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Relational binding and memory

Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Selma Lugtmeijer, Edward H F de Haan, Roy P C Kessels
Working memory and episodic memory decline with age.  However, as they are typically studied separately, it is largely unknown whether age-associated differences are similar. A task design was developed in which visual working memory and episodic memory performances were measured using the same stimuli, with both tasks involving context binding. A 2-back working memory task was followed by a surprise subsequent recognition memory task that assessed incidental encoding of object locations of the 2-back task...
March 20, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Xinlei Wang, Guoyou Ding, Wei Lai, Shiwen Liu, Jun Shuai
Anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment is a recognized clinical phenomenon. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of microRNA-383 (miR-383) expression on propofol-induced learning and memory impairment. In total, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250±10 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=12 each): Control group, and three groups of rats that were anesthetized with propofol for 6 h and untreated (propofol model group), treated with a constructed lentivirus vector expressing miR-383 mimics (mimic + propofol group), or treated with miR-383 scramble (scramble + propofol group)...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Adam J Pelzek, Bo Shopsin, Emily E Radke, Kayan Tam, Beatrix M Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Stuart M Brown, Qianhao Li, Ada Rubin, Yi Fulmer, William K Chiang, David N Hernandez, Hanane El Bannoudi, William E Sause, Alexis Sommerfield, Isaac P Thomsen, Andy O Miller, Victor J Torres, Gregg J Silverman
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and invasive infections in the hospital and community. High mortality from infection emphasizes the need for improved methods for prevention and treatment. Although S. aureus possesses an arsenal of virulence factors that contribute to evasion of host defenses, few studies have examined long-term humoral and B-cell responses. Adults with acute-phase skin and soft tissue infections were recruited; blood samples were obtained; and S...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Nannan Guo, Marta E Soden, Charlotte Herber, Michael TaeWoo Kim, Antoine Besnard, Paoyan Lin, Xiang Ma, Constance L Cepko, Larry S Zweifel, Amar Sahay
Memories become less precise and generalized over time as memory traces reorganize in hippocampal-cortical networks. Increased time-dependent loss of memory precision is characterized by an overgeneralization of fear in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or age-related cognitive impairments. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), memories are thought to be encoded by so-called 'engram-bearing' dentate granule cells (eDGCs). Here we show, using rodents, that contextual fear conditioning increases connectivity between eDGCs and inhibitory interneurons (INs) in the downstream hippocampal CA3 region...
March 12, 2018: Nature Medicine
Deepak Cyril D'Souza, Richard E Carson, Naomi Driesen, Jason Johannesen, Mohini Ranganathan, John H Krystal
BACKGROUND: Glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitors may ameliorate cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. The dose-related occupancy and target engagement of the GlyT1 inhibitor PF-03463275 were studied to inform optimal dose selection for a clinical trial for cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia. METHODS: In substudy 1, the effects of PF-03463275 (10, 20, and 40 mg twice a day) on occupancy of GlyT1 were tested using positron emission tomography and18 F-MK-6577, and visual long-term potentiation (LTP) in schizophrenia patients (SZs) and healthy control subjects...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
John M McCormick-Huhn, Hui Chen, Bradley P Wyble, Nancy A Dennis
Previous work has shown mixed evidence regarding age-related deficits for binding in working memory. The current study used the newly developed attribute amnesia effect (H. Chen & Wyble, 2015a) to test the associative-deficit hypothesis during working memory and to probe whether hyper-binding extends to include binding of de-selected information. In studies of attribute amnesia, participants use target attributes (e.g., identity, color) to demonstrate near ceiling levels of reporting of a second target attribute (e...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Alexis C Carpenter, Daniel L Schacter
Episodic memory involves flexible retrieval processes that allow a person to link elements of distinct episodes in order to make novel inferences across events. In younger adults, we recently found that the same retrieval-related recombination mechanism that supports successful associative inference produces source misattributions as a consequence of erroneous binding of contextual elements from distinct episodes. In the current experiment, we found that older adults, in contrast to younger adults, did not show an increase in source misattributions following successful associative inference...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Hope C Fine, Yee Lee Shing, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Older adults seem to have a special difficulty binding components of their episodic memories to each other and retrieving these bound units. This phenomenon, known as the age-related associative memory deficit, is partially driven by high false alarm rates in the associative test. The current research examines whether 2 factors: (a) manipulations of changes of schematic support between study and test (potentially affecting recollection) and (b) item repetition (potentially affecting item familiarity) might decrease older adults' false alarm rate, thereby resulting in a smaller associative memory deficit...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Alexander L M Siegel, Alan D Castel
Older adults typically experience memory impairments for verbal and visuospatial episodic information, which are most pronounced for associative information. Although some age-related verbal memory deficits may be reduced by selectively focusing on high-value item information, the binding of items to locations in visuospatial memory involves different processes that are impaired in older adults. In the current study, we examined whether age-related impairment in visuospatial binding could be alleviated by strategic focus on important information and whether varying study time and presentation formats would affect such selectivity...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Ulrich Mayr
Systematic research and anecdotal evidence both indicate declines in episodic memory in older adults in good health without dementia-related disorders. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain these age-related changes in episodic memory, some of which attribute such declines to a deterioration in associative memory. The current special issue of Psychology and Aging on Age-Related Differences in Associative Memory includes 16 articles by top researchers in the area of memory and aging. Their contributions provide a wealth of empirical work that addresses different aspects of aging and associative memory, including different mediators and predictors of age-related declines in binding and associative memory, cognitive, noncognitive, genetic, and neuro-related ones...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
Fabian Schlott, Dominik Steubl, Stefanie Ameres, Andreas Moosmann, Stefan Dreher, Uwe Heemann, Volker Hösel, Dirk H Busch, Michael Neuenhahn
Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation remains a major source of morbidity in patients after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) with CMV-specific T cells is a promising therapeutic approach for HSCT recipients, but might be counteracted by CMV's immune evasion strategies. HLA-C*07:02 is less susceptible to viral immune evasion suggesting HLA-C*07:02-restricted viral epitopes as promising targets for ACT. For a better understanding of HLA-C*07:02-restricted CMV-specific T cells we used recently generated reversible HLA-C*07:02/IE-1 multimers (Streptamers) recognizing a CMV-derived Immediate-Early-1 (IE-1) epitope and analyzed phenotypic and functional T cell characteristics...
