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Relational binding and memory

Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Nicole Mons, Daniel Beracochea
A prime mechanism that contributes to the development and maintenance of alcoholism is the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and the release of glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans and primates, corticosterone in rodents) from the adrenal glands. In the brain, sustained, local elevation of glucocorticoid concentration even long after cessation of chronic alcohol consumption compromises functional integrity of a circuit, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus (HPC), and the amygdala (AMG)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Corinna La Rosa, Jeff Longmate, Joy Martinez, Qiao Zhou, Teodora I Kaltcheva, Weimin Tsai, Jennifer Drake, Mary Carroll, Felix Wussow, Flavia Chiuppesi, Nicola Hardwick, Sanjeet Dadwal, Ibrahim Aldoss, Ryotaro Nakamura, John A Zaia, Don J Diamond
Attenuated poxvirus Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a useful viral-based vaccine for clinical investigation, because of its excellent safety profile and property of inducing potent immune responses against recombinant (r) antigens. We developed Triplex by constructing an rMVA encoding three immunodominant CMV antigens which stimulates a host anti-viral response: UL83 (pp65), UL123 (IE1-exon4), and UL122 (IE2-exon5). We completed the first clinical evaluation of the Triplex vaccine in 24 healthy adults, with or without immunity to CMV and vaccinia virus (previous DryVax smallpox vaccination)...
October 19, 2016: Blood
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Josiane Budni, Ágatha Oliveira, Júlia M Rosa, Gianni Mancini, Leidiane Mazzardo, André R Colla, Marina C Leite, Adair R S Santos, Daniel F Martins, Andreza F de Bem, Carlos Alberto S Gonçalves, Marcelo Farina, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induces motor and nonmotor dysfunctions resembling Parkinson's disease (PD); however, studies investigating the effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active oxidative product of MPTP, are scarce. This study investigated the behavioral and striatal neurochemical changes (related to oxidative damage, glial markers, and neurotrophic factors) 24 h after intracerebroventricular administration of MPP(+) (1.8-18 μg/mouse) in C57BL6 mice...
October 8, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Toru Takahashi, Kazuhiro Nakaso, Yosuke Horikoshi, Takehiko Hanaki, Miho Yamakawa, Masato Nakasone, Yoshinori Kitagawa, Taisuke Koike, Tatsuya Matsura
BACKGROUND: Vitamin E (VE, α-tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is well known as an antioxidant. A deficiency in VE induces oxidative stress in the brain and causes motor and memory dysfunction. The consumption of a VE-rich diet has been given much attention in recent years, in regards to anti-aging and the prevention of age-related neuronal disorders. METHODS: A VE-deficient mouse model was prepared by feeding the animals a diet lacking VE. In addition, to evaluate the effect of VE-containing rice bran (RB) on VE deficiency, a diet including RB was also provided...
September 2016: Yonago Acta Medica
F Woodward Hopf
Addiction to alcohol and drugs is a major social and economic problem, and there is considerable interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms that promote addictive drives. A number of proteins have been identified that contribute to expression of addictive behaviors. NMDA receptors (NMDARs), a subclass of ionotropic glutamate receptors, have been of particular interest because their physiological properties make them an attractive candidate for gating induction of synaptic plasticity, a molecular change thought to mediate learning and memory...
October 5, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Bryan D James, Robert S Wilson, Patricia A Boyle, John Q Trojanowski, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
Hyperphosphorylated transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) proteinopathy has recently been described in ageing and in association with cognitive impairment, especially in the context of Alzheimer's disease pathology. To explore the role of mixed Alzheimer's disease and TDP-43 pathologies in clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia, we performed a comprehensive investigation of TDP-43, mixed pathologies, and clinical Alzheimer's-type dementia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older subjects...
September 30, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult?" by Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Angela Kilb and J. Scott Saults (, 2006[Nov], Vol 42[6], 1089-1102). In the article, there were two errors in experiment 1a. The mean for color item information in older adults was incorrectly calculated. As a result, Figure 3 shows a mean of over .70. The true mean was .63 (=.04). This change diminishes the magnitude of the aging deficit for associative information, although this deficit still appears to remain, to a smaller extent...
October 2016: Developmental Psychology
Victor Peperzak, Erik Slinger, Johanna Ter Burg, Eric Eldering
For successful treatment of malignant B-cells it is crucial to understand intrinsic survival requirements in relation to their normal progenitors. Long-lived humoral immunity as well as most B-cell malignancies, originate in the germinal center (GC). Murine GC B-cells depend on pro-survival protein MCL-1, but not BCL-XL. In contrast, naive and memory B-cells depend on BCL-2, but not BCL-XL or MCL-1. For human B-cell subsets, the functional relationships among BCL-2 members are unclear, and also if and how they shift after malignant transformation...
