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Relational binding and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343962/contextually-mediated-spontaneous-retrieval-is-specific-to-the-hippocampus
#1
Nicole M Long, Michael R Sperling, Gregory A Worrell, Kathryn A Davis, Robert E Gross, Bradley C Lega, Barbara C Jobst, Sameer A Sheth, Kareem Zaghloul, Joel M Stein, Michael J Kahana
Although it is now well established that the hippocampus supports memory encoding [1, 2], little is known about hippocampal activity during spontaneous memory retrieval. Recent intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) work has shown that hippocampal activity during encoding predicts subsequent temporal organization of memories [3], supporting a role in contextual binding. It is an open question, however, whether the hippocampus similarly supports contextually mediated processes during retrieval. Here, we analyzed iEEG recordings obtained from 215 epilepsy patients as they performed a free recall task...
March 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337159/hey-teacher-don-t-leave-them-kids-alone-action-is-better-for-memory-than-reading
#2
Mathieu Hainselin, Laurence Picard, Patrick Manolli, Sophie Vankerkore-Candas, Béatrice Bourdin
There is no consensus on how the enactment effect (EE), although it is robust, enhances memory. Researchers are currently investigating the cognitive processes underlying this effect, mostly during adulthood; the link between EE and crucial function identified in adulthood such as episodic memory and binding process remains elusive. Therefore, this study aims to verify the existence of EE in 6-10 years old and assess cognitive functions potentially linked to this effect in order to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the EE during childhood...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333504/healthy-aging-and-visual-working-memory-the-effect-of-mixing-feature-and-conjunction-changes
#3
Stephen Rhodes, Mario A Parra, Nelson Cowan, Robert H Logie
It has been suggested that an age-related decrease in the ability to bind and retain conjunctions of features may account for some of the pronounced decline of visual working memory (VWM) across the adult life span. So far the evidence for this proposal has been mixed with some suggesting a specific deficit in binding to location, while the retention of surface feature conjunctions (e.g., color-shape) appears to remain largely intact. The present experiments follow up on the results of an earlier study, which found that older adults were specifically poor at detecting conjunction changes when they were mixed with trials containing changes to individual features, relative to when these trials were blocked (Cowan, Naveh-Benjamin, Kilb, & Saults, 2006)...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321185/sex-matters-hippocampal-volume-predicts-individual-differences-in-associative-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-women-but-not-men
#4
Zhiwei Zheng, Rui Li, Fengqiu Xiao, Rongqiao He, Shouzi Zhang, Juan Li
The hippocampus plays a prominent role in associative memory by supporting relational binding and recollection processes. Structural atrophy in the hippocampus is likely to induce associative memory deficits in older adults. Previous studies have primarily focused on average age-related differences in hippocampal structure and memory performance. To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in hippocampal morphometry underlie differential associative memory performance, and whether there are sex differences in the structural correlates of associative memory in healthy older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286180/dysregulation-of-bet-proteins-in-levodopa-induced-dyskinesia
#5
David A Figge, David G Standaert
Levodopa (L-DOPA) remains the most effective pharmacological treatment for Parkinson Disease (PD) but its use is limited by the development of debilitating drug-related side effects, particularly L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID). LID is a consequence of long-term L-DOPA use, and in model systems is characterized by a "priming effect", whereby initial administrations of L-DOPA trigger a sensitized biochemical and transcriptional response upon subsequent dopaminergic stimulation. Preliminary studies into the mechanisms underlying this cellular memory have indicated an important role for epigenetic change but many of the downstream mechanisms remain unknown...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283662/exhaustion-associated-regulatory-regions-in-cd8-tumor-infiltrating-t-cells
#6
Giuliana P Mognol, Roberto Spreafico, Victor Wong, James P Scott-Browne, Susan Togher, Alexander Hoffmann, Patrick G Hogan, Anjana Rao, Sara Trifari
T-cell exhaustion is a progressive loss of effector function and memory potential due to persistent antigen exposure, which occurs in chronic viral infections and cancer. Here we investigate the relation between gene expression and chromatin accessibility in CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that recognize a model tumor antigen and have features of both activation and functional exhaustion. By filtering out accessible regions observed in bystander, nonexhausted TILs and in acutely restimulated CD8(+) T cells, we define a pattern of chromatin accessibility specific for T-cell exhaustion, characterized by enrichment for consensus binding motifs for Nr4a and NFAT transcription factors...
