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Medical nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549221/preventing-underfeeding-and-overfeeding-a-clinician-s-guide-to-the-acquisition-and-implementation-of-indirect-calorimetry
#1
Amy K Ladd, Heather E Skillman, Matthew A Haemer, Peter M Mourani
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard to determine energy needs, as the use of predictive equations can result in underfeeding or overfeeding. The aim of this quality improvement (QI) initiative was to describe the rationale for and implementation of a process to target energy provision according to IC measurements in a tertiary academic medical center pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To justify the purchase of an indirect calorimeter for clinical use, a needs assessment was conducted, followed by a training and implementation period...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548607/nutritional-risk-and-nutritional-status-at-admission-and-discharge-among-chinese-hospitalized-patients-a-prospective-nationwide-multicenter-study
#2
Mingwei Zhu, Junmin Wei, Wei Chen, Xin Yang, Hongyuan Cui, Sainan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess nutritional risk and status of Chinese hospitalized patients at admission and discharge and relations with clinical outcomes. METHODS: A prospective, nationwide, multicenter study was conducted from June to September 2014 in 34 large hospitals in 18 cities in China. Patients ≥ 18 years with a hospital stay of 7-30 days were recruited. Anthropometric and laboratory indicators, nutritional risk screening, and assessment by Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and subjective global assessment (SGA) were performed within 24 hours of admission and discharge...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547935/malnutrition-risk-of-older-people-across-district-health-board-community-hospital-and-residential-care-settings-in-new-zealand
#3
Carol Wham, Emily Fraser, Julia Buhs-Catterall, Rebecca Watkin, Cheryl Gammon, Jacqui Allen
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition risk in older people across three settings. METHODS: Older people living in the community or newly admitted to hospital or residential care were assessed for malnutrition risk using the validated Mini-Nutritional Assessment - Short Form and dysphagia risk using the Eating Assessment Tool-10. Demographic, physical and health data were collected. RESULTS: Of 167 participants, 23% were malnourished and 35% were at high risk of malnutrition...
May 25, 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547736/rice-bran-metabolome-contains-amino-acids-vitamins-cofactors-and-phytochemicals-with-medicinal-and-nutritional-properties
#4
Iman Zarei, Dustin G Brown, Nora Jean Nealon, Elizabeth P Ryan
BACKGROUND: Rice bran is a functional food that has shown protection against major chronic diseases (e.g. obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer) in animals and humans, and these health effects have been associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals. Food metabolomics uses multiple chromatography and mass spectrometry platforms to detect and identify a diverse range of small molecules with high sensitivity and precision, and has not been completed for rice bran...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547702/emerging-treatments-in-eating-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Michael Lutter
Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments...
May 25, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542318/predicting-congenital-heart-defects-a-comparison-of-three-data-mining-methods
#6
Yanhong Luo, Zhi Li, Husheng Guo, Hongyan Cao, Chunying Song, Xingping Guo, Yanbo Zhang
Congenital heart defects (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects in China. Many studies have examined risk factors for CHD, but their predictive abilities have not been evaluated. In particular, few studies have attempted to predict risks of CHD from, necessarily unbalanced, population-based cross-sectional data. Therefore, we developed and validated machine learning models for predicting, before and during pregnancy, women's risks of bearing children with CHD. We compared the results of these models in a large-scale, comprehensive population-based retrospective cross-sectional epidemiological survey of birth defects in six counties in Shanxi Province, China, covering 2006 to 2008...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541460/seminal-plasma-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-interferon-%C3%AE-ifng-and-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-8-cxcl8-fluctuate-over-time-within-men
#7
David J Sharkey, Kelton P Tremellen, Nancy E Briggs, Gustaaf A Dekker, Sarah A Robertson
STUDY QUESTION: Do seminal plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFNG) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) vary within individual men over time? SUMMARY ANSWER: IFNG exhibits substantial variation that is independent of duration of abstinence but correlates with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content, while CXCL8 varies moderately in association with duration of abstinence. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNG and CXCL8 in seminal fluid can adversely impact male and female fertility...
