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Relational binding and memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214577/parafascicular-thalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-decreases-nmda-receptor-glun1-subunit-gene-expression-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Mónica R Fernández-Cabrera, Abraham Selvas, Miguel Miguéns, Alejandro Higuera-Matas, Anna Vale-Martínez, Emilio Ambrosio, Margarita Martí-Nicolovius, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch
The rodent parafascicular nucleus (PFn) or the centromedian-parafascicular complex of primates is a posterior intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus related to cortical activation and maintenance of states of consciousness underlying attention, learning and memory. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the PFn has been proved to restore arousal and consciousness in humans and to enhance performance in learning and memory tasks in rats. The primary expected effect of PFn DBS is to induce plastic changes in target neurons of brain areas associated with cognitive function...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202389/targeting-the-hdac2-hnf-4a-mir-101b-ampk-pathway-rescues-tauopathy-and-dendritic-abnormalities-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Dan Liu, Hui Tang, Xin-Yan Li, Man-Fei Deng, Na Wei, Xiong Wang, Ya-Fan Zhou, Ding-Qi Wang, Peng Fu, Jian-Zhi Wang, Sébastien S Hébert, Jian-Guo Chen, Youming Lu, Ling-Qiang Zhu
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) plays a major role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Previous studies have shown that HDAC2 expression is strongly increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a major neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Moreover, previous studies have linked HDAC2 to Aβ overproduction in AD; however, its involvement in tau pathology and other memory-related functions remains unclear. Here, we show that increased HDAC2 levels strongly correlate with phosphorylated tau in a mouse model of AD...
February 12, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183334/circulating-plasmablasts-plasma-cells-a-potential-biomarker-for-igg4-related-disease
#3
Wei Lin, Panpan Zhang, Hua Chen, Yu Chen, Hongxian Yang, Wenjie Zheng, Xuan Zhang, Fengxiao Zhang, Wen Zhang, Peter E Lipsky
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multisystem fibroinflammatory disease. We previously reported that a circulating cell population expressing CD19(+)CD24(-)CD38(hi) was increased in patients with IgG4-RD. In this study, we aimed to document that this cell population represented circulating plasmablasts/plasma cells, to identify the detailed phenotype and gene expression profile of these IgG4-secreting plasmablasts/plasma cells, and to determine whether this B-cell lineage subset could be a biomarker in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD)...
February 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162919/cholinergic-receptor-binding-in-alzheimer-disease-and-healthy-aging-assessment-in-vivo-with-positron-emission-tomography-imaging
#4
David L Sultzer, Rebecca J Melrose, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Theresa A Narvaez, Joseph Veliz, Timothy K Ando, Kevin O Juarez, Dylan G Harwood, Arthur L Brody, Mark A Mandelkern
OBJECTIVE: To compare regional nicotinic cholinergic receptor binding in older adults with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy older adults in vivo and to assess relationships between receptor binding and clinical symptoms. METHODS: Using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging and structured clinical assessment, outpatients with mild to moderate AD (N = 24) and healthy older adults without cognitive complaints (C group; N = 22) were studied...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161158/fingolimod-fty720-attenuates-social-deficits-learning-and-memory-impairments-neuronal-loss-and-neuroinflammation-in-the-rat-model-of-autism
#5
Hongmei Wu, Xuelai Wang, Jingquan Gao, Shuang Liang, Yanqiu Hao, Caihong Sun, Wei Xia, Yonggang Cao, Lijie Wu
AIMS: To investigate the effect of FTY720 on the valproic acid (VPA) rat model of autism. MAIN METHODS: As an animal model of autism, we used intraperitoneal injection of VPA on embryonic day 12.5 in Wistar rats. The pups were given FTY720 orally at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg daily from postnatal day 15 to 35. Social behavior, spatial learning and memory were assessed at the end of FTY720 treatment. The histological change, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory responses, and apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus were evaluated...
