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Relational binding and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905482/pharmacologic-modulation-of-ror%C3%AE-t-translates-to-efficacy-in-preclinical-and-translational-models-of-psoriasis-and-inflammatory-arthritis
#1
Xiaohua Xue, Pejman Soroosh, Aimee De Leon-Tabaldo, Rosa Luna-Roman, Marciano Sablad, Natasha Rozenkrants, Jingxue Yu, Glenda Castro, Homayon Banie, Wai-Ping Fung-Leung, Luis Santamaria-Babi, Thomas Schlueter, Michael Albers, Kristi Leonard, Alison L Budelsky, Anne M Fourie
The IL-23/IL-17 pathway is implicated in autoimmune diseases, particularly psoriasis, where biologics targeting IL-23 and IL-17 have shown significant clinical efficacy. Retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma t (RORγt) is required for Th17 differentiation and IL-17 production in adaptive and innate immune cells. We identified JNJ-54271074, a potent and highly-selective RORγt inverse agonist, which dose-dependently inhibited RORγt-driven transcription, decreased co-activator binding and promoted interaction with co-repressor protein...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900343/divergence-and-rewiring-of-regulatory-networks-for-neural-development-between-human-and-other-species
#2
COMMENT
Ping Wang, Dejian Zhao, Shira Rockowitz, Deyou Zheng
Neural and brain development in human and other mammalian species are largely similar, but distinct features exist at the levels of macrostructure and underlying genetic control. Comparative studies of epigenetic regulation and transcription factor (TF) binding in humans, chimpanzees, rodents, and other species have found large differences in gene regulatory networks. A recent analysis of the cistromes of REST/NRSF, a critical transcriptional regulator for the nervous system, demonstrated that REST binding to syntenic genomic regions (i...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880914/neuronal-ctcf-is-necessary-for-basal-and-experience-dependent-gene-regulation-memory-formation-and-genomic-structure-of-bdnf-and-arc
#3
Dev Sharan Sams, Stefano Nardone, Dmitriy Getselter, Dana Raz, Moran Tal, Prudhvi Raj Rayi, Hanoch Kaphzan, Ofir Hakim, Evan Elliott
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an organizer of higher-order chromatin structure and regulates gene expression. Genetic studies have implicated mutations in CTCF in intellectual disabilities. However, the role of CTCF-mediated chromatin structure in learning and memory is unclear. We show that depletion of CTCF in postmitotic neurons, or depletion in the hippocampus of adult mice through viral-mediated knockout, induces deficits in learning and memory. These deficits in learning and memory at the beginning of adulthood are correlated with impaired long-term potentiation and reduced spine density, with no changes in basal synaptic transmission and dendritic morphogenesis and arborization...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860258/sesamol-supplementation-prevents-systemic-inflammation-induced-memory-impairment-amyloidogenesis-via-inhibition-of-nuclear-factor-kappab
#4
Zhigang Liu, Yuwei Chen, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Qian Liu, Bo Ren, Xuebo Liu
SCOPE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of sesamol, a phenolic lignan from sesame, on the systemic inflammation-induced neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis as well as memory impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice were treated with 0.05% sesamol (w/v) in the drinking water for 7 weeks, and then the mice were treated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.25 mg/kg) for 9 days. Sesamol supplementation significantly improved (by 36...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852782/fatty-acid-binding-protein-5-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-regulates-endogenous-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-levels-and-cognitive-function
#5
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Kwok H C Choy, Annie X Zeng, Philip J Marriott, Yuji Owada, Martin J Scanlon, Christopher J H Porter, Joseph A Nicolazzo
: Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) at the blood-brain barrier contributes to the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a blood-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for maintenance of cognitive function. Given the importance of DHA in cognition, the aim of this study was to investigate whether deletion of FABP5 results in cognitive dysfunction and whether this is associated with reduced brain endothelial cell uptake of exogenous DHA and subsequent attenuation in the brain levels of endogenous DHA...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842943/raloxifene-increases-prefrontal-activity-during-emotional-inhibition-in-schizophrenia-based-on-estrogen-receptor-genotype
#6
Jochen Kindler, Cynthia Shannon Weickert, Peter R Schofield, Rhoshel Lenroot, Thomas W Weickert
People with schizophrenia show decreased prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during emotional response inhibition, a cognitive process sensitive to hormonal influences. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, binds estrogen receptor alpha (ESR-α), improves memory, attention and normalizes cortical and hippocampal activity during learning and emotional face recognition in schizophrenia. Here, we tested the extent to which raloxifene restores neuronal activity during emotional response inhibition in schizophrenia...
November 11, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837258/accumulation-and-decay-of-visual-capture-and-the-ventriloquism-aftereffect-caused-by-brief-audio-visual-disparities
#7
Adam K Bosen, Justin T Fleming, Paul D Allen, William E O'Neill, Gary D Paige
Visual capture and the ventriloquism aftereffect resolve spatial disparities of incongruent auditory visual (AV) objects by shifting auditory spatial perception to align with vision. Here, we demonstrated the distinct temporal characteristics of visual capture and the ventriloquism aftereffect in response to brief AV disparities. In a set of experiments, subjects localized either the auditory component of AV targets (A within AV) or a second sound presented at varying delays (1-20 s) after AV exposure (A2 after AV)...