May 25, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539198/total-usual-intake-of-shortfall-nutrients-varies-with-poverty-among-us-adults
#8
Regan L Bailey, Sharon R Akabas, Erin E Paxson, Sowmyanarayanan V Thuppal, Shilpa Saklani, Katherine L Tucker
OBJECTIVE: To examine shortfall nutrient intakes (ie, calcium, folate, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E) by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR). DESIGN: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: US adults with complete data on poverty status and diet were included (n = 4,524). ANALYSIS: The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate total usual micronutrient intakes from foods, beverages, medications, and dietary supplements reported on 2 24-hour dietary recalls using measurement error correction...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538964/effect-of-a-modified-hospital-elder-life-program-on-delirium-and-length-of-hospital-stay-in-patients-undergoing-abdominal-surgery-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen, Hsiu-Ching Li, Jin-Tung Liang, I-Rue Lai, Jerry Dwi Trijoyo Purnomo, Yi-Ting Yang, Been-Ren Lin, John Huang, Ching-Yao Yang, Yu-Wen Tien, Chiung-Nien Chen, Ming-Tsan Lin, Guan-Hua Huang, Sharon K Inouye
Importance: Older patients undergoing abdominal surgery commonly experience preventable delirium, which extends their hospital length of stay (LOS). Objective: To examine whether a modified Hospital Elder Life Program (mHELP) reduces incident delirium and LOS in older patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial of 577 eligible patients enrolled 377 older patients (≥65 years of age) undergoing gastrectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and colectomy at a 2000-bed urban medical center in Taipei, Taiwan, from August 1, 2009, through October 31, 2012...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537581/the-effects-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-on-migraine-and-markers-of-intestinal-permeability-results-of-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#10
N M de Roos, S van Hemert, J M P Rovers, M G Smits, B J M Witteman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Migraine, associated with several gastrointestinal disorders, may result from increased intestinal permeability, allowing endotoxins to enter the bloodstream. We tested whether probiotics could reduce migraine through an effect on intestinal permeability and inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total, 63 patients were randomly allocated to the probiotic (n=31) or the placebo group (n=32). Participants ingested a multispecies probiotic (5x10(9) colony-forming units) or placebo daily for 12 weeks...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537336/dietary-risk-factors-by-race-ethnicity-age-group-and-gender-in-a-representative-sample-of-us-older-adults
#11
J A Vaccaro, F G Huffman
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationships among ethnicity/race, gender, demographics, age-group and dietary health in a nationally representative sample of older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data for this study were collected by interview in the mobile examination centers from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011 - 2012. PARTICIPANTS: U.S. representative sample of adults aged 55 years and older (N = 1860) from five ethnic/racial groups...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534331/-application-of-bowel-plication-combined-with-early-enteral-nutrition-in-the-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-for-neonates-with-jejunal-atresia
#12
Huan Chen, Qiming Geng, Changgui Lu, Weiwei Jiang, Jie Zhang, Xiaofeng Lyu, Wei Li, Hongxing Li, Weibing Tang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of bowel plication combined with early enteral nutrition (EEN) in the enhanced recovery after surgery(ERAS) of jejunal atresia (JA) neonates. METHODS: Between January 2005 and January 2014, 58 neonates with JA underwent surgical treatment in Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Their clinical data, including operation procedures, ages, birth weight, concomitant diseases, age at surgery, hospital stay, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), postoperative intestinal function recovery (the time to the first oral feeding and the time to oral feeding volume reaching 150 ml·kg(-1)·d(-1)), complications and reoperation, were retrospectively analyzed...
May 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533169/academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-nutrition-practice-guideline-for-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-in-adults-systematic-review-of-evidence-for-medical-nutrition-therapy-effectiveness-and-recommendations-for-integration-into-the-nutrition-care-process
#13
Marion J Franz, Janice MacLeod, Alison Evert, Catherine Brown, Erica Gradwell, Deepa Handu, Adam Reppert, Megan Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532731/evaluation-procedures-in-health-perspective-of-nursing-care-in-patient-safety
#14
Theo Duarte da Costa, Viviane Euzébia Pereira Santos, Marcos Antônio Ferreira Junior, Alynne Fortes Vitor, Pétala Tuani Candido de Oliveira Salvador, Kisna Yasmin Andrade Alves
OBJECTIVE: The objective research is analyzing the nursing care in intensive care units from the perspective of patient safety based on health evaluation. METHODS: This is an evaluation research, for the purpose of issuance of judgment or judgment on a given system, carried out in six intensive care units. Data collection occurred from April to July 2014, in locu, with a validated instrument containing 97 questions related to patient safety. These, 73 items targeted to analyze the element "process" in safety patient nursing care...
