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Cavitary tuberculosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882294/cough-and-fever-in-an-immigrant-adolescent-with-abnormal-chest-x-ray
#1
Nicole Giles, Rajeev Bhatia
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide with 80,000 pediatric deaths annually. Disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is usually asymptomatic in pediatric patients and resolves after completion of standard therapy with isoniazid (INH). Rare reports document children greater than 10 years of age in endemic regions developing adult type cavitary disease, an infectious pulmonary tuberculosis lesion. This is a notable case of post-infectious pulmonary TB disease with adult type cavitation in an immigrant adolescent, which developed even after completing standard therapy with INH...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867565/changes-in-cholesterol-level-correlate-with-the-course-of-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#2
Ji Young Hong, Go Eun Yang, Yousang Ko, Yong Bum Park, Yun Su Sim, Sung Hoon Park, Chang Youl Lee, Ki-Suck Jung, Myung Goo Lee
BACKGROUND: Nutritional assessment is important in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. The therapeutic effect of a cholesterol-rich diet in tuberculosis (TB) patients has been demonstrated, but the role of cholesterol in PNTM disease is unclear. This study evaluated the sequential changes in nutritional markers, including cholesterol, total lymphocyte count and visceral fat volume, according to the PNTM disease course. METHODS: This was an age-, sex- and number of comorbid diseases-matched case-control analysis of 89 patients with PNTM disease and 356 controls, who were participants in a Korean national survey...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846812/predictors-of-hospitalization-of-tuberculosis-patients-in-montreal-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Lisa A Ronald, J Mark FitzGerald, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Boivin, Kevin Schwartzman, Gillian Bartlett-Esquilant, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization is the most costly health system component of tuberculosis (TB) control programs. Our objectives were to identify how frequently patients are hospitalized, and the factors associated with hospitalizations and length-of-stay (LOS) of TB patients in a large Canadian city. METHODS: We extracted data from the Montreal TB Resource database, a retrospective cohort of all active TB cases reported to the Montreal Public Health Department between January 1996 and May 2007...
November 15, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843856/induced-sputum-versus-bronchial-washings-in-the-diagnosis-of-sputum-negative-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#4
Gopathi Nageswar Rao, Mandava Venu, Namballa Usha Rani, Makala Sravani
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. Detecting patients with active pulmonary TB (PT) is an important component of TB control programs. However, at times in patients even with a compatible clinical picture, sputum smears do not reveal acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and smear-negative PT remains a common problem. This study compares the results of induced sputum (IS) and bronchial washings (BWs) in detecting sputum negative PT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, comprising 120 patients fulfilling study criteria...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776595/treatment-of-non-cavitary-pulmonary-tuberculosis-with-shortened-fluoroquinolone-based-regimens-a-meta-analysis
#5
N Alipanah, A Cattamanchi, R Menzies, P C Hopewell, R E Chaisson, P Nahid
SETTING: Several recent trials evaluating 4-month fluoroquinolone (FQ) containing regimens found that none of the experimental regimens were non-inferior to standard 6-month therapy in treating patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). OBJECTIVE: To answer whether FQ-containing duration-shortened regimens are non-inferior to standard therapy in the treatment of patients with non-cavitary PTB. DESIGN: Systematic review of all randomized and quasi-randomized trials that substituted an FQ into standard therapy for less than 6 months' duration to treat drug-susceptible, non-cavitary PTB...
November 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742461/association-of-pellicle-growth-morphological-characteristics-and-clinical-presentation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#6
Ranjana Arora, Lisa Armitige, Audrey Wanger, Robert L Hunter, Shen-An Hwang
Trehalose 6,6'dimycolate (TDM) is a glycolipid found in nearly pure form on the surface of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). This manuscript investigated the production of TDM, growth rate and colony morphology of multiple strains of MTB, each of which had been isolated from both pulmonary (sputum) and extrapulmonary sites of multiple patients. Since sputum contains MTB primarily from cavities and extrapulmonary biopsies are typically granulomas, this provided an opportunity to compare the behavior of single strains of MTB that had been isolated from cavities and granulomas...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729644/risk-factors-for-pulmonary-cavitation-in-tuberculosis-patients-from-china
#7
Liqun Zhang, Yu Pang, Xia Yu, Yufeng Wang, Jie Lu, Mengqiu Gao, Hairong Huang, Yanlin Zhao
Pulmonary cavitation is one of the most frequently observed clinical characteristics in tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with cavitary TB in China. A total of 385 smear-positive patients were enrolled in the study, including 192 (49.9%) patients with cavitation as determined by radiographic findings. Statistical analysis revealed that the distribution of patients with diabetes in the cavitary group was significantly higher than that in the non-cavitary group (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)):12...
