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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449257/the-development-and-application-of-random-match-probabilities-to-firearm-and-toolmark-identification
#1
John E Murdock, Nicholas D K Petraco, John I Thornton, Michael T Neel, Todd J Weller, Robert M Thompson, James E Hamby, Eric R Collins
The field of firearms and toolmark analysis has encountered deep scrutiny of late, stemming from a handful of voices, primarily in the law and statistical communities. While strong scrutiny is a healthy and necessary part of any scientific endeavor, much of the current criticism leveled at firearm and toolmark analysis is, at best, misinformed and, at worst, punditry. One of the most persistent criticisms stems from the view that as the field lacks quantified random match probability data (or at least a firm statistical model) with which to calculate the probability of a false match, all expert testimony concerning firearm and toolmark identification or source attribution is unreliable and should be ruled inadmissible...
May 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444619/the-reference-cube-a-new-ballistic-model-to-generate-staining-in-firearm-barrels
#2
Christian Schyma, Kristina Bauer, Julia Brünig
After contact shots to the head biological traces can be found inside firearm barrels. So far silicone coated, gelatin filled box models were used to generate such staining according to the triple contrast method (mixture of acrylic paint, barium sulfate and blood sealed in a thin foil bag). This study was conducted to develop a transparent ballistic model allowing contact shots. Gelatin filled polyethylene bottles with and without a silicone coat were tested in comparison to non-covered gelatin blocks. Finally, thin foil bags of 5 cm × 5 cm dimension were glued on a synthetic absorbent kitchen wipe on top of which 1 L 10% gelatin solution was molded to create blocks of 8...
April 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444618/rna-dna-co-analysis-on-aged-bloodstains-from-adhesive-tapes-used-for-gunshot-residue-collection-from-hands
#3
Melanie Grabmüller, Christian Schyma, Burkhard Madea, Tim Eichhorst, Cornelius Courts
In cases of firearm related fatalities a systematic investigation at the scene of death is indispensable to differentiate between self-inflicted and homicidal gunshot injuries. A common method to preserve gunshot residues (GSR) is their collection using adhesive tapes. However, the biological material gathered at the same time by the tapes would be of special interest if backspatter, ejected from the entrance wound against the direction of fire, could be detected. In the present study we examined the success rate of co-analysis of RNA and DNA recovered from biological traces sampled with adhesive tapes...
April 25, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426482/legislative-strategies-to-reduce-the-toll-of-firearm-injuries-in-america
#4
John Maa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426478/advocating-for-a-sensible-firearm-injury-prevention-plan
#5
Peter T Masiakos, Andrew L Warshaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426305/us-public-opinion-on-carrying-firearms-in-public-places
#6
Julia A Wolfson, Stephen P Teret, Deborah Azrael, Matthew Miller
OBJECTIVES: To estimate US public opinion, overall and by gun ownership status, about the public places where legal gun owners should be allowed to carry firearms. METHODS: We fielded an online survey among 3949 adults, including an oversample of gun owners and veterans, in April 2015. We used cross-tabulations with survey weights to generate nationally representative estimates. RESULTS: Fewer than 1 in 3 US adults supported gun carrying in any of the specified venues...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426304/a-significant-and-quiet-threat-to-public-health-in-the-united-states-state-preemption
#7
Jennifer L Pomeranz, Mark Pertschuk
State and local governments traditionally protect the health and safety of their populations more strenuously than does the federal government. Preemption, when a higher level of government restricts or withdraws the authority of a lower level of government to act on a particular issue, was historically used as a point of negotiation in the legislative process. More recently, however, 3 new preemption-related issues have emerged that have direct implications for public health. First, multiple industries are working on a 50-state strategy to enact state laws preempting local regulation...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423460/individual-and-neighborhood-characteristics-of-children-seeking-emergency-department-care-for-firearm-injuries-within-the-pecarn-network
#8
Patrick M Carter, Lawrence J Cook, Michelle L Macy, Mark R Zonfrillo, Rachel M Stanley, James M Chamberlain, Joel A Fein, Elizabeth R Alpern, Rebecca Cunningham
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children seeking emergency care for firearm injuries within the PECARN network, and assess the influence of both individual and neighborhood factors on firearm-related injury risk. METHODS: This was a retrospective, multicenter cross-sectional analysis of children (<19-years-old) presenting to 16 pediatric EDs (2004-2008). ICD-9-CM E-codes were used to identify and categorize firearm injuries by mechanism/intent. Neighborhood variables were derived from home address data...