June 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531787/clinical-nutrition-in-primary-care-an-evaluation-of-resident-physicians-attitudes-and-self-perceived-proficiency
#15
Sarah L Han, Reto Auer, Jacques Cornuz, Pedro Marques-Vidal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is little information regarding the impact of clinical nutrition training among medical residents. We aimed to evaluate the attitudes, self-perceived proficiency and knowledge of Swiss residents regarding clinical nutrition. METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted between June and September 2014 in two medical education facilities located in Lausanne, Switzerland. Attitudes, self-perceived proficiency and knowledge regarding clinical nutrition were assessed by questionnaire...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531785/the-relationship-between-malnutrition-risk-and-clinical-outcomes-in-a-cohort-of-frail-older-hospital-patients
#16
Adrian Slee, Deborah Birch, David Stokoe
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition has an adverse effect on clinical outcomes and frail older people may be at greater risk of malnutrition. The purpose and aims of this study was to investigate the relationship between markers of malnutrition risk and clinical outcomes in a cohort of frail older hospital patients. METHODS: 78 frail older hospital patients had the following measurements recorded; length of stay (LOS), time to medical fitness for discharge (TMFFD), body mass index (BMI), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) and mini-nutritional assessment short-form (MNA-SF) scores, blood urea, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, CRP-albumin ratio; and bioelectrical impedance assessment (BIA) measurements (n = 66)...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531777/primer-for-nutritionists-managing-the-side-effects-of-antidepressants
#17
Emily K Tarleton, Amanda G Kennedy, Christopher Daley
Depression is a chronic disease affecting a significant portion of the U.S. POPULATION: Due to the popularity of ADs most nutrition professionals working in the outpatient setting will encounter patients taking one of these medications. Nutritionist can assist patients in managing the short and long term side effects of ADs and, taking into account other nutritional issues, improve overall wellbeing of the patient. The objective of this paper is to identify what side effects nutritionists can help manage, provide the information necessary to help nutritionists feel comfortable assisting with that management, and, as a result, play a valuable role in the team that is vested in the health and wellbeing of the patient...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531775/a-protocol-for-sustained-reduction-of-total-parenteral-nutrition-and-cost-savings-by-improvement-of-nutritional-care-in-hospitals
#18
Rian van Schaik, Kurt Van den Abeele, Glenn Melsens, Peter Schepens, Truus Lanssens, Bernadette Vlaemynck, Maria Devisch, Theo A Niewold
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Malnutrition and the use of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) contribute considerably to hospital costs. Recently, we reported on the introduction of malnutrition screening and monitoring of TPN use in our hospital, which resulted in a large (40%) reduction in TPN and improved quality of nutritional care in two years (2011/12). Here, we aimed to assure continuation of improved care by developing a detailed malnutrition screening and TPN use protocol involving instruction tools for hospital staff, while monitoring the results in the following two years (2013/14)...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530258/enhanced-recovery-program-erp-in-major-laryngeal-surgery-building-a-protocol-and-testing-its-feasibility
#19
M Gemma, S Toma, F Lira Luce, L Beretta, M Braga, M Bussi
Enhanced recovery programs (ERP) represent a multimodal approach to perioperative patient care. The benefits of ERP are well demonstrated in colorectal surgery and Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS®) programs, that epitomise the ERP concept, have being introduced in different specialties, including vascular, gastric, pancreatic, urogynecologic and orthopaedic surgery. However, no ERP has been proposed for head and neck surgery. We developed an expert-opinion-based ERP for laryngeal surgery based on the key principles of colorectal surgery ERAS®...
May 22, 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530087/-the-association-between-obesity-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#20
Shahar Geva, Moria Yaakoby, Or Kalchiem-Dekel, Aya Talmor-Gozlan, Roi Westreich, Nimrod Maimon
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease, with major respiratory and systemic expressions. Obesity is defined as a BMI>30 kg/ m2 and its prevalence has doubled in recent decades. The possible relationship of obesity to COPD, and its influence on respiratory pathophysiology, is considered a mystery. Studies show obesity to be a survival advantage among COPD patients, unlike in the general population, in which obesity correlates to decreased life expectancy...
September 2016: Harefuah
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