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School entry

Stanley M Kozakowski, Alexandra Travis, Julie P Marcinek, Ashley Bentley, Gerald T Fetter
This annual report is an expansion on previous reports in this series that provides further evidence that the current medical school system is failing, collectively, to produce the primary care workforce that is needed to achieve optimal health in the United States. Inclusion of data on the performance of DO-granting and international medical schools, creates a more complete and complex picture of the contribution of all medical school types to the primary care workforce that should allow stakeholders to set goals, identify institutions with models from which to learn, and develop strategies for continuous improvement...
October 2017: Family Medicine
Lauren Gaydosh
This article used data from the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Tanzania to examine the influence of parental non-residence on child survival and school entry. Using survival analysis methods, the article tested variations by parent and by cause, examining parental death, non-residence due to parental relationship status, and migration. In general, maternal non-residence was more consequential for child survival, while paternal non-residence influences school entry. This is consistent with gendered parenting patterns in the setting...
October 2017: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Anne Case, Angus Deaton
We build on and extend the findings in Case and Deaton (2015) on increases in mortality and morbidity among white non-Hispanic Americans in midlife since the turn of the century. Increases in all-cause mortality continued unabated to 2015, with additional increases in drug overdoses, suicides, and alcohol-related liver mortality, particularly among those with a high-school degree or less. The decline in mortality from heart disease has slowed and, most recently, stopped, and this combined with the three other causes is responsible for the increase in all-cause mortality...
2017: Brookings Papers on Economic Activity
Joshua Amo-Adjei, Michael Mutua, Sherine Athero, Chimaraoke Izugbara, Alex Ezeh
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we reflect on our experiences of implementing a multipronged intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The project used family planning as its entry point and was implemented in two high fertility counties-Busia and Siaya in Kenya. The intervention, implemented by a seven-member consortium, involved: family planning services delivery; regular training of service providers to deliver high quality services; monitoring and evaluation; strengthening of commodity chain delivery and forecasting; school-based and out-of-school based sexuality education; and advocacy and stakeholder engagements at the community, county and national levels...
October 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Josef Weigl
Background The Plöner Model is a stepwise-selective model, similar to the one practised in all of Bavaria since 2008. It was already developed in 2002/2003 for the school entry screening and has been in use since then. Such models are intermittently criticized since not each child is seen by a doctor. Methods The procedure and data of the Plöner Model are analyzed and put into a wider context within Germany and beyond. The current programs in place are therefore categorized into 3 groups and compared with regard to public heath ethics criteria...
October 9, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
Heribert Stich, Kristin Maria Schlinkmann, Rafael Mikolajczyk
Aim of the study Evaluation of the concurrent validity of a modified Bavarian model (BM) compared to the social-paediatric screening of developmental status for school entry (SOPESS) as a reference tool. Methods A total of 407 preschoolers to be enrolled for the school year 2015 in an Upper Bavarian District were examined by BM and SOPESS. As a measure of the concurrent validity, the Kappa by Cohen (ĸ) was used. Results The agreement of both instruments was moderate and was less pronounced for single dimensions than globally...
October 9, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
Robert A Salata, Mark W Geraci, Don C Rockey, Melvin Blanchard, Nancy J Brown, Lucien J Cardinal, Maria Garcia, Michael P Madaio, James D Marsh, Robert F Todd
The U.S. physician-scientist (PS) workforce is invaluable to the nation's biomedical research effort. It is through biomedical research that certain diseases have been eliminated, cures for others have been discovered, and medical procedures and therapies that save lives have been developed. Yet, the U.S. PS workforce has both declined and aged over the last several years. The resulting decreased inflow and outflow to the PS pipeline renders the system vulnerable to collapsing suddenly as the senior workforce retires...
October 3, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Ashley Darcy-Mahoney, Bonnie Minter, Melinda Higgins, Ying Guo, Lauren Head Zauche, Jessica Hirst
Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enables early intervention that improves long term functioning of children with ASD but is often delayed until age of school entry. Few studies have identified factors that affect timely diagnosis. This study addressed how maternal education, race, age, marital status as well as neonatal birth factors affect the age at which a child is diagnosed with ASD. This study involved a retrospective analysis of 664 records of children treated at one of the largest autism treatment centers in the United States from March 1, 2009 to December 30, 2010...
December 2016: Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews: NAINR
Stephanie Vanclooster, Johan Bilsen, Lieve Peremans, Jutte Van der Werff Ten Bosch, Geneviève Laureys, Elsie Willems, Sophie Genin, Patrick Van Bogaert, Philippe Paquier, Anna Jansen
Reintegration into school is a milestone for childhood brain tumor survivors, as well as for their parents, teachers, and healthcare providers. We explored their experiences following the school re-entry by conducting semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in four main themes: "school performance," "psychosocial well-being," "support and approach," and "communication and collaboration." Children were pleased to return to school despite confrontation with adverse outcomes. Parents, teachers, and healthcare providers identified current and future concerns and challenges, as well as opportunities for academic and personal development...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
Daniel Fulford, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, John M Kane, Nina R Schooler, Kim T Mueser
Diminished motivation is associated with robust impairment in psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia (SZ). Little is known about the reciprocal relationships between motivation and functioning, particularly following a first episode of psychosis. We tested bidirectional associations between motivation and social and occupational functioning in the year following a first episode of SZ spectrum disorder among patients in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study...