March 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278364/methyl-cpg-level-at-distal-part-of-heat-shock-protein-promoter-hsp70-exhibits-epigenetic-memory-for-heat-stress-by-modulating-recruitment-of-pou2f1-associated-nucleosome-remodeling-deacetylase-nurd-complex
#7
Tatiana Kisliouk, Tomer Cramer, Noam Meiri
Depending on its stringency, exposure to heat in early life leads to either resilience or vulnerability to heat stress later in life. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations in genes belonging to the cell proteostasis pathways are attributed to long-term responses to heat stress. Epigenetic regulation of the mRNA expression of the molecular chaperone heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 (HSPA2) was evaluated in the chick hypothalamus during the critical period of thermal-control establishment on day 3 posthatch and during heat challenge on day 10...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275781/aqueous-extracts-from-asparagus-stems-prevent-memory-impairments-in-scopolamine-treated-mice
#8
Zifang Sui, Ce Qi, Yunxiang Huang, Shufeng Ma, Xinguo Wang, Guowei Le, Jin Sun
Aqueous extracts from Asparagus officinalis L. stems (AEAS) are rich in polysaccharides, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and steroidal saponin. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AEAS on learning, memory, and acetylcholinesterase-related activity in a scopolamine-induced model of amnesia. Sixty ICR mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10) including the control group (CT), scopolamine group (SC), donepezil group (DON), low, medium, and high dose groups of AEAS (LS, MS, HS; 1.6 mL kg(-1), 8 mL kg(-1), 16 mL kg(-1))...
March 9, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#9
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270755/sleep-enhances-recognition-memory-for-conspecifics-as-bound-into-spatial-context
#10
Anuck Sawangjit, Eduard Kelemen, Jan Born, Marion Inostroza
Social memory refers to the fundamental ability of social species to recognize their conspecifics in quite different contexts. Sleep has been shown to benefit consolidation, especially of hippocampus-dependent episodic memory whereas effects of sleep on social memory are less well studied. Here, we examined the effect of sleep on memory for conspecifics in rats. To discriminate interactions between the consolidation of social memory and of spatial context during sleep, adult Long Evans rats performed on a social discrimination task in a radial arm maze...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263619/the-role-of-attention-in-item-item-binding-in-visual-working-memory
#11
Dwight J Peterson, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
An important yet unresolved question regarding visual working memory (VWM) relates to whether or not binding processes within VWM require additional attentional resources compared with processing solely the individual components comprising these bindings. Previous findings indicate that binding of surface features (e.g., colored shapes) within VWM is not demanding of resources beyond what is required for single features. However, it is possible that other types of binding, such as the binding of complex, distinct items (e...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257976/the-pbx1-lupus-susceptibility-gene-regulates-cd44-expression
#12
Yuxin Niu, Mayami Sengupta, Anton A Titov, Seung-Chul Choi, Laurence Morel
PBX1-d is novel splice isoform of pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1 (PBX1) that lacks its DNA-binding and Hox-binding domains, and functions as a dominant negative. We have shown that PBX1-d expression in CD4(+) T cells is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a mouse model as well as in human subjects. More specifically, PBX1-d expression leads to the production of autoreactive activated CD4+ T cells, a reduced frequency and function of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and an expansion of follicular helper T (Tfh) cells...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252217/novel-epigenetic-controlling-of-hypoxia-pathway-related-to-overexpression-and-promoter-hypomethylation-of-tet1-and-tet2-in-rpe-cells
#13
Mohammad Reza Alivand, Zahra-Soheila Soheili, Majid Pornour, Saeed Solali, Farzaneh Sabouni
CpG methylation of DNA takes part in a specific epigenetic memory that plays crucial roles in the differentiation and abnormality of the cells. The methylation pattern aberration of genomes is affected in three ways, namely DNA methyltransferase(DNMT), Ten-eleven translocation(TET), and methyl-binding Domain(MBD) proteins. Of these, TET enzymes have recently been demonstrated to be master modifier enzymes in the DNA methylation process. Additionally, recent studies emphasize that not only do epigenetic phenomena play a role in controlling hypoxia pathway, but the hypoxia condition also triggers hypomethylation of genomes that may help with the expression of hypoxia pathway genes...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237686/age-related-changes-in-neural-oscillations-supporting-context-memory-retrieval
#14
Jonathan Strunk, Taylor James, Jason Arndt, Audrey Duarte
Recent evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations during encoding improves young and older adults' context memory performance and reduces demands on executive functions during retrieval. In everyday situations, there are many event features competing for our attention, and our ability to successfully recover those details may depend on our ability to ignore others. Failures of selective attention may contribute to older adults' context memory impairments. In the current electroencephalogram (EEG) study, we assessed the effects of age on processes supporting successful context memory retrieval of selectively attended features as indexed by neural oscillations...
