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Anuttama Kulkarni, Yasmin Khan, Krishanu Ray
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, is distributed along the axon and enriched at the presynaptic basal lamina. It hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which inhibits synaptic transmission. Aberrant AChE activity and ectopic axonal accumulation of the enzyme are associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism that underlies AChE transport is still unclear. Here, we show that expression of Drosophila AChE tagged with photoactivable green fluorescent protein and m-Cherry (GPAC) in cholinergic neurons compensates for the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous AChE activity...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Monika Szymanska, Carmela Chateau Smith, Julie Monnin, Patrice Andrieu, Frédérique Girard, Lucie Galdon, Marie Schneider, Lionel Pazart, Sylvie Nezelof, Lauriane Vulliez-Coady
BACKGROUND: Emotional dysregulation and impaired attachment are potential contributors to the development of psychopathology in adolescence. This raises the question of whether oxytocin (OT), the paradigmatic "attachment hormone," may be beneficial in such contexts. Recent evidence suggests that intranasal administration of OT increases affiliative behavior, including trust and empathy. OT may also facilitate social reciprocity by attenuating the stress response to interpersonal conflict...
November 2, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Patrick L J M Zeeuwen, Thomas H A Ederveen, Danique A van der Krieken, Hanna Niehues, Jos Boekhorst, Sanja Kezic, Daniëlle A T Hanssen, Marisol E Otero, Ivonne M J J van Vlijmen-Willems, Diana Rodijk-Olthuis, Denise Falcone, Ellen H J van den Bogaard, Marijke Kamsteeg, Heleen D de Koning, Manon E J Zeeuwen-Franssen, Maurice A M van Steensel, Michiel Kleerebezem, Harro M Timmerman, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Joost Schalkwijk
Mutations in the filaggrin gene, which cause the skin disease ichthyosis vulgaris and are a genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis, alter the cutaneous microbiome thereby affecting keratinocyte host defense responses following skin barrier disruption.
October 7, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ron L Mason, Michael J Annear, Amanda Lo, Fran McInerney, Laura T Tierney, Andrew L Robinson
BACKGROUND: International evidence suggests that dementia is under-diagnosed in the community and that General Practitioners (GPs) are often reluctant to engage to their fullest capability with patients who exhibit cognitive symptoms. This is potentially reflected by a lack of GP knowledge about the syndrome. However, it is also recognised that attitudes and confidence are important in relation to how and to what extent a GP approaches a person with dementia. This research sought to develop a reliable and valid measure of GPs attitudes and confidence towards dementia...
2016: BMC Family Practice
A C M Veloo, E D de Vries, H Jean-Pierre, U S Justesen, T Morris, E Urban, I Wybo, A J van Winkelhoff
Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) account for 24%-31% of the anaerobic bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens. At present, GPAC are under-represented in the Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS database. Profiles of new species have yet to be added. We present the optimization of the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) database for the identification of GPAC. Main spectral profiles (MSPs) were created for 108 clinical GPAC isolates. Identity was confirmed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
September 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Matthieu Maesani, Catherine Doit, Mathie Lorrot, Christine Vitoux, Julie Hilly, Daphné Michelet, Christophe Vidal, Florence Julien-Marsollier, Brice Ilharreborde, Keyvan Mazda, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Souhayl Dahmani
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a concern in pediatric spine surgery with unusually high rates for a clean surgery and especially for patients with deformity of nonidiopathic etiology. Microbiologic differences between etiologies of spine deformities have been poorly investigated. METHODS: We reviewed all cases of SSI in spinal surgery between 2007 and 2011. Characteristics of cases and of bacteria according to the etiology of the spine disease were investigated...
January 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nina Handal, Silje Bakken Jørgensen, Hege Smith Tunsjø, Bjørn Odd Johnsen, Truls Michael Leegaard
We investigated 197 anaerobic isolates recovered from blood cultures in the period 2009-2013. The isolates included were Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp., Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium spp. and Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC). Identification results by MALDI-TOF MS were compared to those obtained by 16S rRNA sequencing, and the MICs of benzylpenicillin, clindamycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, meropenem and metronidazole were determined by Etests. The MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 94.9% of the anaerobes to the genus level, and 86...
September 2015: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Ayşegül Mine Tüzüner Öncül, Emel Uzunoğlu, Zeynep Ceren Karahan, A Murat Aksoy, Reha Kişnişci, Özün Karaahmetoğlu
PURPOSE: Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) can be isolated as pathogens from odontogenic infections. Culturing GPAC is time consuming and labor intensive. The objectives of the present study were to examine the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in directly detecting the presence of GPAC in clinical samples obtained from patients with odontogenic infections and to compare the distribution of GPAC in infected and healthy tissue. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present case-control study, the infected tissue from patients and oral mucosal swabs from healthy control subjects were subjected to anaerobic culture and direct PCR analysis for the presence of GPAC...
February 2015: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Nisha B Patel, Raul Y Tito, Alexandra J Obregón-Tito, Lindsey O'Neal, Omar Trujillo-Villaroel, Luis Marin-Reyes, Luzmila Troncoso-Corzo, Emilio Guija-Poma, Moriyuki Hamada, Yoshihito Uchino, Cecil M Lewis, Paul A Lawson
A novel Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-sporeforming coccus-shaped, obligately anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a fecal sample of an individual residing in a traditional Peruvian community. The organism was characterized using biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that the organism was biochemically and phenotypically related, but distinct, from a group of organisms referred to as the Gram-stain positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC)...
