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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345710/desktop-nmr-for-structure-elucidation-and-identification-of-strychnine-adulteration
#1
Kawarpal Singh, Bernhard Blümich
Elucidating the structure of complex molecules is difficult at low magnetic fields due to the overlap of different peak multiplets and second-order coupling effects. This is even more challenging for rigid molecules with small chemical shift differences and with prochiral centers. Since low-field NMR spectroscopy is sometimes presumed as restricted to the analysis of only small and simple molecules, this paper aims at countering this misconception: it demonstrates the use of low-field NMR spectroscopy in chemical forensics for identifying strychnine and its counterions by exploring the chemical shift as a signature in different 1D (1)H and (13)C experiments...
March 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344531/hand-and-wrist-injuries-in-elite-boxing-a-longitudinal-prospective-study-2005-2012-of-the-great-britain-olympic-boxing-squad
#2
Michael Loosemore, Joseph Lightfoot, Ian Gatt, Mike Hayton, Chris Beardsley
Background: The purpose of this investigation was to explore prospectively the nature and duration of hand and wrist injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2012. Methods: Longitudinal prospective injury surveillance of the GB boxing squad was performed from 2005 to 2012. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury...
March 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338361/method-induced-differences-of-energy-contributions-in-adolescent-female-kayaking
#3
Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen, Ulrich Hartmann
Purpose Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the two female Olympic kayaking disciplines (i.e. 200 and 500m). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influenced the value of WAER% during the kayaking time trials. Methods Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14±1 yrs, height 172±4 cm, body mass 65.4±4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6±4.9 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1), training experience 1.5±0.3 yrs) volunteered to participate in one incremental exercise test and two time trials (40s and 120s) on the kayak ergometer...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316263/individualised-dietary-strategies-for-olympic-combat-sports-acute-weight-loss-recovery-and-competition-nutrition
#4
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Louise M Burke
Olympic combat sports separate athletes into weight divisions, in an attempt to reduce size, strength, range and/or leverage disparities between competitors. Official weigh-ins are conducted anywhere from 3 and up to 24 h prior to competition ensuring athletes meet weight requirements (i.e. have 'made weight'). Fighters commonly aim to compete in weight divisions lower than their day-to-day weight, achieved via chronic and acute manipulations of body mass (BM). Although these manipulations may impair health and absolute performance, their strategic use can improve competitive success...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316262/tribute-to-dr-jacques-rogge-muscle-activity-and-fatigue-during-hiking-in-olympic-dinghy-sailing
#5
Jan G Bourgois, Jasmien Dumortier, Margot Callewaert, Bert Celie, Carlo Capelli, Gisela Sjøgaard, Dirk De Clercq, Jan Boone
'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298259/phenotypic-analysis-of-asthma-in-japanese-athletes
#6
Keisuke Tsukioka, Toshiyuki Koya, Hiroshi Ueno, Masachika Hayashi, Takuro Sakagami, Takashi Hasegawa, Masaaki Arakawa, Eiichi Suzuki, Toshiaki Kikuchi
BACKGROUND: Asthma in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes has various pathogeneses. However, few reports are available on the features of asthma in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on classifying asthma in Japanese athlete population. METHODS: We performed a cluster analysis of data from pulmonary function tests and clinical biomarkers before administering inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) therapy in athlete population of individuals diagnosed with asthma (n = 104; male, 76...