September 30, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Nicholas Glanville, Tamlyn J Peel, Armin Schröder, Julia Aniscenko, Ross P Walton, Susetta Finotto, Sebastian L Johnston
Current understanding of adaptive immune, particularly T cell, responses to human rhinoviruses (RV) is limited. Memory T cells are thought to be of a primarily T helper 1 type, but both T helper 1 and T helper 2 memory cells have been described, and heightened T helper 2/ lessened T helper 1 responses have been associated with increased RV-induced asthma exacerbation severity. We examined the contribution of T helper 1 cells to RV-induced airways inflammation using mice deficient in the transcription factor T-Box Expressed In T Cells (Tbet), a critical controller of T helper 1 cell differentiation...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Amanda K Huber, David A Giles, Benjamin M Segal, David N Irani
Eotaxins are C-C motif chemokines first identified as potent eosinophil chemoattractants. They facilitate eosinophil recruitment to sites of inflammation in response to parasitic infections as well as allergic and autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. The eotaxin family currently includes three members: eotaxin-1 (CCL11), eotaxin-2 (CCL24), and eotaxin-3 (CCL26). Despite having only ~30% sequence homology to one another, each was identified based on its ability to bind the chemokine receptor, CCR3...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Reza Khodarahmi, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi-Kooshk
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, formation of neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic loss and neuronal cell death, and is manifested clinically by progressive cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. Disease pathogenesis is mainly linked to the formation of Aβ insoluble or soluble oligomeric assemblies. Binding of heme to Aβ has been suggested as the origin of the heme deficiency, peroxidase activity, as well as some oxidative stress-mediated AD pathologies, and then differential affinity of heme for human and rodent Aβ peptide has been proposed to account for the susceptibility of humans to AD...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mary F Barbe, Jessica J Krueger, Regina Loomis, Jessica Otte, Jennifer Gordon
Pur-alpha is a highly conserved sequence-specific DNA and RNA binding protein with established roles in DNA replication, RNA translation, cell cycle regulation, and maintenance of neuronal differentiation. Prior studies have shown that mice lacking Pur-alpha (-/-) display decreased neurogenesis and impaired neuronal differentiation. We sought to examine for the first time, the behavioral phenotype and brain histopathology of mice that are heterozygous (+/-) for Pur-alpha. Standardized behavioral phenotyping revealed a decreased escape response to touch, limb and abdominal hypotonia, and gait abnormalities in heterozygous Pur-alpha (+/-) mice, compared to wild-type (+/+) littermates...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
Goran Papenberg, Nina Becker, Beata Ferencz, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Erika J Laukka, Lars Bäckman, Yvonne Brehmer
Previous research shows that associative memory declines more than item memory in aging. Although the underlying mechanisms of this selective impairment remain poorly understood, animal and human data suggest that dopaminergic modulation may be particularly relevant for associative binding. We investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) receptor genes on item and associative memory in a population-based sample of older adults (n = 525, aged 60 years), assessed with a face-scene item associative memory task...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sélim Yahia Coll, Didier Grandjean
Our brain codes the features of perceptual events in a distributed fashion, raising the question of how information belonging to one event is processed without any interference of features from other events. Hommel (1998) suggested the "event file" concept to elucidate these mechanisms: an episodic memory trace "binding" together perceptual features and actions related to an object. Using a similar paradigm, we designed a pilot experiment and four additional experiments to investigate whether emotion, similarly than perceptual features, could bind with a motor response when the emotion was relevant and irrelevant for the task...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
Valentina La Corte, Marco Sperduti, Caroline Malherbe, François Vialatte, Stéphanie Lion, Thierry Gallarda, Catherine Oppenheim, Pascale Piolino
Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Emma E Howard, S Gareth Edwards, Andrew P Bayliss
We investigated the effect of effort on implicit agency ascription for actions performed under varying levels of physical effort or cognitive load. People are able to estimate the interval between two events accurately, but they underestimate the interval between their own actions and their outcomes. This effect is known as 'intentional binding', and may provide feedback regarding the consequences of our actions. Concurrently with the interval reproduction task, our participants pulled sports resistance bands at high and low resistance levels (Experiments 1 and 2), or performed a working memory task with high and low set-sizes (Experiment 3)...
September 6, 2016: Cognition
E Lax, A Friedman, R Massart, R Barnea, L Abraham, D Cheishvili, M Zada, H Ahdoot, T Bareli, G Warhaftig, L Visochek, M Suderman, M Cohen-Armon, M Szyf, G Yadid
Reward-related memory is an important factor in cocaine seeking. One necessary signaling mechanism for long-term memory formation is the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), via poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. We demonstrate herein that auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of activated PARP-1 was significantly pronounced during retrieval of cocaine-associated contextual memory, in the central amygdala (CeA) of rats expressing cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Intra-CeA pharmacological and short hairpin RNA depletion of PARP-1 activity during cocaine-associated memory retrieval abolished CPP...
September 6, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Aleea L Devitt, Daniel L Schacter
As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring...
August 31, 2016: Neuropsychologia
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