2018: PloS One
Jing-Yu Xiao, Bing-Rui Xiong, Wen Zhang, Wen-Chang Zhou, Hui Yang, Feng Gao, Hong-Bing Xiang, Anne Manyande, Xue-Bi Tian, Yu-Ke Tian
AIM: Multifactors contribute to the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), of which the most important mechanism is neuroinflammation. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key neuroinflammatory molecule and could modulate hippocampal synaptic transmission and plasticity. This study was designed to investigate whether PGE2 and its receptors signaling pathway were involved in the pathophysiology of POCD. METHODS: Sixteen-month old male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to laparotomy...
February 27, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Juan A Paez, Nuria E Campillo
The discovery of cannabinoid receptors at the beginning of the 1990s, CB1 being cloned in 1990 and CB2 cloned in 1993, and the availability of selective and potent cannabimimetics could only be justified by the existence of endogenous ligands that are capable of binding to them. Thus, the characterisation and cloning of the first cannabinoid receptor (CB1) led to the isolation and characterisation of the first endocannabinoid, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), two years later and the subsequent identification of a family of lipid transmitters known as the fatty acid ester 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)...
February 25, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Leila M Guissoni Campos, Alessandre Hataka, Isis Z Vieira, Rogério L Buchaim, Isadora F Robalinho, Giovanna E P S Arantes, Joyce S Viégas, Henrique Bosso, Rafael M Bravos, Luciana Pinato
Oscillations of brain proteins in circadian rhythms are important for determining several cellular and physiological processes in anticipation of daily and seasonal environmental rhythms. In addition to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary central oscillator, the cerebellum shows oscillations in gene and protein expression. The variety of local circuit rhythms that the cerebellar cortex contains influences functions such as motivational processes, regulation of feeding, food anticipation, language, and working memory...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jamshed Iqbal, Muhammad Shakeel Ahmad Abbasi, Sumera Zaib, Saifullah Afridi, Norbert Furtmann, Jurgen Bajorath, Peter Langer
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among aging population. This devastating disorder is generally associated with the gradual memory loss, specified by decrease of acetylcholine level in the cortex hippocampus of the brain due to hyper-activation of cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)). OBJECTIVE: Therefore, inactivation of AChE and BChE by inhibitors can increase the acetylcholine level and hence may be an encouraging strategy for the treatment of AD and related neurological problems...
February 21, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Cong Lu, Jingwei Lv, Liming Dong, Ning Jiang, Yan Wang, Qiong Wang, Yinghui Li, Shanguang Chen, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxatriol (PPT), one of the ginsenosides from Panax ginseng, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects and to improve memory. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PPT on scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were pretreated with 2 different doses of PPT (20 and 40 μmol/kg) for 27 days by intraperitoneal injection, and scopolamine (0.75 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 9 days to induce memory impairment...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Andrew C Heusser, Youssef Ezzyat, Ilana Shiff, Lila Davachi
Episodic memories are not veridical records of our lives, but rather are better described as organized summaries of experience. Theories and empirical research suggest that shifts in perceptual, temporal, and semantic information lead to a chunking of our continuous experiences into segments, or "events." However, the consequences of these contextual shifts on memory formation and organization remains unclear. In a series of 3 behavioral studies, we introduced context shifts (or "event boundaries") between trains of stimuli and then examined the influence of the boundaries on several measures of associative memory...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Pâmella K Frühauf-Perez, Fernanda R Temp, Micheli M Pillat, Cristiane Signor, Arithane Lorena Wendel, Henning Ulrich, Carlos F Mello, Maribel A Rubin
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been long known to promote neuroinflammation and learning and memory deficits. Since spermine, one of the main natural polyamines in the central nervous system, protects from LPS-induced memory deficit by a mechanism that comprises GluN2B receptors, the aim of the present study was to determine whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor and cAMP response element binding (CREB) are involved in this protective effect of spermine...
February 16, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lara A Aqrawi, Margarita Ivanchenko, Albin Björk, Jorge I Ramírez Sepúlveda, Juliana Imgenberg-Kreuz, Marika Kvarnström, Philipp Haselmayer, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Gunnel Nordmark, Karine Chemin, Kathrine Skarstein, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
Genetic investigations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) have identified a susceptibility locus at p23.3 of chromosome 11, which contains the CXCR5 gene. CXCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed on B and T cell subsets, and binds the chemotactic ligand CXCL13. We here aimed to link the genetic association with functional effects and explore the CXCR5/CXCL13 axis in SS. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis of the 11q23.3 locus was performed using B cell mRNA expression data from genotyped individuals. Lymphocyte surface markers were assessed by flow cytometry, and CXCL13 levels by a proximity extension assay...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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