February 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139957/differential-effects-of-encoding-instructions-on-brain-activity-patterns-of-item-and-associative-memory
#6
Nina Becker, Grégoria Kalpouzos, Jonas Persson, Erika J Laukka, Yvonne Brehmer
Evidence from neuroimaging studies suggests a critical role of hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in associative relative to item encoding. Here, we investigated similarities and differences in functional brain correlates for associative and item memory as a function of encoding instruction. Participants received either incidental (animacy judgments) or intentional encoding instructions while fMRI was employed during the encoding of associations and items. In a subsequent recognition task, memory performance of participants receiving intentional encoding instructions was higher compared with those receiving incidental encoding instructions...
March 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120208/huannao-yicong-formula-regulates-%C3%AE-secretase-activity-through-aph-1-and-pen-2-gene-ragulation-pathways-in-hippocampus-of-app-ps1-double-transgenic-mice
#7
Zhi-Yong Wang, Jian-Gang Liu, Yun Wei, Mei-Xia Liu, Qi Wang, Lin Liang, Hui-Min Yang, Hao Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Huannao Yicong Formula (, HYF) on learning and memory and it's regulating effect on γ-secretase related anterior pharynx defective 1 (APH-1), presenilin enhancer-2 (PEN-2) signaling pathway, so as to discuss and further clarify the mechanism of HYF on Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Sixty APP/PS1 transgenic mice, randomly allocated into 4 groups, the model group, the donepezil group (0.65 mg/kg), HYF low-dose group (HYF-L, 5.46 g/kg) and HYF high-dose group (HYF-H, 10...
January 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119059/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-directs-energy-metabolism-towards-the-citric-acid-cycle-and-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-rat-hippocampal-nonsynaptic-mitochondria
#8
Dragana Filipović, Victor Costina, Ivana Perić, Andrijana Stanisavljević, Peter Findeisen
Fluoxetine (Flx) is the principal treatment for depression; however, the precise mechanisms of its actions remain elusive. Our aim was to identify protein expression changes within rat hippocampus regulated by chronic Flx treatment versus vehicle-controls using proteomics. Fluoxetine-hydrohloride (15 mg/kg) was administered daily to adult male Wistar rats for 3 weeks, and cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial hippocampal proteomes were analyzed. All differentially expressed proteins were functionally annotated according to biological process and molecular function using Uniprot and Blast2GO...
January 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118829/effect-of-xingpijieyu-decoction-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-and-camp-pka-creb-bdnf-pathway-in-rat-model-of-depression-through-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#9
Chunye Wang, Jianyou Guo, Rongjuan Guo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive low mood and loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities, and often results in cognitive dysfunction. The disturbance of cognitive processes associated with depression, especially the impairment of learning and memory, exacerbates illness and increases recurrence of depression. XingPiJieYu (XPJY) is one of the most widely clinical formulas of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and can improve the symptoms of depression, including learning and memory...
January 24, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115522/the-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-5hmc-reader-uhrf2-is-required-for-normal-levels-of-5hmc-in-mouse-adult-brain-and-spatial-learning-and-memory
#10
Ruoyu Chen, Qiao Zhang, Xiaoya Duan, Philippe York, Guo-Dong Chen, Pengcheng Yin, Haijun Zhu, Meichen Xu, Peilin Chen, Qihan Wu, Dali Li, Jacques Samarut, Guoliang Xu, Pumin Zhang, Xiaohua Cao, Jiwen Li, Jiemin Wong
UHRF2 has been implicated as a novel regulator for both DNA methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC), but its physiological function and role in DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation are unknown. Here we show that in mice Uhrf2 is more abundantly expressed in the brain and a few other tissues. Uhrf2 knockout mice are viable, fertile and exhibit no gross defect. Although there is no significant change of DNA methylation, the Uhrf2 null mice exhibit a reduction of 5hmC in the brain including cortex and hippocampus...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111047/the-impact-of-level-of-education-on-age-related-deficits-in-associative-memory-behavioral-and-neuropsychological-perspectives
#11
Dwight J Peterson, Sanchita Gargya, Ksenia S Kopeikin, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Older adults have difficulty forming associations and binding distinct item components despite mostly preserved item memory potentially because they rely on more automatic, rather than strategic, processing when attempting to form, store, and retrieve associations from memory. An intriguing possibility is that older adults with greater access to strategic processes (e.g., those with a high level of education) may be less susceptible to age-related associative memory deficits. Two experiments assessed the degree to which a high level of education provides an effective dose of cognitive reserve (CR), potentially preserving associative memory...
