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Takuma Iguchi, Noriyo Niino, Satoshi Tamai, Ken Sakurai, Kazuhiko Mori
RT-qPCR is one of the most common methods to assess individual target miRNAs. MiRNAs levels are generally measured relative to a reference sample. This approach is appropriate for examining physiological changes in target gene expression levels. However, absolute quantification using better statistical analysis is preferable for a comprehensive assessment of gene expression levels. Absolute quantification is still not in common use. This report describes a protocol for measuring the absolute levels of plasma miRNA, using RT-qPCR with or without pre-amplification...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jianhua Ren, Yadwinder S Mann, Yuntao Zhang, Michael D Browne
Peptoids are sequence-controlled peptide-mimicking oligomers consisting of N-alkylated glycine units. Among many potential applications, peptoids have been thought of as a type of molecular information storage. Mass spectrometry analysis has been considered the method of choice for sequencing peptoids. Peptoids can be synthesized via solid phase chemistry using a repeating two-step reaction cycle. Here we present a method to manually synthesize oligo-peptoids and to analyze the sequence of the peptoids using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lisa N Chesner, Colin Campbell
The purpose of this method is to provide a flexible, rapid, and quantitative technique to examine the kinetics of DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) repair in mammalian cell lines. Rather than globally assaying removal of xenobiotic-induced or spontaneous chromosomal DPC removal, this assay examines the repair of a homogeneous, chemically defined lesion specifically introduced at one site within a plasmid DNA substrate. Importantly, this approach avoids the use of radioactive materials and is not dependent on expensive or highly-specialized technology...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andrey Zavadsky, Lev Shemer
This manuscript describes an experimental procedure that allows obtaining diverse quantitative information on temporal and spatial evolution of water waves excited by time-dependent and steady wind forcing. Capacitance-type wave gauge and Laser Slope Gauge (LSG) are used to measure instantaneous water surface elevation and two components of the instantaneous surface slope at a number of locations along the test section of a wind-wave facility. The computer-controlled blower provides airflow over the water in the tank whose rate can vary in time...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Katherine Anagnostou, Jordan Scott Orange
Food allergies are common and increasing in prevalence, representing a major health concern in many countries around the world. In an effort to diminish the burden of food allergy, many research studies have focused on prevention, and recent findings have revolutionized the way we introduce allergenic foods in early life. We discuss the role of early allergenic food introduction and the value of food allergy prevention in this manuscript.
January 23, 2018: Children
Amar S Katkar, Shobhnath P Gupta, Md Motin Seikh, Lih-Juann Chen, Pravin S Walke
The Cr doped tunable thickness core-shell Ge/GeOx nanowires were synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction, FESEM, TEM, EDS, XPS and magnetization studies. The shell thickness increases with the increase in synthesis temperature. The presence of metallic Cr and Cr3+ in core-shell structure was confirmed from XPS study. The magnetic property is highly sensitive to the core-shell thickness and intriguing room temperature ferromagnetism is realized only in core-shell nanowires. The magnetization decreases with increase in shell thickness and practically ceases to exist when there is no core...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Mohammad Abu-Zaineh, Maame Esi Woode, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Interest in the Senian capability framework as an alternative approach to wellbeing measurement has increased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to look at the extent to which an individual's capability to achieve wellbeing in one dimension is associated with his or her attempt to achieve wellbeing in another dimension in a fragile setting affected by conflict. METHODS: Capability is defined as the ability to achieve health, knowledge, and wealth and is measured as latent variables using a structural equation model...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Suzan Mitwalli, Yoke Rabaia, Hanna Kienzler
BACKGROUND: Since 2013, the community-based rehabilitation programme in the north of the West Bank has established nineteen support groups for mothers following a Multi-Family Approach (MFA), with technical support from the Institute of Community and Public Health (Birzeit University) and the War Trauma Foundation (Netherlands). The main aims of the programme are to improve the wellbeing of mothers who have children with a handicap, to build support networks between vulnerable families, and to counter problems associated with social isolation and stigma...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nidal Abukhaizaran, Mohammed Hashem, Osama Hroub, Souad Belkebir, Khaled Demyati
BACKGROUND: Organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for organ failure, but organs are scarce and their availability is affected by relational ties, religious beliefs, cultural influences, body integrity, medical mistrust, and other factors. This aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Palestinian population with respect to organ donation. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used a validated questionnaire delivered by land telephone to collect data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices relating to organ donation in the general population of the West Bank...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Raed Tafish, Khaled I Abu El Aish, Walid Madi
BACKGROUND: General anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia are commonly used for caesarean sections. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes from caesarean sections with these two types of anaesthesia. METHODS: In this quasi-controlled trial, we enrolled women undergoing caesarean sections at Al-Helal Al-Emirati Hospital, Rafah, Gaza Strip. Women were assigned either to general anaesthesia (20% intravenous propofol for anaesthesia induction followed by atracurium for muscle relaxation, and nitrous oxide and oxygen for anaesthesia maintenance) or to spinal anaesthesia (0·5% hyperbaric solution bupivacaine with 20 μg fentanyl intrathecally)...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Marwan Diab, Yasser Abu Jamei, Ashraf Kagee, Guido Veronese
