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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470499/unveiling-relationships-between-crime-and-property-in-england-and-wales-via-density-scale-adjusted-metrics-and-network-tools
#1
Haroldo V Ribeiro, Quentin S Hanley, Dan Lewis
Scale-adjusted metrics (SAMs) are a significant achievement of the urban scaling hypothesis. SAMs remove the inherent biases of per capita measures computed in the absence of isometric allometries. However, this approach is limited to urban areas, while a large portion of the world's population still lives outside cities and rural areas dominate land use worldwide. Here, we extend the concept of SAMs to population density scale-adjusted metrics (DSAMs) to reveal relationships among different types of crime and property metrics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468602/time-series-disturbance-detection-for-hypothesis-free-signal-detection-in-longitudinal-observational-databases
#2
Ed Whalen, Manfred Hauben, Andrew Bate
INTRODUCTION: Signal detection remains a cornerstone activity of pharmacovigilance. Routine quantitative signal detection primarily focuses on screening of spontaneous reports. In striving to enhance quantitative signal detection capability further, other data streams are being considered for their potential contribution as sources of emerging signals, one of which is longitudinal observational databases, including electronic medical record (EMR) and transactional insurance claims databases...
February 21, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454734/management-of-arthropod-vector-data-social-and-ecological-dynamics-facing-the-one-health-perspective
#3
REVIEW
Giovanni Benelli, Mary Frances Duggan
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are spread by direct and/or indirect contacts between a pathogen or parasite and their hosts. Arthropod vectors have evolved as excellent bloodsuckers, providing an elegant transportation mode for a wide number of infectious agents. The nature of pathogen and parasite transfer and the models used to predict how a disease might spread are magnified in complexity when an arthropod vector is part of the disease cycle. One Health is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment...
February 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449105/comparing-cryptomarkets-for-drugs-a-characterisation-of-sellers-and-buyers-over-time
#4
Meropi Tzanetakis
INTRODUCTION: Cryptomarkets operating on the darknet are a recent phenomenon that has gained importance only over the last couple of years (Barratt, 2012). However, they now constitute an evolving part of illicit drug markets. Although selling and buying a variety of psychoactive substances on the Internet has a long history, new technological developments enable systematic drug trading on the net.These technological innovations on the Internet allow users to proceed with (illicit) drug transactions with almost completely anonymous identities and locations...
February 12, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447278/an-increasing-trend-of-rural-infections-of-human-influenza-a-h7n9-from-2013-to-2017-a-retrospective-analysis-of-patient-exposure-histories-in-zhejiang-province-china
#5
Enfu Chen, Maggie H Wang, Fan He, Riyang Sun, Wei Cheng, Benny C Y Zee, Steven Y F Lau, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ka Chun Chong
BACKGROUND: Although investigations have shown that closing live poultry markets (LPMs) is highly effective in controlling human influenza A (H7N9) infections, many of the urban LPMs were shut down, but rural LPMs remained open. This study aimed to compare the proportional changes between urban and rural infections in the Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2017 by analyzing the exposure histories of human cases. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 from 2013 (the first wave) to 2017 (the fifth wave) in the Zhejiang province of China were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435116/the-inhibition-of-plc%C3%AE-1-protects-chondrocytes-against-osteoarthritis-implicating-its-binding-to-akt
#6
Heguo Cai, Ning Qu, Xiaolei Chen, Yang Zhou, Xinpeng Zheng, Bing Zhang, Chun Xia
Previous studies have addressed the involvement of phosphoinositide-specifc phospholipase γ1 (PLCγ1) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, but it is not ascertained the possibility of them to be potential targets for OA therapy. Here, through local intra-articular injection of PLCγ or Akt inhibitor in a rat OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transaction plus medial meniscus resection, the architecture of chondrocyte and matrix organization of articular cartilage were observed using histopathological assays and Aggrecan, Col2, PLCγ1, and Akt levels were detected using immunohistochemistry assays...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428578/treatment-practices-of-households-and-antibiotic-dispensing-in-medicine-outlets-in-developing-countries-the-case-of-ghana
#7
Mary-Anne Ahiabu, Pascal Magnussen, Ib Christian Bygbjerg, Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance, associated with inappropriate drug use, is a global public health threat. The pharmaceutical sectors in developing countries are poorly regulated leading to antibiotic sales and use without a prescription. The study documents the treatment of acute illnesses in households and the antibiotic dispensing practices of medicine sales outlets in Eastern region, Ghana. METHOD: Twice-weekly illness recall visits were made to 12 households in three rural communities over eight consecutive weeks...
