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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628968/performance-trends-in-age-group-triathletes-in-the-olympic-distance-triathlon-at-the-world-championships-2009-2014
#1
Martin Wonerow, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Performance trends in elite triathletes competing in age group classes have been investigated for Ironman triathlon in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ but not for short distance triathletes competing at international level in event such as the Olympic distance triathlon at the World Championships. The aim of the present study was to evaluate participation and performance trends of age group triathletes competing in the Olympic distance triathlon at the ITU (International Triathlon Union) World Championships 2009-2014...
June 30, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628450/zika-virus-screening-among-spanish-team-members-after-2016-rio-de-janeiro-brazil-olympic-games
#2
Natalia Rodriguez-Valero, Alberto M Borobia, Mar Lago, Maria Paz Sánchez-Seco, Fernando de Ory, Ana Vázquez, Jose Luis Pérez-Arellano, Cristina Carranza Rodríguez, Miguel J Martínez, Alicia Capón, Elias Cañas, Joaquin Salas-Coronas, Arkaitz Azcune Galparsoro, Jose Muñoz
We evaluated the risk for the Spanish Olympic Team acquiring Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2016. We recruited 117 team members, and all tested negative for Zika virus. Lack of cases in this cohort supports the minimum risk estimates made before the Games.
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628370/multiple-joint-exercises-using-elastic-resistance-bands-vs-conventional-resistance-training-equipment-a-cross-over-study
#3
Vegard M Iversen, Paul Jarle Mork, Ottar Vasseljen, Ronny Bergquist, Marius S Fimland
Previous studies indicate that elastic resistance bands (ERB) can be a viable option to conventional resistance-training equipment (CRE) during single-joint resistance exercises, but their efficacy has not been established for several commonly used multiple-joint resistance exercises. Thus, we compared muscular activation levels in four popular multiple-joint exercises performed with ERB (TheraBand(®)) vs. CRE (Olympic barbell or cable pulley machines). In a cross-over design, men and women (n = 29) performed squats, stiff-legged deadlifts, unilateral rows and lateral pulldown using both modalities...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608035/mapping-meaningful-places-on-washington-s-olympic-peninsula-toward-a-deeper-understanding-of-landscape-values
#4
Lee Karol Cerveny, Kelly Biedenweg, Rebecca McLain
Landscape values mapping has been widely employed as a form of public participation GIS (PPGIS) in natural resource planning and decision-making to capture the complex array of values, uses, and interactions between people and landscapes. A landscape values typology has been commonly employed in the mapping of social and environmental values in a variety of management settings and scales. We explore how people attribute meanings and assign values to special places on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA) using both a landscape values typology and qualitative responses about residents' place-relationships...
June 12, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599081/mechanisms-of-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-in-athletes-current-perspectives-and-future-challenges
#5
REVIEW
Mariana Couto, Marcin Kurowski, André Moreira, Dominique M A Bullens, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Luís Delgado, Marek L Kowalski, Sven F Seys
The evidence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) without asthma (EIBwA ) occurring in athletes led to speculate about different endotypes inducing respiratory symptoms within athletes. Classical postulated mechanisms for bronchial obstruction in this population include the osmotic and the thermal hypotheses. More recently, the presence of epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways of athletes was demonstrated. In addition, neuronal activation has been suggested as a potential modulator of bronchoconstriction...
June 9, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595334/an-olympic-legacy-does-the-urban-regeneration-associated-with-the-london-2012-olympic-games-impact-on-adolescent-mental-health
#6
Charlotte Clark, Melanie Smuk, Steven Cummins, Sandra Eldridge, Amanda Fahy, Daniel Lewis, Derek G Moore, Neil Smith, Stephanie Jc Taylor, Stephen A Stansfeld
Public expenditure on mega-events such as the London 2012 Olympic Games is often justified by the potential legacy of urban regeneration and its associated health and wellbeing benefits for local communities. The ORiEL (Olympic Regeneration in East London) study examined whether urban regeneration associated with the 2012 Games was associated with improved mental health. Adolescents aged 11-12 years attending schools in the Olympic host London Borough of Newham or in three adjacent comparison London Boroughs, completed a survey prior to the Olympic Games (2012) and six-months and 18-months after the Games (2013 and 2014, respectively)...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580651/data-fabrication-and-other-reasons-for-non-random-sampling-in-5087-randomised-controlled-trials-in-anaesthetic-and-general-medical-journals
#7
J B Carlisle
Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after publication because of data fabrication and inadequate ethical approval. Fabricated data have included baseline variables, for instance, age, height or weight. Statistical tests can determine the probability of the distribution of means, given their standard deviation and the number of participants in each group. Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after the data distributions have been calculated as improbable. Most retracted trials have been written by anaesthetists and published by specialist anaesthetic journals...