April 19, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422921/population-based-estimate-of-trauma-related-deaths-for-law-enforcement-personnel-risks-for-death-are-higher-and-increasing-over-time
#9
Alexander L Eastman, Michael W Cripps, Kareem R Abdelfattah, Kenji Inaba, Thomas G Weiser, David A Spain, Kristan L Staudenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Trauma-related deaths remain an important public health problem. One group susceptible to death due to traumatic mechanisms is U.S. Law Enforcement (LE). We hypothesized that LE officers experienced a higher chance of violent death compared to the general U.S. population and that risks have increased over time. METHODS: The National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) is a population-based survey of occupational deaths...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418431/body-burdens-sources-and-interrelations-of-selected-toxic-and-essential-elements-among-the-nine-cree-first-nations-of-eeyou-istchee-james-bay-region-of-northern-quebec-canada
#10
Evert Nieboer, Ian D Martin, Eric N Liberda, Eric Dewailly, Elizabeth Robinson, Leonard J S Tsuji
BACKGROUND: this article constitutes a report on the comprehensive Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii multi-community environment-and-health study conducted among the Cree peoples (Eeyouch) of northern Quebec, Canada. OBJECTIVES: to interpret observed concentrations of a suite of chemical elements in a multi-media biological monitoring study in terms of sources and predictors. METHODS: the concentrations of 5 essential and 6 toxic chemical elements were measured in whole blood, and/or in urine or hair by ICP-MS...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414392/firearm-injury-prevention-the-role-of-the-clinician
#11
M Denise Dowd
More than 2,500 people younger than age 20 years die due to a firearm injury annually in the United States, and thousands more suffer injuries that are nonfatal. With nearly one firearm for every American in the US, exposure to a gun at some point during childhood or adolescence is highly likely. The high number of fatalities caused by firearms emphasizes the importance of primary prevention. This article calls on pediatricians to use their advantage as child development experts to discuss firearm injury prevention in clinical practice via a pragmatic and nonjudgmental approach...
April 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410567/farm-suicides-in-new-zealand-2007-2015-a-review-of-coroners-records
#12
Annette L Beautrais
OBJECTIVE: Economic recessions and severe weather events are often associated with increased suicide rates. The Global Dairy Crisis 2015/2016 led to an economic downturn in the New Zealand dairy farming industry and, coupled with droughts in some regions and floods in others, raised fears about increased suicide rates among farmers. However, little was known about suicides in the farming sector. This study reviews characteristics of recent farm-related suicides in New Zealand and assesses the extent to which financial stresses contributed to the deaths...
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402707/physicians-firearms-and-free-speech-overturning-florida-s-firearm-safety-gag-rule
#13
Wendy E Parmet, Jason A Smith, Matthew Miller
In February, the full U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit issued its long-awaited ruling in Wollschlaeger v. Governor, State of Florida, invalidating parts of Florida’s Firearm Owners’ Privacy Act (FOPA) and affirming that the First Amendment applies to the speech between physicians and..