BACKGROUND: In the context of violations of human rights and insecurity, the Gaza Community Mental Health Programme (GCMHP) provides mental health services and psychosocial interventions that match local cultural and social norms. The GCMHP uses a community mental health approach to promote the psychological wellbeing of the people living in the Gaza Strip and advocate on mental health issues. METHODS: The GCMHP provides preventive and therapeutic care to a broad public health spectrum of Gazan society...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Liana Al-Labadi, Yazan Gammoh, Reham Shehada, Reem Shahin, Walaa Jbarah, Madleen Amro, Hanan Athamny
BACKGROUND: Access to corneal transplantation is limited worldwide because of poor knowledge. Ethical, religious, and cultural barriers contribute to low rates of corneal donation. In the occupied Palestinian territory, limited information is available on factors affecting corneal donation. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and willingness towards corneal donation in Palestinian students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included university students selected through convenience sampling in Nablus in the summer of 2016...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Jasem Humeid
BACKGROUND: Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hendia Abu Nabaa', Nisreen Shelleh
BACKGROUND: The mammogram is considered a life-saving breast cancer screening procedure for women aged 40 years and older, yet uptake of mammography services by Palestinian women is very low. Breast cancer is the most common cancer, comprising 17% of all reported cancer cases, and the second leading cause of death in women in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to understand the barriers to mammography uptake through an exploratory qualitative study in Ramallah and Salfeet...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Alhassane Diallo, Heike Jacobi, Arron Cook, Robyn Labrum, Alexandra Durr, Alexis Brice, Perrine Charles, Cecilia Marelli, Caterina Mariotti, Lorenzo Nanetti, Marta Panzeri, Maria Rakowicz, Anna Sobanska, Anna Sulek, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch, Ludger Schöls, Holger Hengel, Bela Melegh, Alessandro Filla, Antonella Antenora, Jon Infante, José Berciano, Bart P van de Warrenburg, Dagmar Timmann, Sylvia Boesch, Massimo Pandolfo, Jörg B Schulz, Peter Bauer, Paola Giunti, Jun-Suk Kang, Thomas Klockgether, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
BACKGROUND: Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited progressive ataxia disorders that can lead to premature death. We aimed to study the overall survival of patients with the most common spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, and SCA6) and to identify the strongest contributing predictors that affect survival. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study (EUROSCA), we enrolled men and women, aged 18 years or older, from 17 ataxia referral centres in ten European countries; participants had positive genetic test results for SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, or SCA6 and progressive, otherwise unexplained, ataxias...
April 2018: Lancet Neurology
Jennifer F Buckman, Evgeny G Vaschillo, Maria Fonoberova, Igor Mezić, Marsha E Bates
OBJECTIVE: It has been nearly 15 years since Kazdin and Nock published methodological and research recommendations for understanding mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy. Their arguments and enthusiasm for research on mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) resonated across disciplines and disorders, as it shined a light on the crucial importance of understanding how and for whom treatments instigate behavior change and how therapeutic mechanisms might be extended to "situations and settings of everyday life...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Holly P O'Rourke, David P MacKinnon
OBJECTIVE: Mediation models are used in prevention and intervention research to assess the mechanisms by which interventions influence outcomes. However, researchers may not investigate mediators in the absence of intervention effects on the primary outcome variable. There is emerging evidence that in some situations, tests of mediated effects can be statistically significant when the total intervention effect is not statistically significant. In addition, there are important conceptual and practical reasons for investigating mediation when the intervention effect is nonsignificant...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Seda Göncü Serhatlıoğlu, Nazan Karahan, Caroline J Hollins Martin, Colin R Martin
BACKGROUND: The Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (BSS-R) is a valid and reliable scale designed to assess women's experiences of labour and childbirth. OBJECTIVE: To assess factor structure, validity, and reliability of the Turkish Birth Satisfaction Scale - Revised (T-BSS-R) using data collected from a Turkish population. SETTING: Istanbul Ministry of Health Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Training and Research Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of healthy child-bearing women (n = 120) who had experienced a spontaneous vertex delivery at full term...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Milena L Pachowsky, Arnd Kleyer, Lisa Wagner, Andreas Langenbach, David Simon, Rolf Janka, Matthias May, Goetz H Welsch
Objective A minimally invasive treatment of osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic thoracic and lumbar spine fractures is cement augmentation (kyphoplasty). Little is known about the impact on adjacent intervertebral discs. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach in addition to morphological MRI is desirable to evaluate changes in the intervertebral disc. Our study aims to evaluate the feasibility of T2 mapping for the detection of subtle changes in the intervertebral discs in spines after kyphoplasty...
March 1, 2018: Cartilage
Meredith B Rosenthal, Carrie H Colla, Nancy E Morden, Thomas D Sequist, Alexander J Mainor, Zhonghe Li, Kevin H Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: A substantial portion of healthcare spending is wasted on services that do not directly improve patient health and that cause harm in some cases. Features of health insurance coverage, including enrollment in high-deductible health plans (HDHPs) or health maintenance organizations (HMOs), may provide financial and nonfinancial mechanisms to potentially reduce overuse of low-value healthcare services. STUDY DESIGN: Using 2009 to 2013 administrative data from 3 large commercial insurers, we examined patient characteristics and health insurance plan types associated with overuse of 6 healthcare services identified by the Choosing Wisely campaign...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
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