March 12, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296258/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-long-term-metabolites-of-oxymesterone-and-mesterolone-in-human-urine-by-application-of-srm-gc-ci-ms-ms
#7
Michael Polet, Wim Van Gansbeke, Lore Geldof, Koen Deventer, Peter Van Eenoo
The search for metabolites with longer detection times remains an important task in for example toxicology and doping control. The impact of these long term metabolites is highlighted by the high number of positive cases after reanalysis of samples that were stored for several years, e.g. samples of previous Olympic Games. A substantial number of previously alleged negative samples have now been declared positive due to the detection of various long term steroid metabolites of which the existence was unknown during the Olympic Games of 2008 and 2012...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295634/the-utility-of-salivary-testosterone-and-cortisol-concentration-measures-for-assessing-the-stress-responses-of-junior-athletes-during-a-sporting-competition
#8
Blair T Crewther, Zbigniew Obmiński, Joanna Orysiak, Emad A S Al-Dujaili
BACKGROUND: This study examined the utility of salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentration measures for assessing the acute stress responses of junior athletes during a sporting competition. METHODS: Paired capillary blood and saliva samples were taken from 71 junior athletes (45 males, 26 females) before and after a simulated Olympic weightlifting competition. The concentration measures of salivary T and C were referenced against blood total T (TT) and C (TC) concentrations...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294692/lower-extremity-isokinetic-strength-ratios-of-elite-springboard-and-platform-diving-athletes
#9
Amilton Vieira, Savio Alex, André Martorelli, Lee E Brown, Ricardo Moreira, Martim Bottaro
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine knee extensor and flexor muscle strength ratios of an elite group of diving athletes. METHODS: Sixteen divers (10 females and 6 males) from the Brazil national team were assessed for lower-body strength. They had participated in international competitions such as the 2016 Olympic Games and 2015 Pan American Games. The dynamic concentric torque of their knee flexor and extensor muscles were evaluated using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer...
March 15, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294577/the-enigma-of-inhaled-salbutamol-and-sport-unresolved-after-45-years
#10
K D Fitch
During the past 45 years, there have been more changes on the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List (the List) to the status of inhaled salbutamol than any other substance. With 658 athletes, 6.1% of all participating athletes approved to inhale salbutamol at the 2008 Beijing Games, it is one of the medications used most frequently by Olympic athletes. Nevertheless, since the 2008 Games, WADA has made numerous changes to inhaled salbutamol on the List including prohibiting its use, then a year later permitting it without prior notification and recommending a pharmacokinetic study if an athlete exceeds the urinary threshold of 1000 ng/mL...
March 11, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290730/qualitative-video-analysis-of-track-cycling-team-pursuit-in-world-class-athletes
#11
Samuel Sigrist, Thomas Maier, Raphael Faiss
PURPOSE: Track cycling team pursuit (TP) is a highly technical effort involving 4 athletes completing 4 km from a standing start often in less than 240 s. Transitions between athletes leading the team are obviously of utmost importance. The aim of this study is to perform qualitative video analyses of transitions of world-class athletes in team pursuit competitions. METHODS: Videos captured at 100 Hz were recorded for 77 races (including 96 different athletes) in 5 international track cycling competitions (e...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280583/sequential-effects-in-olympic-synchronized-diving-scores
#12
Robin S S Kramer
When judging performances in a sequence, the current score is often influenced by the preceding score. Where athletes are perceived to be similar, a judgement is assimilated towards the previous one. However, if judges focus on the differences between the two athletes, this will result in a contrasting influence on their scores. Here, I investigate sequential effects during synchronized diving events at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Although previous research found assimilation in scores of gymnasts, the current data showed contrast effects-current scores benefited from following a poor performance but were at a disadvantage if they followed a high-scoring performance...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276913/postural-stability-clicker-reaction-time-and-bow-draw-force-predict-performance-in-elite-recurve-archery
#13
Wayne Spratford, Rhiannon Campbell
Recurve archery is an Olympic sport that requires extreme precision, upper body strength and endurance. The purpose of this research was to quantify how postural stability variables both pre- and post-arrow release, draw force, flight time, arrow length and clicker reaction time, collectively, impacted on the performance or scoring outcomes in elite recurve archery athletes. Thirty-nine elite-level recurve archers (23 male and 16 female; mean age = 24.7 ± 7.3 years) from four different countries volunteered to participate in this study prior to competing at a World Cup event...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271917/what-can-medical-educators-learn-from-the-rio-2016-olympic-games
#14
Helen Church, Deborah Murdoch-Eaton, Rakesh Patel, John Sandars
Medical Educators face an ongoing challenge in optimizing preparedness for practice for newly qualified doctors. Junior doctors have highlighted specific areas in which they do not feel adequately equipped to undertake their duties, including managing the acutely unwell patient. In these highly stressful, time-critical scenarios it might be assumed that a lack of knowledge underpins these feelings of apprehension from junior medics; however, having studied, trained and passed examinations to demonstrate such knowledge, perhaps other factors should be considered...