April 12, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399354/epidemiology-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-shumadia-district-serbia-a-fifteen-year-retrospective-study
#14
Snežana Radovanović, Dragan Vasiljević, Mirjana Milosavljević, Ivana Simić-Vukomanović, Svetlana Radević, Nataša Mihailović, Sanja Kocić
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze epidemiological characteristics of suicide, as well as to emphasize possible risk factors. METHODS: This is a retrospective study, covering the period of fifteen years (1996-2010), which aims at discovering the relevant factors which have an influence on suicidal behaviour. This research uses the data from the documentation of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Serbia and Police Department in Kragujevac, hospitalization reports of patients treated at Psychiatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, as well as the medical records of patients treated at the Health Centre Kragujevac...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399080/-the-modeling-of-the-ricochet-shot-fired-from-a-light-weapon
#15
A O Gusentsov, V A Chuchko, E M Kil'dyushev, E V Tumanov
The objective of the present study was to choose the optimal method for the modeling of the glance of a bullet after hitting a target under conditions of the laboratory experiment. The study required the designing and construction of an original device for the modeling of the rebound effect of a light-firearm shot under experimental conditions. The device was tested under conditions of the laboratory experiment. The trials have demonstrated the possibility of using barriers of different weight and dimensions in the above device, their positioning and fixation depending on the purpose of the experiment, dynamic alteration of its conditions with due regard for the safety and security arrangements to protect the health and life of the experimenters without compromising the statistical significance and scientific validity of the results of the experiments...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398796/the-cost-of-firearm-violence-survivorship
#16
Bindu Kalesan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395357/development-of-the-safety-score-a-clinical-screening-tool-for-predicting-future-firearm-violence-risk
#17
Jason E Goldstick, Patrick M Carter, Maureen A Walton, Linda L Dahlberg, Steven A Sumner, Marc A Zimmerman, Rebecca M Cunningham
Background: Interpersonal firearm violence among youth is a substantial public health problem, and emergency department (ED) physicians require a clinical screening tool to identify high-risk youth. Objective: To derive a clinically feasible risk index for firearm violence. Design: 24-month prospective cohort study. Setting: Urban level 1 ED. Participants: Substance-using youths, age 14 to 24 years, seeking ED care for an assault-related injury and a proportionately sampled group of non-assault-injured youth enrolled from September 2009 through December 2011...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392030/an-unusual-exit-wound-as-a-result-of-a-shotgun-suicide-to-the-head
#18
S N Kunz
The location of a gunshot entrance wound as well as the wound path trajectory are the main findings that help to determine the position from which a weapon was fired and thus distinguish firearm suicides from homicides and accidents. We present a case of a 28-year old man, who was found dead in his car. Because of an unusual position of the firearm, which was clamped into the steering wheel, and an unclear entrance/exit wound, an autopsy was performed. The deceased showed typical signs of a contact shotgun wound to the head with an entrance wound in the right temporal region and an exit wound in the midface...
March 30, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389329/associations-between-active-shooter-incidents-and-gun-ownership-and-storage-among-families-with-young-children-in-the-united-states
#19
Taryn W Morrissey
The presence of firearms and their unsafe storage in the home can increase risk of firearm-related death and injury, but public opinion suggests that firearm ownership is a protective factor against gun violence. This study examined the effects of a recent nearby active shooter incident on gun ownership and storage practices among families with young children. A series of regression models, with data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort merged with the FBI's Active Shooter Incidents data collected in 2003-2006, were used to examine whether household gun ownership and storage practices differed in the months prior to and following an active shooter incident that occurred anywhere in the United States or within the same state...
April 4, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385861/risk-of-firearm-injuries-among-children-and-youth-of-immigrant-families
#20
Natasha R Saunders, Hannah Lee, Alison Macpherson, Jun Guan, Astrid Guttmann
BACKGROUND: Firearm injuries contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality. The immigrant paradox suggests that, despite being more socially disadvantaged, immigrants are less likely than nonimmigrants to have poor outcomes. We tested the association of immigrant characteristics with firearm injuries among children and youth. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving residents of Ontario aged 24 years and younger from 2008-2012 using health and administrative databases...
March 27, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
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