki Yazgan, Ayşe Burcu Ayaz, Esengül Kayan, Canan Yusufoğlu, Gresa Carkaxhiu Bulut, Herdem Aslan Genç, Ceyda Dedeoğlu, Seçil Demirhan, Arzu Sancak, Gökçe Elif Saridoğan
OBJECTIVE: In April 2012, the Turkish national education system was modified, and the compulsory school age of entry (first grade) was redefined as a minimum of 60 months and a maximum of 66 months (replacing the former minimum criterion of 72 months). In this study, we hypothesized that students starting school before 72 months (the previous age standard for the first grade) may experience (1) a greater number of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (2) lower functioning in social, behavioral, and academic domains...
January 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973689/inequalities-in-access-to-biological-treatments-for-psoriasis-results-from-the-italian-psocare-registry
#16
L Naldi, S Cazzaniga, M di Mercurio, E Grossi, A Addis
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence is available on the impact of socioeconomic factors in drug prescriptions for psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: To investigate factors influencing prescription of conventional versus biological treatment for psoriatic patients, based on the Psocare registry with a special focus on socioeconomic factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating the baseline data of patients included in the Italian Psocare Registry...
December 14, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960246/challenges-in-managing-a-school-based-measles-outbreak-in-melbourne-australia-2014
#17
Katherine B Gibney, Aicha Brahmi, Miriam O'Hara, Rosemary Morey, Lucinda Franklin
OBJECTIVE: To identify barriers to control of a Victorian primary school-based measles outbreak. METHODS: Confirmed measles cases notified in Victoria in 2014 were reviewed. Surveillance data, correspondence, and investigation notes for the school-based outbreak were assessed regarding timeliness of diagnosis and notification, and adequacy of school-based immunisation records. RESULTS: Twenty-three (31%) of the 75 measles cases notified in 2014 were school-aged (5-18 years); three had documentation of measles vaccination, 17 were unvaccinated, and three had unknown vaccination history...
December 13, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940689/school-entry-requirements-and-coverage-of-nontargeted-adolescent-vaccines
#18
Jennifer L Moss, Paul L Reiter, Young K Truong, Barbara K Rimer, Noel T Brewer
BACKGROUND: Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is an urgent public health problem requiring action. To identify policy remedies to suboptimal HPV vaccination, we assessed the relationship between states' school entry requirements and adolescent vaccination. METHODS: We gathered data on states' school entry requirements for adolescent vaccination (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis [Tdap] booster; meningococcal; and HPV) from 2007 to 2012 from Immunization Action Coalition...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923440/parent-administered-computer-assisted-tutoring-targeting-letter-sound-knowledge-evaluation-via-multiple-baseline-across-three-preschool-students
#19
Matthew R DuBois, Robert J Volpe, Matthew K Burns, Jessica A Hoffman
Knowledge of letters sounds has been identified as a primary objective of preschool instruction and intervention. Despite this designation, large disparities exist in the number of letter sounds children know at school entry. Enhancing caregivers' ability to teach their preschool-aged children letter sounds may represent an effective practice for reducing this variability and ensuring that more children are prepared to experience early school success. This study used a non-concurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of caregivers (N=3) delivering a computer-assisted tutoring program (Tutoring Buddy) targeting letter sound knowledge to their preschool-aged children...
December 2016: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921287/differential-third-grade-outcomes-associated-with-attending-publicly-funded-preschool-programs-for-low-income-latino-children
#20
Arya Ansari, Michael Lόpez, Louis Manfra, Charles Bleiker, Laura H B Dinehart, Suzanne C Hartman, Adam Winsler
This study examined the third-grade outcomes of 11,902 low-income Latino children who experienced public school pre-K or child care via subsidies (center-based care) at age 4 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Regression and propensity score analyses revealed that children who experienced public school pre-K earned higher scores on standardized assessments of math and reading in third grade and had higher grade point averages than those who attended center-based care 4 years earlier. The sustained associations between public school pre-K (vs...
December 6, 2016: Child Development
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