June 4, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577615/maternal-allo-recognition-of-the-fetus
#8
REVIEW
Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Francesco Colucci
Immunological adjustments are needed to accommodate the close contact between two genetically different individuals, the mother and her baby, during mammalian pregnancy. Contact occurs between fetal somatic or placental cells that enter the maternal systemic circulation or between uterine immune cells and the invading extravillous trophoblast. Here we discuss two main types of maternal allo-recognition of the fetus. One depends on avoidance of maternal T cells recognizing and responding to paternally-derived non-self human leukocyte antigens class I and class I allotypes...
June 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571033/how-to-develop-intelligence-gathering-in-efficient-and-practical-anti-doping-activities
#9
Mathieu Holz, Jack Robertson
Prior to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the fight against doping in sport was not unified; instead, it relied on individual approaches established by various stakeholders to make it effective. The scandal of the Festina Affair, during the Tour de France 1998, and other drug doping scandals revealed the ineffectiveness and inadequacy of such an approach. The resulting media scandal raised public authorities' awareness about the necessity to deal with doping in sport with a harmonized and a more effective approach...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571027/structure-and-development-of-the-list-of-prohibited-substances-and-methods
#10
Audrey Kinahan, Richard Budgett, Irene Mazzoni
The list of prohibited substances and methods (the List) is the international standard that determines what is prohibited in sport both in- and out-of-competition. Since 2004, the official text of the List is produced by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the international independent organization responsible for promoting, coordinating, and monitoring the fight against doping in sport. Originally based on the prohibited lists established by the International Olympic Committee, the List has evolved to incorporate new doping trends, distinguish permitted from prohibited routes of administration, and adjust to new analytical and pharmacological breakthroughs...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571022/therapeutic-use-exemptions
#11
David Gerrard, Andrew Pipe
The introduction, in 2004, of the World Anti-Doping Code and a standardized "prohibited list" of substances and methods proscribed in sport represented a consistent, international response to the escalating challenge of drug misuse in contemporary sport. Simultaneously, it was recognized that athletes experiencing illness or injury might legitimately require the use of "prohibited" medications or procedures, and the concept of the "therapeutic use exemption" (TUE) was introduced. The mechanisms of the TUE process are carefully defined and described in a specific WADA "international standard" (IS)...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571021/brief-history-of-anti-doping
#12
Arne Ljungqvist
The fight against doping in sport as we know it today commenced by the creation of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) Medical Commission in 1961 following the death of a Danish cyclist during the Rome Olympic Games the year before. After a slow start, the fight got under way as from the early 1970s under the leadership of the IOC and of the International Association of Athletics Federations. Despite a lack of understanding and weak support even from the sports community, a series of measures were taken during the 1970s and 1980s which still form cornerstones of today's anti-doping strategy...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570495/power-profiles-of-competitive-and-non-competitive-mountain-bikers
#13
Andrew R Novak, Kyle J M Bennett, Matthew A Pluss, Job Fransen, Mark L Watsford, Ben J Dascombe
The performance of Olympic distance cross-country mountain bikers (XCO-MTB) is affected by constraints such as erosion of track surfaces and mass start congestion which can affect race results. Standardised laboratory assessments quantify inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal cycling potential through the assessment of multiple physiological capacities. Therefore, this study examined whether the power profile assessment could discriminate between competitive XCO-MTB and non-competitive mountain bikers (NC-MTB)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550368/association-of-poverty-and-social-exclusion-with-body-mass-index-among-special-olympics-athletes-in-europe
#14
Pauli Rintala, Viviene A Temple, Meghann Lloyd, Chris Faro, John T Foley