April 2015: Anaerobe
Angela Noll, Norbert Grundmann, Gennady Churakov, Jürgen Brosius, Wojciech Makałowski, Jürgen Schmitz
Our understanding of genome-wide and comparative sequence information has been broadened considerably by the databases available from the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genome Bioinformatics Department. In particular, the identification and visualization of genomic sequences, present in some species but absent in others, led to fundamental insights into gene and genome evolution. However, the UCSC tools currently enable one to visualize orthologous genomic loci for a range of species in only a single locus...
January 2015: Molecular Biology and Evolution
A C M Veloo, A J van Winkelhoff
The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical isolates were isolated between 2011 and 2013 at the Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory of the University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS identification and susceptibility testing using E-test for MIC determination...
February 2015: Anaerobe
Min Young Jung, Jae Hoon Cho, Yeseul Shin, Jayoung Paek, In-Soon Park, Joong-Su Kim, Wonyong Kim, Jin Yeul Ma, Soo-Je Park, Young-Hyo Chang
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus related to bacterial infection. A previous study suggested that a specific bacterial group may have an important role in the course of CRS. In this study, bacteria isolated from CRS patients were characterized. A total of 15 strains were identified as Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), which were able to utilize peptone as a sole carbon source. Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that the isolates were closely related to members of the genus Peptoniphilus (>97% similarity) within the Clostridiales Family XI...
December 2014: Anaerobe
K Brown, D Church, T Lynch, D Gregson
Peptoniphilus spp. are Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) that were formerly classified in the genus Peptostreptococcus. This study describes 15 cases of Peptoniphilus spp. bloodstream infection (BSI) diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 using 16S rDNA sequencing in patients with pneumonia, pre-term delivery, soft tissue infection or colon or bladder disease. Seven out of 15 (47%) of these cases had polymicrobial BSIs. One of the isolates was closely related to P. duerdenii (EU526290), while the other 14 isolates were most closely related to a Peptoniphilus sp...
November 2014: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Elizabeth Carmel Murphy, Inga-Maria Frick
Among the Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria associated with clinical infections, the Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are the most prominent and account for approximately 25-30% of all isolated anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens. Still, routine culture and identification of these slowly growing anaerobes to the species level has been limited in the diagnostic laboratory, mainly due to the requirement of prolonged incubation times and time-consuming phenotypic identification. In addition, GPAC are mostly isolated from polymicrobial infections with known pathogens and therefore their relevance has often been overlooked...
July 2013: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Rémi Fournier, Frédéric Wallet, Bruno Grandbastien, Luc Dubreuil, René Courcol, Christel Neut, Rodrigue Dessein
In the present study, two pre-analytic processes for mass spectrometric bacterial identification were compared: the time-consuming reference method, chemical extraction, and the direct smear technique directly using cultured colonies without any further preparation. These pre-analytic processes were compared in the identification of a total of 238 strains of anaerobic bacteria representing 34 species. The results showed that 218/238 strains were identified following chemical extraction, 185 identifications (77...
June 2012: Anaerobe
E H L Lee, J E Degener, G W Welling, A C M Veloo
An evaluation of the Vitek 2 ANC card (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was performed with 301 anaerobic isolates. Each strain was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which is considered to be the reference method. The Vitek 2 ANC card correctly identified 239 (79.4%) of the 301 clinical isolates to the genus level, including 100 species that were not represented in the database. Correct species identification was obtained for 60.1% (181/301) of the clinical isolates. For the isolates not identified to the species level, a correct genus identification was obtained for 47...
May 2011: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
A C M Veloo, M Erhard, M Welker, G W Welling, J E Degener
Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are part of the commensal microbiota of humans and are a phylogenetically heterogeneous group of organisms. To evaluate the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of GPAC, a database was constructed, using reference strains of commonly encountered GPAC and clinical isolates of which the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene was determined. Subsequently, the database was validated by identifying 107 clinical isolates of GPAC...
February 2011: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
A C M Veloo, G W Welling, J E Degener
The susceptibility of 14 species of 115 Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) was determined for 14 antibiotics. To assure correct identification, strains were genotypically identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequencing. Susceptibility differences (MIC₅₀ and MIC₉₀) for penicillin G, clindamycin, tigecycline, levofloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, ertapenem, meropenem, metronidazole, and doxycycline were found for the three clinically most relevant GPAC species: Finegoldia magna, Parvimonas micra, and Peptoniphilus harei...
March 2011: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Filiz Bunyak, Kannappan Palaniappan
Graph partitioning active contours (GPAC) is a recently introduced approach that elegantly embeds the graph-based image segmentation problem within a continuous optimization framework. GPAC can be used within parametric snake-based or implicit level set-based active contour continuous paradigms for image partitioning. However, GPAC similar to many other graph-based approaches has quadratic memory requirements which severely limits the scalability of the algorithm to practical problem domains. An N xN image requires O(N(4)) computation and memory to create and store the full graph of pixel inter-relationships even before the start of the contour optimization process...
September 29, 2009: Proceedings
Ilker Ersoy, Filiz Bunyak, Vadim Chagin, M Christina Cardoso, Kannappan Palaniappan
Current chemical biology methods for studying spatiotemporal correlation between biochemical networks and cell cycle phase progression in live-cells typically use fluorescence-based imaging of fusion proteins. Stable cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged protein GFP-PCNA produce rich, dynamically varying sub-cellular foci patterns characterizing the cell cycle phases, including the progress during the S-phase. Variable fluorescence patterns, drastic changes in SNR, shape and position changes and abundance of touching cells require sophisticated algorithms for reliable automatic segmentation and cell cycle classification...
2009: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
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