October 12, 2016: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728916/lobar-collapse-therapy-using-endobronchial-valves-as-a-new-complementary-approach-to-treat-cavities-in-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-and-difficult-to-treat-tuberculosis-a-case-series
#8
Lorenzo Corbetta, Ariela Tofani, Flavio Montinaro, Lucio Michieletto, Loris Ceron, Chiara Moroni, Pier Giorgio Rogasi
BACKGROUND: The poor treatment outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of extensively drug-resistant TB and extremely and totally drug-resistant TB highlight the urgent need for new antituberculous drugs and other adjuvant treatment approaches. OBJECTIVES: We have treated cavitary tuberculosis by the application of endobronchial one-way valves (Zephyr®; Pulmonx Inc., Redwood City, Calif., USA) to induce lobar volume reduction as an adjunct to drug treatment...
2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717783/tuberculosis-diabetes-co-morbidity-is-characterized-by-heightened-systemic-levels-of-circulating-angiogenic-factors
#9
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A Menon, Vijay Viswanathan, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis-diabetes co-morbidity (TB-DM) is characterized by increased inflammation with elevated circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and other factors. Circulating angiogenic factors are intricately involved in the angiogenesis-inflammation nexus. METHODS: To study the association of angiogenic factors with TB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, VEGF-R3 in individuals with either TB-DM (n = 44) or TB alone (n = 44)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693292/predictors-and-patterns-of-weight-gain-during-treatment-for-tuberculosis-in-the-united-states-of-america
#10
Mimi N Phan, Elizabeth S Guy, Ruby N Nickson, Christina C Kao
OBJECTIVES: Patients with tuberculosis (TB) often present with weight loss. Lack of weight gain with TB treatment has been associated with treatment failure. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of weight gain in patients with TB and determine the disease characteristics that predict weight gain. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of adults with TB treated in a county health system in the USA. Demographic, clinical, radiographic, and microbiological data were recorded in addition to monthly weights during treatment...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651243/radiological-patterns-of-childhood-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-a-developed-country-a-single-institution-s-experience-on-217-255-cases
#11
Paolo Tomà, Laura Lancella, Laura Menchini, Roberta Lombardi, Aurelio Secinaro, Alberto Villani
The incidence of tuberculosis is increasing in the developed world and children in particular represent a high-risk group for developing the disease. The aim of this review is to analyse the spectrum of radiological signs as reported in the recent literature, in light of our series over a 15-year period, to pinpoint the most common radiological patterns in a developed country and to determine the role played by the different chest imaging techniques in diagnosis improvement. Lung TB was present in 217 out of 255 patients (85 %): 146 patients were under 5 years of age (76 under 2 years) and 71 over 5 years (41 over 10 years)...
September 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629062/factors-associated-with-smoking-among-tuberculosis-patients-in-spain
#12
María Ángeles Jiménez-Fuentes, Teresa Rodrigo, María Neus Altet, Carlos A Jiménez-Ruiz, Martí Casals, Antón Penas, Isabel Mir, Segismundo Solano Reina, Juan Antonio Riesco-Miranda, Joan A Caylá
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of smoking and analyze associated factors in a cohort of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) in Spain between 2006 and 2013. METHODS: Multicenter, cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study using a national database of TB patients, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We analyzed 5,846 cases (62 % men, mean age 39 years, 33 % foreigners)...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625459/cannon-ball-appearance-on-radiology-in-a-middle-aged-diabetic-female
#13
Ravish Kshatriya, Viral Patel, Sanjay Chaudhari, Purvesh Patel, Dhaval Prajapati, Nimit Khara, Rajiv Paliwal, Sateesh Patel
Pulmonary tuberculosis is commonly presented as cavitary lesion and infiltrations. It commonly involves upper lobe. Lower lobe involvement is less common. Various atypical presentations of tuberculosis on radiology are reported like mass, solitary nodule, multi lober involvement including lower lobes. Atypical presentations are more commo in patients with immunocompromised conditions like Diabetes Mellitus, anemia, renal failure, liver diseases, HIV infection, malignancy, patients on immunosuppressive therapy...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625444/comparative-study-of-clinico-bacterio-radiological-profile-and-treatment-outcome-of-smokers-and-nonsmokers-suffering-from-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#14
Deepti Rathee, Piyush Arora, Manoj Meena, Rohit Sarin, Pitambar Chakraborty, Anand Jaiswal, Mukesh Goyal
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide. Tobacco smoking has been linked as a risk factor for TB. This study was aimed to affirm the strength of association between smoking and pulmonary TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary TB patients aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled and followed-up until treatment completion. Two consecutive sputum smears were examined from each patient for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen technique...