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of a risk of poverty and social exclusion (AROPE), age, and gender with the body mass index (BMI) status of European Special Olympics athletes. METHODS: BMI records were available for 1905 children and youth and 5517 adults from the Special Olympics International (SOI) Health Promotion database. AROPE was extracted from EU Eurostat statistics. Logistic regression analyses were used to predict BMI status. RESULTS: For children/youth and adults, respectively, 9...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542091/normative-data-for-critical-speed-and-d-for-high-level-male-rugby-players
#15
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538318/do-fencers-require-a-weapon-specific-approach-to-strength-and-conditioning-training
#16
Anthony N Turner, Chris J Bishop, Jon A Cree, Michael L Edwards, Shyam Chavda, Paul J Read, David M J Kirby
Turner, AN, Bishop, CJ, Cree, JA, Edwards, ML, Chavda, S, Read, PJ, and Kirby, DMJ. Do fencers require a weapon-specific approach to strength and conditioning training? J Strength Cond Res 31(6): 1662-1668, 2017-There are 3 types of weapons used in Olympic fencing: the épée, foil, and sabre. The aim of this study was to determine if fencers exhibited different physical characteristics across weapons. Seventy-nine male (n = 46) and female (n = 33) national standard fencers took part in this study. Fencers from each weapon (male and female), i...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538307/can-cold-water-immersion-enhance-recovery-in-elite-olympic-weightlifters-an-individualized-perspective
#17
Jan Schimpchen, Maximilian Wagner, Alexander Ferrauti, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, Tim Meyer
We investigated whether cold water immersion (CWI) after intensive training sessions can enhance recovery in elite Olympic weightlifters, taking into account each athlete's individual response pattern. The entire German male Olympic weightlifting national team participated in the study (n = 7), ensuring collection of data from elite athletes only. Using a randomized cross-over design, the athletes went through 2 high-intensity training microcycles consisting of 5 training sessions that were either followed by a CWI or passive recovery...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536531/caffeine-and-bicarbonate-for-speed-a-meta-analysis-of-legal-supplements-potential-for-improving-intense-endurance-exercise-performance
#18
REVIEW
Peter M Christensen, Yusuke Shirai, Christian Ritz, Nikolai B Nordsborg
A 1% change in average speed is enough to affect medal rankings in intense Olympic endurance events lasting ~45 s to 8 min which for example includes 100 m swimming and 400 m running (~1 min), 1,500 m running and 4000 m track cycling (~4 min) and 2,000 m rowing (~6-8 min). To maximize the likelihood of winning, athletes utilizes legal supplements with or without scientifically documented beneficial effects on performance. Therefore, a continued systematic evidence based evaluation of the possible ergogenic effects is of high importance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535363/elite-status-maintained-a-12-year-physiological-and-performance-follow-up-of-two-olympic-champion-rowers
#19
Pavle Mikulic, Nikola Bralic
This case study reports the results of a 12-year (2005-2016) follow-up study of two Olympic champion rowers. The rowers were prospective athletes at the junior level when the study began, and we monitored their relevant physiological and performance data annually. Our findings indicated that their V̇O2max gradually increased up to about 22 years of age and leveled off at a value of approximately 7 l·min(-1) with minimal fluctuations thereafter. However, the variables that directly influence the V̇O2max changed...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509868/compact-eucapnic-voluntary-hyperpnoea-apparatus-for-exercise-induced-respiratory-disease-detection
#20
Lulu Wang, Ahmed Al-Jumaily
Eucapnic voluntary hyperpnoea (EVH) challenge provides objective criteria for exercise-induced asthma (EIA) or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and it was recommended to justify the use of inhaled β₂-agonists by athletes for the Olympics. This paper presents the development of a compact and easy-to-use EVH apparatus for assessing EIB in human subjects. The compact apparatus has been validated on human subjects and the results have been compared to the conventional EVH system. Twenty-two swimmers, including eleven healthy subjects and eleven subjects who had been physician-diagnosed with asthma, were recruited from sport and recreation centers throughout Auckland, New Zealand...
May 16, 2017: Sensors
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