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School entry

Dirk Bruland, Katharina Kornblum, Stefanie Harsch, Janine Bröder, Orkan Okan, Ullrich Bauer
Students Having Parents with Mental Health Issues and Teachers' Mental Health Literacy Mental health issues of parents of school children often negatively affects the children as well, including their school performance and social behavior in the school setting. Teachers are then required to take actions with regards to supporting children in their coping with and mastering of their home situation and their responds to educational demands. As such, schools' and teachers' actions can either support affected children and fulfill a protective function or respond inappropriately, with negative impact on the affected children...
December 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Aniek Woodward, Suzanne Thomas, Mohamed Bella Jalloh, John Rees, Andrew Leather
Background: Many low-income and crises-affected countries like Sierra Leone struggle with the recruitment and retention of their health professionals, particularly nurses and doctors. There are multiple factors that influence the 'recruitment to retention' pipeline. The first stage of an exploration into the issues influencing the availability of qualified health care workers may focus on the aspects which influence their entry into relevant educational programmes. This paper explores the reasons given by junior doctors in Sierra Leone for wanting to become a doctor...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
Maya Tsao Wu, M Diane Armitage, Claire Trujillo, Anna Trujillo, Laura E Arnold, Lauren Tsao Wu, Robert W Arnold
BACKGROUND: We needed to validate and calibrate our portable acuity screening tools so amblyopia could be detected quickly and effectively at school entry. METHODS: Spiral-bound flip cards and download pdf surround HOTV acuity test box with critical lines were combined with a matching card. Amblyopic patients performed critical line, then threshold acuity which was then compared to patched E-ETDRS acuity. 5 normal subjects wore Bangerter foil goggles to simulate blur for comparative validation...
December 4, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Serap Azizoğlu, Sheila G Crewther, Funda Şerefhan, Ayla Barutchu, Sinan Göker, Barbara M Junghans
BACKGROUND: In many countries, access to general health and eye care is related to an individual's socioeconomic status (SES). We aimed to examine the prevalence of oculo-visual disorders in children in Istanbul Turkey, drawn from schools at SES extremes but geographically nearby. METHODS: Three school-based vision screenings (presenting distance visual acuity, cover test, eye assessment history, colour vision, gross stereopsis and non-cycloplegic autorefraction) were conducted on 81% of a potential 1014 primary-school children aged 4-10 years from two private (high SES) schools and a nearby government (low SES) school in central Istanbul...
December 2, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
Kristina M Jackson, Tim Janssen, Nancy P Barnett, Michelle L Rogers, Kerri L Hayes, James Sargent
BACKGROUND: Exposure to alcohol content in movies has been shown to be associated with adolescent use of alcohol, including earlier onset. This study examined the influence of movie alcohol exposure on subsequent alcohol onset, considering the social context (whether the movie was viewed with a friend or parent). We examined whether media's influence holds across a spectrum of early drinking milestones: sipping (but not consuming a full drink of) alcohol, consuming a full drink of alcohol, and engaging in heavy episodic drinking (HED)...
November 29, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Patrick Lussier, Evan McCuish, Jeff Mathesius, Raymond Corrado, Danielle Nadeau
There is little information about the onset and the developmental course of child sexual behavior problems (SBPs), including sexually intrusive behaviors (SIBs). Using data from the Vancouver Longitudinal Study on the Psychosocial Development of Children, the current study examined the presence of distinct patterns of sexual development among children. A normative sample of preschoolers ( N = 354) with a small clinical subsample were followed from age 3 to 8 with repetitive measurements of sexual behaviors using a revised version of Child Sexual Behavior Inventory...
February 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
David C Geary, Kristy vanMarle, Felicia W Chu, Jeffrey Rouder, Mary K Hoard, Lara Nugent
We demonstrate a link between preschoolers' quantitative competencies and their school-entry knowledge of the relations among numbers (number-system knowledge). The quantitative competencies of 141 children (69 boys) were assessed at the beginning of preschool and throughout the next 2 years of preschool, as was their mathematics and reading achievement at the end of kindergarten and their number-system knowledge at the beginning of first grade. A combination of Bayes analyses and standard regressions revealed that the age at which the children had the conceptual insight that number words represent specific quantities (cardinal value) was strongly related to their later number-system knowledge and was more consistently related to broader mathematics than to reading achievement, controlling for intelligence, executive function, and parental education levels...
November 1, 2017: Psychological Science
M K Rajak, R Thakur, A Choudhary, I Bhaduri, S Kumar
BACKGROUND: Traditionally conservative methods were used in managing paediatric femoral diaphyseal fractures. There has been a renewed interest for operative treatment with Titanium elastic nail system (TENS) in the age group of 6-14 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was done on 20 patients. Two titanium nails were used for stabilization. We followed them for maximum of two years. The results were evaluated using Flynn's scoring criteria. RESULTS: In our study we had fifteen males and five females with average age 10...
December 2016: Acta Orthopaedica Belgica
Carine Dochez, Rosemary J Burnett, Symplice Mbola Mbassi, Fred Were, Andrew Musyoki, Daisy Trovoada, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Several African countries have recently introduced or are currently introducing the HPV vaccine, either nationwide or through demonstration projects, while some countries are planning for introduction. A collaborative project was developed to strengthen country adolescent immunisation programmes and health systems in the African Region, addressing unique public health considerations of HPV vaccination: adolescents as the primary target group, delivery platforms (e.g. school-based and facility based), socio-behavioural issues, and the opportunity to deliver other health interventions alongside HPV vaccination...