August 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Rebecca S Y Wong, Heng Loke Siow, Vinoth Kumarasamy, Nazrila Shaherah Fadhlullah Suhaimi
INTRODUCTION: The learner-centred approach in medical and health sciences education makes the study of learning preferences relevant and important. This study aimed to investigate the interdisciplinary, inter-institutional, gender and racial differences in the preferred learning styles among Malaysian medical and health sciences students in three Malaysian universities, namely SEGi University (SEGi), University of Malaya (UM) and Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR). It also investigated the differences in the preferred learning styles of these students between high achievers and non-high achievers...
October 2017: Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
Ulrike Igel, Ruth Gausche, Martina Lück, Tobias Lipek, Ulrike Spielau, Maria Garz, Wieland Kiess, Gesine Grande
Health problems such as obesity are increasingly addressed by complex intervention programmes which operate at multiple levels of influence (e.g. families, schools, neighbourhoods) involving partners from various academic, professional and cultural backgrounds. Following a complex participatory health promotion approach is challenging, because conflicting interests as well as contextual constraints may occur which are rarely discussed empirically. Process evaluations of some programmes investigate factors influencing the implementation process...
August 23, 2017: Health Promotion International
Gabrielle Garon-Carrier, Michel Boivin, Yulia Kovas, Bei Feng, Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Jean R Séguin, Richard E Tremblay, Ginette Dionne
This study investigated the stable and transient genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in number knowledge in the transition from preschool (age 5) to Grade 1 (age 7) and to the predictive association between early number knowledge and later math achievement (age 10-12). We conducted genetic simplex modeling across these three time points. Genetic variance was transmitted from preschool number knowledge to late-elementary math achievement; in addition, significant genetic innovation (i...
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
Jorge Casseb, Luiz Augusto M Fonseca, Alberto Duarte
Despite the difficulties to follow and retain patients for a long time in the public health service, special programs may bring about increased chances of survival and better quality of life, as well as higher rates of retention in care; this is also true for middle-income developing countries such as Brazil. Our relatively small outpatient service (~500 HIV-infected patients) may not mirror the reality encountered in other settings, including São Paulo city, but retention and high quality of care may improve rates of virologic success, even in poorer settings...
October 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
M Jane McDaniel, Ted J Ruback
The physician assistant (PA) profession's first attempt to characterize the applicant pool for PA education began with publication of the first Annual Report on Physician Assistant Educational Programs in the United States in 1985. The methodology used in the report was limited, however, in identifying the number of unique applicants to PA programs. Collecting accurate and reliable data on the profession's applicant pool was the primary motivator leading to initiation of the Central Application Service for Physician Assistants (CASPA) in 2001...
October 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
Patricia A Wisenden, Katherine J Budke, Chelsea J Klemetson, Tana R Kurtti, Chandi M Patel, Trenda L Schwantz, Brian D Wisenden
Introduction The most effective way to learn human anatomy is through cadaver dissection. Historically, cadaver dissection has been the provenance of professional schools. Increasingly, cadaver-based courses in human anatomy are shifting to the undergraduate level, which creates both problems and opportunities because of differences between undergraduate and graduate student populations. Anxiety associated with dissecting cadavers can create a barrier to learning, and ultimately, entry into the health and medical sciences for some demographic subpopulations of undergraduates...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
Alexandra Papandreou, Matthias Bopp, Julia Braun, Kaspar Staub, David Faeh
OBJECTIVES: Excess body weight is a major public health concern already at a young age. The aim of this study was to track weight status among pupils aged 6-14 years in the City of Zurich, to examine the association between sociodemographic and environmental factors and excess weight at school entry and excess weight gain thereafter. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Data were from the medical examinations routinely performed at public schools in Zurich, the largest city in Switzerland...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Berna Akcinar, Daniel S Shaw
In the current study, we explored associations between parent-child coercion and positive parenting in the toddler period in relation to children's social-behavioral development during the school-age period. The data were drawn from the Pitt Mother & Child Project, a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys. Drawing on tenets of both attachment and social learning theory, it was hypothesized that coercive mother-son interaction would lead to reductions in positive maternal parenting in the toddler period, and that both positive parenting and mother-son coercion in the toddler period would contribute to children's conduct problems at school entry and lower social skills and peer rejection in middle childhood...
September 21, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Elizabeth Woodburn Cavadel, Douglas A Frye
The current study investigated the role of theory of mind development in school readiness among 120 low-income preschool and kindergarten children. A short-term longitudinal design was used to examine relations among theory of mind, the understanding of teaching, and learning behaviors and their collective role in children's literacy and numeracy skills at school entry. Results replicate differences in theory of mind development among low-income children as compared to typically studied, higher-income samples...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
Zahra Esmaeeli, Kjersti Lundetrae, Fiona E Kyle
Research has linked family risk (FR) of reading difficulties (RD) with children's difficulties in emergent literacy development. This study is the first to apply parents' self-report of RD as a proxy for FR in a large sample (n = 1171) in order to test group differences in children's emergent literacy. Emergent literacy, the home literacy environment and children's interest in literacy and letters were compared across different groups of FR children around the school entry. The FR children performed lower in emergent literacy compared with not-FR children...
September 18, 2017: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
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