February 28, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261504/thalamo-sensorimotor-functional-connectivity-correlates-with-world-ranking-of-olympic-elite-and-high-performance-athletes
#15
Zirui Huang, Henry Hap Davis Iv, Annemarie Wolff, Georg Northoff
Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n = 30). Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253059/are-injuries-more-common-with-crossfit-training-than-other-forms-of-exercise
#16
Chelsey Klimek, Christopher Ashbeck, Alexander J Brook, Chris Durall
Clinical Scenario: CrossFit is a form of exercise that incorporates rapid and successive high-intensity, ballistic movements. As CrossFit becomes an increasingly popular fitness option, it is important to determine how rates of injury compare to more traditional forms of exercise. This review was conducted to ascertain the incidence of injury with CrossFit relative to other forms of exercise. Focused Clinical Question: Are injuries more common with CrossFit training than other forms of exercise? Summary of Key Findings The literature was searched for studies that compared injury rates among individuals who participated in CrossFit fitness programs to participants in other exercise programs The search initially yielded >100 results which was narrowed down to three level 2b retrospective cohort studies that was deemed to have met inclusion/exclusion criteria In all three reviewed studies, the reported incidences of injuries associated with CrossFit training programs were comparable or lower than rates of injury in Olympic weightlifting, distance running, track and field, rugby, or gymnastics...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253027/wingate-test-is-a-strong-predictor-of-1500m-performance-in-elite-speed-skaters
#17
Nico Hofman, Jac Orie, Marco J M Hoozemans, Carl Foster, Jos J de Koning
Wingate test scores are strongly associated with anaerobic capacity in athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. In speed skating Wingate results are known to predict performance cross-sectionally, but have not been investigated relative to their ability to predict performance longitudinally. PURPOSE: To investigate whether Wingate tests performed during summer training are predictive of 1500m speed skating performance the subsequent winter in elite speed skaters. METHODS: Wingate test results from the summer training periods and 1500m performances during the subsequent winter were analyzed over a 3-year period, in 5 female and 8 male elite (Olympic, World Championship and World Cup medalists) speed skaters...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239566/biological-and-historical-overview-of-zika-virus
#18
REVIEW
Najealicka Armstrong, Wangheng Hou, Qiyi Tang
The recent outbreak of the Zika virus attracts worldwide attention probably because the most recently affected country (Brazil) will host the 2016 Olympic Game. Zika virus infected cases are now spreading to many other countries and its infection might be linked to some severe medical sequelae. Since its first isolation from the infected monkey in 1947 in Uganda, only a few studies had been taken until recent outbreak. According to the history of referenced publications, there is a 19-year gap from 1989 to 2007...
February 12, 2017: World Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230925/not-all-athletes-are-equal-but-don-t-call-me-an-exerciser-response-to-araujo-and-scharhag-2016
#19
Clare MacMahon, Lucy Parrington
Many Olympians and Paralympians would not be called athletes if what dictates this classification is fulfilling the criteria of Araujo and Scharhag (2016). Shelley Watts, Australian amateur boxer and Commonwealth gold medallist undertakes a double degree in law and sports science, something which undoubtedly takes up a considerable number of hours throughout her week (Australian Olympic Committie [AOC], 2016). There are many other athletes in similar positions - College athletes in the United States who are part of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), for example...
February 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230417/aging-and-half-ironman-performance
#20
M J Stones, Adric Hartin
Background/Study Context: Previous research on triathlon performance analyzed age trends for the Top Ten or Top Five finishers in world championship or national races at Olympic, Half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. The findings indicated higher age declines and/or earlier onset of decline in swimming and running than cycling. However, the designs of those studies took no account of possible differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal trends (i.e., cohort differences versus age changes). METHODS: This study analyzed performance times over the inaugural 5 years of the Half-Ironman world championship held in Clearwater, Florida, from 2006 to 2010...
March 2017: Experimental Aging Research
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