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School entry

Matthew Blake, Joanna M Waloszek, Orli Schwartz, Monika Raniti, Julian G Simmons, Laura Blake, Greg Murray, Ronald E Dahl, Richard Bootzin, Paul Dudgeon, John Trinder, Nicholas B Allen
Objective: Sleep problems are a major risk factor for the emergence of mental health problems in adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the post intervention effects of a cognitive-behavioral/mindfulness-based group sleep intervention on sleep and mental health among at-risk adolescents. Method: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted across High schools in Melbourne, Australia. One hundred forty-four adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with high levels of anxiety and sleeping difficulties, but without past or current depressive disorder, were randomized into either a sleep improvement intervention or an active control 'study skills' intervention...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Anita Kozyrskyj, Nicole Letourneau, Liane Kang, Mahin Salmani
BACKGROUND: Affecting 19% of women, postpartum depression is a major concern to the immediate health of mothers and infants. In the longterm, it has been linked to the development of early-onset asthma at school entry, but only if the depression persists beyond the postnatal period. No studies have tested whether associations with postpartum depressive symptoms and early-onset asthma phenotypes persist into later school age. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and childhood asthma between the ages of 5-10 by using a nested longitudinal design...
October 22, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Marie A Chisholm-Burns, Justin Gatwood, Christina A Spivey, Susan E Dickey
Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results...
September 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Jennifer D H Walthall, Aaron Burgess, Elizabeth Weinstein, Charles Miramonti, Thomas Arkins, Sarah Wiehe
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe spatiotemporal correlates of pediatric violent injury in an urban community. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using patient-level data (2009-2011) from a novel emergency medical service computerized entry system for violent injury resulting in an ambulance dispatch among children aged 0 to 16 years. Assault location and patient residence location were cleaned and geocoded at a success rate of 98%. Distances from the assault location to both home and nearest school were calculated...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Stanley M Kozakowski, Alexandra Travis, Ashley Bentley, Gerald Fetter
This is the 35th national study conducted by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) that reports retrospectively the percentage of graduates from MD-granting and DO-granting medical schools who entered Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited family medicine residency programs as first-year residents. Approximately 8.7% of the 18,929 students graduating from US MD-granting medical schools and 15.5% of the 5,314 students graduating from DO-granting medical schools between July 2014 and June 2015 entered an ACGME family medicine residency in 2015...
October 2016: Family Medicine
Cynthia J Willner, Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Bethany C Bray
High rates of comorbidity are observed between internalizing and externalizing problems, yet the developmental dynamics of comorbid symptom presentations are not yet well understood. This study explored the developmental course of latent profiles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms across kindergarten, first grade, and second grade. The sample consisted of 336 children from an urban, low-income community, selected based on relatively high (61%) or low (39%) aggressive/oppositional behavior problems at school entry (64% male; 70% African American, 20% Hispanic)...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Timothy F Leslie, Erica J Street, Paul L Delamater, Y Tony Yang, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: To compile substate-level data on US school-age children's vaccination rates. METHODS: For states that did not have suitable data online, in 2015 we submitted information requests to the state health department and followed up with the state's Freedom of Information Act when necessary. RESULTS: The accessibility, scale, and types of vaccination data varied considerably. Whereas 26 states provided data online, 14 released data only after a Freedom of Information Act request...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Robert Li Kitts, Kyle John Koleoglou, Jennifer Elysia Holland, Eliza Haapaniemi Hutchinson, Quincy Georgdie Nang, Clare Marie Mehta, Chau Minh Tran, Laurie Newman Fishman
BACKGROUND: Research assistants (RAs) are hired at academic centers to staff the research and quality improvement projects that advance evidence-based medical practice. Considered a transient population, these young professionals may view their positions as stepping-stones along their path to graduate programs in medicine or public health. OBJECTIVE: To address the needs of these future health professionals, a novel program-Program for Research Assistant Development and Achievement (PRADA)-was developed to facilitate the development of desirable professional skill sets (ie, leadership, teamwork, communication) through participation in peer-driven service and advocacy initiatives directed toward the hospital and surrounding communities...
November 2, 2015: JMIR Med Educ
Ranee Seither, Kayla Calhoun, Jenelle Mellerson, Cynthia L Knighton, Erica Street, Vance Dietz, J Michael Underwood
State-mandated vaccination requirements for school entry protect children and communities against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). Each school year, federally funded immunization programs (e.g., states, territories, jurisdictions) collect and report kindergarten vaccination data to CDC. This report describes vaccination coverage estimates in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), and the estimated number of kindergartners with at least one vaccine exemption in 47 states and DC, during the 2015-16 school year...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Annetta Smith, Michelle Beattie, Richard G Kyle
AIM: To develop a model of pre-nursing experience from evaluation of a pre-nursing scholarship for school pupils in Scotland. DESIGN: Action research study. METHODS: School pupils (n = 42) completed questionnaire surveys and participated in anecdote circles. Student nurses acting as pupil 'buddies' (n = 33) participated in focus groups. Descriptive quantitative data and thematic analyses of qualitative data were integrated across cohorts and campuses...