December 2017: Papillomavirus Research
Nick Busing, Jay Rosenfield, Kamal Rungta, Matt Raegele, Andrew Warren, Bruce Wright, Mark Walton, Ivy Oandasan, Anthony Sanfilippo, Anurag Saxena
In 2010 the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, Collège des médecins du Québec, College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada launched The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project to examine postgraduate medical education (PGME) in Canada and make recommendations for improvement. One recommendation that emerged concerns the transitions learners experience across the undergraduate medical education-PGME-practice continuum...
November 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Danielle S Roubinov, Melissa J Hagan, W Thomas Boyce, Marilyn J Essex, Nicole R Bush
Entry into kindergarten is a developmental milestone that children may differentially experience as stressful, with implications for variability in neurobiological functioning. Guided by the goodness-of-fit framework, this study tested the hypothesis that kindergarten children's (N = 338) daily cortisol would be affected by the "match" or "mismatch" between children's temperament and qualities of the classroom relational context. The robustness of these associations was also explored among a separate sample of children in third grade (N = 165)...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
Fiona Shannon, Astrid Sasse, Helen Sheridan, Michael Heinrich
BACKGROUND: The Schools' Folklore Scheme (1937-1939) was implemented at a pivotal time in Irelands' political history. It resulted in a body of ethnological information that is unique in terms of when, why and how it was collected. This material consists of over 700,000 pages of information, including ethnomedicinal and ethnobotanical traditions, reflecting an oral identity that spans generations and that in many cases was not documented in writing until the 1930s. The intention of this study is to highlight the importance of the Schools' Folklore Scheme and to demonstrate an ethnographic approach based on recollections of original participants of the scheme, to further understand the material in the collection and the impact it had on the participants...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Zuzana Chladná
The recent measles outbreaks in US and Germany emphasize the importance of sustaining and increasing vaccination rates. In Slovakia, despite mandatory vaccination scheme, decrease in the vaccination rates against measles has been observed in recent years. Different kinds of intervention at the state level, like a law making vaccination a requirement for school entry or education and advertising seem to be the only strategies to improve vaccination coverage. This study aims to analyze the economic effectiveness of intervention in Slovakia...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Vilanice Alves de Araújo Püschel, Dafeni Costa, Priscila Patrício Reis, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Fábio da Costa Carbogim
OBJECTIVE: to characterize nurses graduated from the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo, from 2006 to 2012; verify their entry, facilitating factors and difficulties of these graduates in the labor market and to consider their skills and competences in the world of work. METHOD: an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach. RESULTS: out of 505 graduates, 172 (34.1%) participated in the research. Entry into the labor market was mainly via public hospital institutions, in the SE of Brazil, in the caregiving sectors...
November 2017: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Nicole G Nahmod, Soomi Lee, Orfeu M Buxton, Anne-Marie Chang, Lauren Hale
OBJECTIVES: High school start times are a key contributor to insufficient sleep. This study investigated associations of high school start times with bedtime, wake time, and time in bed among urban teenagers. DESIGN: Daily-diary study nested within the prospective Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. SETTING: Twenty US cities. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred thirteen teenagers who completed ≥1 daily diary report on a school day...
December 2017: Sleep Health
Taryn W Morrissey, Katie Vinopal
Neighborhoods provide resources that may affect children's achievement or moderate the influences of other developmental contexts, such as early care and education (ECE). Using a sample (N ≈ 12,430) from the 2010-2011 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort, merged with census tract-level poverty data from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey, this article examines associations between center-based ECE participation, neighborhood poverty, and children's academic skills and behavior at kindergarten entry...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
John M Hutson, Jaya Vikraman, Ruili Li, Joergen Thorup
Undescended testis (UDT) occurs when something goes wrong with testicular descent from high in the abdominal cavity to the scrotum. Normal descent occurs in two steps, with the transabdominal phase controlled by a new testicular hormone, insulin-like hormone 3, and the inguinoscrotal phase controlled by androgens. The latter phase requires a complex process of migration from the inguinal abdominal wall to the scrotum and is commonly defective, leading to the high incidence (2-4%) of UDT at birth. The clinical examination of babies and infants aims to confirm the persistence of congenital UDT by 3-6 months, so surgery can be optimally timed at 6-12 months...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
E Gill
Public Health England facilitates national epidemiological surveys of five-year-olds to monitor oral health, both locally and nationally. Positive consent for participation in surveys such as these was introduced in 2006 following guidance from the Department of Health. Following this change, consent rates have fallen slightly. Bradford, a city in West Yorkshire in the north of England, has actively tried to encourage an increase in consent rates. In the 2014/15 survey several measures were implemented to encourage parents to return their consent forms in order to increase consent levels...
November 10, 2017: Community Dental Health
Riyad B Abu-Laban, Ian M Scott, Margot C Gowans
Background: Canada has two independent routes of emergency medicine (EM) training and certification. This unique situation may encourage medical students with EM career aspirations to apply to family medicine (FM) residencies to subsequently acquire College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) training and certification in EM. We sought answers to the following: 1) Are medical students who indicate EM as their top career choice on medical school entry, and then complete a FM residency, more likely to undertake subsequent CFPC-EM training than other FM residents who did not indicate EM as their top career choice; and 2) What are the characteristics of medical students in four predefined groups, based upon their early interest in EM as a career and ultimate postgraduate training disposition...
June 2017: Canadian Medical Education Journal
Nathan S Gollehon, R Brent Stansfield, Larry D Gruppen, Lisa Colletti, Hilary Haftel, James O Woolliscroft, Monica L Lypson
BACKGROUND : Although there is some consensus about the competencies needed to enter residency, the actual skills of graduating medical students may not meet expectations. In addition, little is known about the association between undergraduate medical education and clinical performance at entry into and during residency. OBJECTIVE : We explored the association between medical school of origin and clinical performance using a multi-station objective structured clinical examination for incoming residents at the University of Michigan Health System...
October 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
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