February 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219653/the-neurocognitive-basis-of-borrowed-context-information
#15
Meagan O'Neill, Rachel A Diana
Falsely remembered items can be accompanied by episodic context retrieval. This finding is difficult to explain because there is no episode that binds the remembered item to the experimenter-controlled context features. The current study examines the neural correlates of false context retrieval when the context features can be traced to encoding episodes of semantically-similar items. Our neuroimaging results support a "dissociated source" mechanism for context borrowing in false memory. We found that parahippocampal cortex (PHc) activation, thought to indicate context retrieval, was greater during trials that involved context borrowing (an incorrect, but plausible source decision) than during baseline correct context retrieval...
January 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215821/holistic-versus-feature-based-binding-in-the-medial-temporal-lobe
#16
Rebecca N van den Honert, Gregory McCarthy, Marcia K Johnson
A central question for cognitive neuroscience is how feature-combinations that give rise to episodic/source memories are encoded in the brain. Although there is much evidence that the hippocampus (HIP) is involved in feature binding, and some evidence that other brain regions are as well, there is relatively little evidence about the nature of the resulting representations in different brain regions. We used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to investigate how feature combinations might be represented, contrasting two possibilities, feature-based versus holistic...
January 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214577/parafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-decreases-nmda-receptor-glun1-subunit-gene-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Mónica R Fernández-Cabrera, Abraham Selvas, Miguel Miguéns, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Anna Vale-Martínez, Emilio Ambrosio, Margarita Martí-Nicolovius, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch
The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202389/targeting-the-hdac2-hnf-4a-mir-101b-ampk-pathway-rescues-tauopathy-and-dendritic-abnormalities-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Dan Liu, Hui Tang, Xin-Yan Li, Man-Fei Deng, Na Wei, Xiong Wang, Ya-Fan Zhou, Ding-Qi Wang, Peng Fu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Sébastien S Hébert, Jian-Guo Chen, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays a major role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that HDAC2 expression is strongly increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Moreover, previous studies have linked HDAC2 to Aβ overproduction in AD; however, its involvement in tau pathology and other memory-related functions remains unclear. Here, we show that increased HDAC2 levels strongly correlate with phosphorylated tau in a mouse model of AD...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183334/circulating-plasmablasts-plasma-cells-a-potential-biomarker-for-igg4-related-disease
#19
Wei Lin, Panpan Zhang, Hua Chen, Yu Chen, Hongxian Yang, Wenjie Zheng, Xuan Zhang, Fengxiao Zhang, Wen Zhang, Peter E Lipsky
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multisystem fibroinflammatory disease. We previously reported that a circulating cell population expressing CD19(+)CD24(-)CD38(hi) was increased in patients with IgG4-RD. In this study, we aimed to document that this cell population represented circulating plasmablasts/plasma cells, to identify the detailed phenotype and gene expression profile of these IgG4-secreting plasmablasts/plasma cells, and to determine whether this B-cell lineage subset could be a biomarker in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD)...
February 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162919/cholinergic-receptor-binding-in-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-aging-assessment-in-vivo-with-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#20
David L Sultzer, Rebecca J Melrose, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Theresa A Narvaez, Joseph Veliz, Timothy K Ando, Kevin O Juarez, Dylan G Harwood, Arthur L Brody, Mark A Mandelkern
OBJECTIVE: To compare regional nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy older adults in vivo and to assess relationships between receptor binding and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging and structured clinical assessment, outpatients with mild to moderate AD (N = 24) and healthy older adults without cognitive complaints (C group; N = 22) were studied...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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