September 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610260/postpartum-tuberculosis-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-challenge
#15
Vijay Kodadhala, Alemeshet Gudeta, Aklilu Zerihun, Odene Lewis, Sohail Ahmed, Jhansi Gajjala, Alicia Thomas
Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother's TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department...
2016: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583090/-tuberculous-pyopneumothorax-about-18-cases
#16
Souhi Hicham, El Ouazzani Hanane, Janah Hicham, Rhorfi Ismaïl, Abid Ahmed
Tuberculous pyopneumothorax is a rare but serious complication of evolutive pulmonary tuberculosis. We report a series of 18 cases with tuberculous pyopneumothorax admitted to the Pneumo-Phthisiology Department of the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital in Rabat between January 2005 and December 2009. Our study included 15 men and 3 women, the average age was 35 ± 7 years. 4 patients were diabetic. Smoking was found in 9 cases. Right-sided pneumothorax was found in 13 cases. Chest radiograph showed cavitary lesions in 15 patients and extensive bilateral lesions in 8 cases...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576025/-pneumonectomy-for-tuberculosis-destroyed-lung-a-series-of-26%C3%A2-operated-cases
#17
I Issoufou, R Sani, L Belliraj, F Z Ammor, A Moussa Ounteini, J Ghalimi, M Lakranbi, Y Ouadnouni, M Smahi
: Pneumonectomy keeps a greatest place in the treatment of tuberculosis lung destroyed despite high morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to analyze the results of pneumonectomy in the treatment of tuberculosis lung destroyed in our institution. METHOD: A retrospective study over a period of 5 years (2009 to 2014) was realized. Are involved in the study all patients admitted to the thoracic surgery department of CHU Hassan II with tuberculosis lung destroyed and operated during the study period...
October 2016: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482816/mouse-model-of-pulmonary-cavitary-tuberculosis-and-expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9
#18
Alvaro A Ordonez, Rokeya Tasneen, Supriya Pokkali, Ziyue Xu, Paul J Converse, Mariah H Klunk, Daniel J Mollura, Eric L Nuermberger, Sanjay K Jain
Cavitation is a key pathological feature of human tuberculosis (TB), and is a well-recognized risk factor for transmission of infection, relapse after treatment and the emergence of drug resistance. Despite intense interest in the mechanisms underlying cavitation and its negative impact on treatment outcomes, there has been limited study of this phenomenon, owing in large part to the limitations of existing animal models. Although cavitation does not occur in conventional mouse strains after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, cavitary lung lesions have occasionally been observed in C3HeB/FeJ mice...
July 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449998/effect-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-on-the-expression-of-mannose-receptor-dc-sign-and-autophagy-genes-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
K Afsal, P Selvaraj
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is a powerful immuno-modulator, which enhances expression of antimicrobial peptides and induces autophagy in monocytes/macrophages. Since 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the phagocytic potential of monocytes/macrophages, we have explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of receptors such as mannose receptor (CD206) and DC-SIGN (CD209) as well as autophagy genes such as ATG5 and Beclin-1 (BECN1) in monocytes/macrophages of healthy controls (HCs) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients with and without cavitary disease...
July 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379765/severe-early-onset-combined-immunodeficiency-due-to-heterozygous-gain-of-function-mutations-in-stat1
#20
Safa Baris, Fayhan Alroqi, Ayca Kiykim, Elif Karakoc-Aydiner, Ismail Ogulur, Ahmet Ozen, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Mustafa Bakır, Kaan Boztug, Talal A Chatila, Isil B Barlan
PURPOSE: Loss and gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in human signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) lead to distinct phenotypes. Although recurrent infections are common to both types of STAT1 mutations, GOF mutations are distinguished by chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmunity. However, the clinical spectra of STAT1 GOF mutations continue to expand. We here describe two patients with STAT1 GOF mutations presenting early in life with combined immunodeficiency (CID)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
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