November 2015: Nurs Open
Chekib Zedini, Manel Limam, Meriem El Ghardallou, Manel Mellouli, Karim Sahouda, Iheb Bougmiza, Ali Mtiraoui, Thouraya Ajmi
Background Overweight in schools is a worrisome public health problem because they increase medium and long term risks of morbidity and mortality especially with an increased risk of persistence of obesity in adulthood. Aim To estimate the prevalence of overweight among school children and to identify its associated risk factors. Methods this is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among school students aged less than 18 years in the area of "Hazoua" (Tozeur). The references of BMI used for overweight and obesity are those of IOTF...
April 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Dudith Pierre-Victor, Timothy F Page, Mary Jo Trepka, Dionne P Stephens, Tan Li, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: The link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital cancers is well established in the literature. Many states have passed laws requiring funding for HPV education or vaccination. Mandatory HPV vaccination policies have been considered and passed in several states; yet their effectiveness has not been evaluated. This study sought to assess the impact of Virginia's HPV vaccine mandate for school-entry on HPV vaccine uptake among females aged 13-17 years. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen for the 2008-2012 period were used, and 3,203 adolescent females were included in the analysis...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Quinn Capers, Daniel Clinchot, Leon McDougle, Anthony G Greenwald
PROBLEM: Implicit white race preference has been associated with discrimination in the education, criminal justice, and health care systems and could impede the entry of African Americans into the medical profession, where they and other minorities remain underrepresented. Little is known about implicit racial bias in medical school admissions committees. APPROACH: To measure implicit racial bias, all 140 members of the Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM) admissions committee took the black-white implicit association test (IAT) prior to the 2012-2013 cycle...
September 27, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Dipanwita Sarkar, Jayanta Sarkar
The health impact of attending early childhood development programs in developing countries remains largely unknown. In this study, we focus on the health consequences of attending preschool programs in India. Using a unique longitudinal dataset, we allow for heterogeneity in the impact of preschool across the distribution of health outcomes while controlling for time-invariant unobservables. We detect unique temporal variation in the effect of preschool attendance - growth of preschool attendees is slower than non-attendees in various parts of the distributions of several anthropometric measures when evaluated in the early years between ages 1 and 5...
September 21, 2016: Health Economics
Katie E Whiteside, Debbie Gooch, Courtenay F Norbury
Children learning English as an additional language (EAL) often experience lower academic attainment than monolingual peers. In this study, teachers provided ratings of English language proficiency and social, emotional, and behavioral functioning for 782 children with EAL and 6,485 monolingual children in reception year (ages 4-5). Academic attainment was assessed in reception and Year 2 (ages 6-7). Relative to monolingual peers with comparable English language proficiency, children with EAL displayed fewer social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties in reception, were equally likely to meet curriculum targets in reception, and were more likely to meet targets in Year 2...
September 20, 2016: Child Development
Paul A Tiffin, Lazaro M Mwandigha, Lewis W Paton, H Hesselgreaves, John C McLachlan, Gabrielle M Finn, Adetayo S Kasim
BACKGROUND: The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) has been shown to have a modest but statistically significant ability to predict aspects of academic performance throughout medical school. Previously, this ability has been shown to be incremental to conventional measures of educational performance for the first year of medical school. This study evaluates whether this predictive ability extends throughout the whole of undergraduate medical study and explores the potential impact of using the test as a selection screening tool...
2016: BMC Medicine
L Baux-Cazal, E Gokalsing, S Amadeo, A Messiah
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. METHODS: We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted"...
September 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Sharon Goldfeld, Amanda Kvalsvig, Emily Incledon, Meredith O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Until now, child mental health promotion efforts have focused primarily on reducing the prevalence and severity of problems; yet the absence of mental health problems does not necessarily imply the presence of healthy psychosocial functioning. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of child mental health competence in a full national population of school entrants. METHODS: The data source was the 2012 Australian Early Development Index, a national census of early childhood development completed for school entrants by teachers across Australia (n=275 800)...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Michael F Urban, Leana Olivier, Jacobus G Louw, Chanelle Lombard, Denis L Viljoen, Fiona Scorgie, Matthew F Chersich
BACKGROUND: Mixed ancestry populations in South Africa have amongst the highest rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) worldwide. Defining the drinking patterns of women with a FAS child guides FAS preventive interventions. METHODS: Data were drawn from FAS prevalence surveys conducted in three districts: Witzenberg (Cape Winelands), Frances Baard (inland mining town) and Saldanha Bay (coastal towns). 156 mothers and 50 proxy informants of school-entry children diagnosed with FAS and partial-FAS were interviewed, and compared with 55 controls recruited in Saldanha Bay...
September 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Judith van der Waerden, Jonathan Y Bernard, Maria De Agostini, Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles, Hugo Peyre, Barbara Heude, Maria Melchior
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored. METHODS: One thousand thirty-nine mother-child pairs from the French EDEN mother-child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based on Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores assessed at six timepoints, longitudinal maternal depressive symptom trajectories were calculated with a group-based semiparametric method...
September 7, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
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