November 11, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792185/lycopersicon-esculentum-extract-enhances-cognitive-function-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-aged-mice
#8
Jung-Soo Bae, Mira Han, Hee Soon Shin, Dong-Hwa Shon, Soon-Tae Lee, Chang-Yup Shin, Yuri Lee, Dong Hun Lee, Jin Ho Chung
A decrease in adult neurogenesis is associated with the aging process, and this decrease is closely related to memory impairment. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a fruit with diverse bioactive nutrients that is consumed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the cognition-enhancing effect of tomato ethanolic extracts (TEE) in aged mice. Six weeks of oral TEE administration in 12-month-old aged mice significantly increased their exploration time of novel objects when compared to vehicle-treated mice. The TEE supplement increased doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95) expression in mice hippocampus...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789726/monocyte-activation-is-associated-with-worse-cognitive-performance-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-women
#9
Brandon M Imp, Leah H Rubin, Phyllis C Tien, Michael W Plankey, Elizabeth T Golub, Audrey L French, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND:  Cognitive impairment persists despite suppression of plasma HIV RNA. Monocyte-related immune activation is a likely mechanism. We examined immune activation and cognition in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS:  Blood levels of activation markers, soluble CD163 (sCD163), soluble CD14 (sCD14), CRP, IL-6, and a gut microbial translocation marker (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP)) were measured in 253 women (73% HIV-infected)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774954/regularity-effect-in-prospective-memory-during-aging
#10
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768969/taurine-promotes-cognitive-function-in-prenatally-stressed-juvenile-rats-via-activating-the-akt-creb-pgc1%C3%AE-pathway
#11
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766083/behavioral-neuroadaptation-to-alcohol-from-glucocorticoids-to-histone-acetylation
#12
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760761/mva-vaccine-encoding-cmv-antigens-safely-induces-durable-expansion-of-cmv-specific-t-cells-in-healthy-adults
#13
Corinna La Rosa, Jeff Longmate, Joy Martinez, Qiao Zhou, Teodora I Kaltcheva, Weimin Tsai, Jennifer Drake, Mary Carroll, Felix Wussow, Flavia Chiuppesi, Nicola Hardwick, Sanjeet Dadwal, Ibrahim Aldoss, Ryotaro Nakamura, John A Zaia, Don J Diamond
Attenuated poxvirus Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding three immunodominant CMV antigens which stimulates a host anti-viral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination)...
October 19, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748060/developmental-regulation-of-rna-processing-by-rbfox-proteins
#14
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722926/mpp-lesioned-mice-an-experimental-model-of-motor-emotional-memory-learning-and-striatal-neurochemical-dysfunctions
#15
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708533/rice-bran-dietary-supplementation-improves-neurological-symptoms-and-loss-of-purkinje-cells-in-vitamin-e-deficient-mice
#16
Toru Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Yosuke Horikoshi, Takehiko Hanaki, Miho Yamakawa, Masato Nakasone, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Taisuke Koike, Tatsuya Matsura
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E (VE, α-tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is well known as an antioxidant. A deficiency in VE induces oxidative stress in the brain and causes motor and memory dysfunction. The consumption of a VE-rich diet has been given much attention in recent years, in regards to anti-aging and the prevention of age-related neuronal disorders. METHODS: A VE-deficient mouse model was prepared by feeding the animals a diet lacking VE. In addition, to evaluate the effect of VE-containing rice bran (RB) on VE deficiency, a diet including RB was also provided...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706932/do-specific-nmda-receptor-subunits-act-as-gateways-for-addictive-behaviors
#17
F Woodward Hopf
Addiction to alcohol and drugs is a major social and economic problem, and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote addictive drives. A number of proteins have been identified that contribute to expression of addictive behaviors. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have been of particular interest because their physiological properties make them an attractive candidate for gating induction of synaptic plasticity, a molecular change thought to mediate learning and memory...
October 5, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694152/tdp-43-stage-mixed-pathologies-and-clinical-alzheimer-s-type-dementia
#18
Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Patricia A Boyle, John Q Trojanowski, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects...
September 30, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690494/-life-span-development-of-visual-working-memory-when-is-feature-binding-difficult-correction-to-cowan-et-al-2006
#19
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult?" by Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Angela Kilb and J. Scott Saults (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Nov], Vol 42[6], 1089-1102). In the article, there were two errors in experiment 1a. The mean for color item information in older adults was incorrectly calculated. As a result, Figure 3 shows a mean of over .70. The true mean was .63 (SEM=.04). This change diminishes the magnitude of the aging deficit for associative information, although this deficit still appears to remain, to a smaller extent...
October 2016: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689871/functional-disparities-among-bcl-2-members-in-tonsillar-and-leukemic-b-cell-subsets-assessed-by-bh3-mimetic-profiling
#20
Victor Peperzak, Erik Slinger, Johanna Ter Burg, Eric Eldering
For successful treatment of malignant B-cells it is crucial to understand intrinsic survival requirements in relation to their normal progenitors. Long-lived humoral immunity as well as most B-cell malignancies, originate in the germinal center (GC). Murine GC B-cells depend on pro-survival protein MCL-1, but not BCL-XL. In contrast, naive and memory B-cells depend on BCL-2, but not BCL-XL or MCL-1. For human B-cell subsets, the functional relationships among BCL-2 members are unclear, and also if and how they shift after malignant transformation...
September 30, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
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