February 7, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425324/the-development-of-wisdom-a-social-ecological-approach
#8
Heidi Igarashi, Michael R Levenson, Carolyn M Aldwin
Objectives: This study examined the development of wisdom within the context of difficult life events (DLEs), and the importance of individuals and their social environments in this process of growth. Social support has long been studied in adulthood, yet less is known about the ways social transactions can promote wisdom. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with men (n = 14) and women (n = 36), ages 56-91 years (M = 71.71; SD = 8.8) who described a DLE and how they coped with it...
February 7, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422180/self-care-among-filipinos-in-the-united-states-who-have-hypertension
#9
Emerson E Ea, Alison Colbert, Melanie Turk, Victoria Vaughan Dickson
BACKGROUND: Despite the strong literature on the influence of self-care on hypertension (HTN) diagnosis, there is a notable lack of studies that explore self-care among Filipino immigrants in the United States (US) who have HTN. AIM: To determine the levels of and relationships between and among acculturation, acculturative stress, HTN self-efficacy, patient activation, and HTN self-care among first generation Filipino immigrants in the US who have HTN. DESIGN: A cross-sectional correlational design was used to determine the relationships between and among acculturation, acculturative stress, HTN self-efficacy, patient activation, and HTN self-care using the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping...
February 2018: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414490/assessing-market-competition-and-vendors-size-and-scope-on-alphabay
#10
Masarah Paquet-Clouston, David Décary-Hétu, Carlo Morselli
BACKGROUND: Since 2011, drug market participants have traded illegal drugs through cryptomarkets, a user-friendly infrastructure in which drug market participants can conduct business transactions. This study assesses market competition and the size and scope of drug vendors' activities on one of the largest cryptomarkets, AlphaBay, in order to better understand the challenges that drug vendors face when selling on this venue. METHODS: Relying on data collected from AlphaBay, we calculate the degree of competition within the drug market using the Herfindhal-Hirshmann Index (HHI)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414488/examining-social-supply-among-nonmedical-prescription-stimulant-users-in-the-san-francisco-bay-area
#11
Fiona Murphy, Sheigla Murphy, Paloma Sales, Nicholas Lau
In the US, prescription stimulants are prescribed for a variety of conditions including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Over the last two decades, dramatic increases in stimulant prescriptions have led to greater availability and increased risk for diversion and nonmedical use. Our own and other investigators' findings indicate that many drug "suppliers" do not fit into the traditional image of drug "dealers." These suppliers typically do not identify themselves as "dealers," but instead understand their drug distribution as sharing with people they know...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402759/health-information-technology-continues-to-show-positive-effect-on-medical-outcomes-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Clemens Scott Kruse, Amanda Beane
BACKGROUND: Health information technology (HIT) has been introduced into the health care industry since the 1960s when mainframes assisted with financial transactions, but questions remained about HIT's contribution to medical outcomes. Several systematic reviews since the 1990s have focused on this relationship. This review updates the literature. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to analyze the current literature for the impact of HIT on medical outcomes...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370820/quality-improvement-as-a-framework-for-behavior-change-interventions-in-hiv-predisposed-communities-a-case-of-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-northern-uganda
#13
Esther Karamagi, Simon Sensalire, Juliana Nabwire, John Byabagambi, Alfred O Awio, George Aluma, Mirwais Rahimzai, Jacqueline Calnan, Sheila Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: Despite the conventional approaches to HIV prevention being the bedrock for early reductions in HIV infections in Uganda, innovations that demonstrate reduction in risk to infection in vulnerable populations need to be embraced urgently. In the past 2 years, a USAID-funded project tested a quality improvement for behavior change model (QBC) to address barriers to behavioral change among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) at high risk of HIV infection. The model comprised skills building to improve ability of AGYW to stop risky behavior; setting up and empowering community quality improvement (QI) teams to mobilize community resources to support AGYW to stop risky behavior; and service delivery camps to provide HIV prevention services and commodities to AGYW and other community members...
January 25, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367012/consumer-agency-in-cannabis-supply-exploring-auto-regulatory-documents-of-the-cannabis-social-clubs-in-spain
#14
Vendula Belackova, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND: There is growing experience with the not-for-profit, consumer-driven cannabis social club (CSC) model that builds on self-supply, self-organization and harm-reduction; these are principles upon which people who use drugs (PWUD) have been engaging for decades. Recent legalization of cannabis in a number of jurisdictions and the related challenges in regulating production, sale, taxation and health-related matters have raised interest in non-commercial models of cannabis supply...
January 18, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361181/toward-understanding-person-place-transactions-in-neighborhoods-a-qualitative-participatory-geospatial-approach
#15
Carri L Hand, Debbie Laliberte Rudman, Suzanne Huot, Jason A Gilliland, Rachael L Pack
Background and Objectives: Emerging research regarding aging in neighborhoods emphasizes the importance of this context for well-being; however, in-depth information about the nature of person-place relationships is lacking. The interwoven and complex nature of person and place points to methods that can examine these relationships in situ and explore meanings attached to places. Participatory geospatial methods can capture situated details about place that are not verbalized during interviews or otherwise discerned, and qualitative methods can explore interpretations, both helping to generate deep understandings of the relationships between person and place...
January 18, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347984/the-effects-of-state-rules-on-opioid-prescribing-in-indiana
#16
Morhaf Al Achkar, Shaun Grannis, Debra Revere, Palmer MacKie, Meredith Howard, Sumedha Gupta
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioids have been linked to over half of the 28,000 opioid overdose deaths in 2014. High rates of prescription opioid non-medical use have continued despite nearly all states implementing large-scale prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP), which points to the need to examine the impact of state PDMP's on curbing inappropriate opioid prescribing. In the short-term, PDMPs have been associated with short-term prescribing declines. Yet little is known about how such policies differentially impact patient subgroups or are interpreted by prescribing providers...
January 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340508/-space-time-and-power-in-hospital-health-care-contributions-based-on-the-ethnography-of-an-obstetric-center
#17
María Guadalupe García, María Laura Recoder, Susana Margulies
This paper presents the results of an ethnographic study of an obstetric center within a hospital of Greater Buenos Aires and an analysis of the spatio-temporal dimension of hospital care. The fieldwork, carried out between 2007 and 2011, followed the everyday dynamics of the hospital and included observation in the obstetrics unit (waiting areas, the obstetric center where births and emergencies receive care, and the ambulatory care, ultrasound, and hospitalization rooms, among others) as well as spaces such as the appointments and statistics offices, the office of social services, the central hall, the pharmacy, and hallway waiting areas...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310630/youth-paying-for-sex-what-are-the-associated-factors-findings-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-cambodia
#18
Soaman Dizechi, Carinne Brody, Sovannary Tuot, Chhorvann Chhea, Vonthanak Saphonn, Kunthearith Yung, Sanh Kim, Siyan Yi
BACKGROUND: At-risk male youth in Cambodia who purchase sex are at greater risk for HIV compared to the general population. Factors associated with paying for sex among youth are poorly studied, both globally and in Cambodia. This study aimed to identify specific factors associated with transactional sex with women among most-at-risk male youth in Cambodia. METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with 405 sexually active male youth aged 16-24 recruited at 'hotspots' in the capital city of Phnom Penh and seven provinces...
January 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301612/communication-between-general-practitioners-and-the-emergency-medical-dispatch-centre-in-urgent-cases
#19
Hanne Beck Mieritz, Camilla Rønnow, Gitte Jørgensen, Søren Mikkelsen, Stine Thorhauge Zwisler
When general practitioners (GPs) order an ambulance, their calls are handled by staff at the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) who then select an appropriate response. There are currently no data evaluating this mode of communication between the GPs and the staff at the EMDC. 
METHODS: A retrospective study was performed based on evaluation of calls during which GPs requested a rapid response ambulance. Over a period of three months of 2014, 1,334 calls were included for evaluation according to specific parameters including a transactional analysis of the communication...
January 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294856/uncovering-indicators-of-commercial-sexual-exploitation
#20
Dawn Bounds, Kathleen R Delaney, Wrenetha Julion, Susan Breitenstein
It is estimated that annually 100,000 to 300,000 youth are at risk for sex trafficking; a commercial sex act induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or any such act where the person induced to perform such an act is younger than 18 years of age. Increasingly, such transactions are occurring online via Internet-based sites that serve the commercial sex industry. Commercial sex transactions involving trafficking are illegal; thus, Internet discussions between those involved must be veiled. Even so, transactions around sex trafficking do occur...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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