December 30, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110215/neuroprotective-action-of-n-acetyl-serotonin-in-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis-through-the-activation-of-both-trkb-creb-bdnf-pathway-and-akt-nrf2-antioxidant-enzyme-in-neuronal-cells
#12
Jae-Myung Yoo, Bo Dam Lee, Dai-Eun Sok, Jin Yuel Ma, Mee Ree Kim
N-acetyl serotonin (NAS) as a melatonin precursor has neuroprotective actions. Nonetheless, it is not clarified how NAS protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress. Recently, we have reported that N-palmitoyl serotonins possessed properties of antioxidants and neuroprotection. Based on those, we hypothesized that NAS, a N-acyl serotonin, may have similar actions in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cells, and examined the effects of NAS based on in vitro and in vivo tests. NAS dose-dependently inhibited oxidative stress-induced cell death in HT-22 cells...
January 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100742/visual-sampling-predicts-hippocampal-activity
#13
Zhong-Xu Liu, Kelly Shen, Rosanna K Olsen, Jennifer D Ryan
: Eye movements serve to accumulate information from the visual world, contributing to the formation of coherent memory representations that support cognition and behavior. The hippocampus and the oculomotor network are well connected anatomically through an extensive set of polysynaptic pathways. However, the extent to which visual sampling behavior is related to functional responses in the hippocampus during encoding has not been studied directly in human neuroimaging. In the current study, participants engaged in a face processing task while brain responses were recorded with fMRI and eye movements were monitored simultaneously...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097489/enhanced-histone-acetylation-in-the-infralimbic-prefrontal-cortex-is-associated-with-fear-extinction
#14
Sarfraj Ahmad Siddiqui, Sanjay Singh, Vandana Ranjan, Rajesh Ugale, Sudipta Saha, Anand Prakash
The molecular processes that establish fear memory are complex and involve a combination of genetic and epigenetic influences. Dysregulation of these processes can manifest in humans as a range of fear-related anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). In the present study, immunohistochemistry for acetyl H3, H4, c-fos, CBP (CREB-binding protein) in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC) and prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC) of mPFC (medial prefrontal cortex) and basal amygdala (BA), lateral amygdala (LA), centrolateral amygdala (CeL), centromedial amygdala (CeM) of the amygdala was performed to link region-specific histone acetylation to fear and extinction learning...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095997/abnormal-prefrontal-and-parietal-activity-linked-to-deficient-active-binding-in-working-memory-in-schizophrenia
#15
Stéphanie Grot, Virginie Petel Légaré, Olivier Lipp, Isabelle Soulières, Florin Dolcos, David Luck
Working memory deficits have been widely reported in schizophrenia, and may result from inefficient binding processes. These processes, and their neural correlates, remain understudied in schizophrenia. Thus, we designed an FMRI study aimed at investigating the neural correlates of both passive and active binding in working memory in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with schizophrenia and 23 matched controls were recruited to perform a working memory binding task, in which they were instructed to memorize three letters and three spatial locations...
January 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087828/tdp-43-pathology-and-memory-impairment-in-elders-without-pathologic-diagnoses-of-ad-or-ftld
#16
Sukriti Nag, Lei Yu, Robert S Wilson, Er-Yun Chen, David A Bennett, Julie A Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) pathology with memory, other cognitive domains, and dementia in community-dwelling elders without pathologic diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). METHODS: Of 1,058 autopsied participants, 343 (32.4%) did not have pathologic diagnoses of AD or FTLD. Diagnosis of dementia was based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests, which were used to create summary measures of global cognition and of 5 cognitive domains...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081174/definition-of-human-epitopes-recognized-in-tetanus-toxoid-and-development-of-an-assay-strategy-to-detect-ex-vivo-tetanus-cd4-t-cell-responses
#17
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Sinu Paul, John Sidney, Daniela Weiskopf, Jennifer M Dan, Elizabeth Phillips, Simon Mallal, Shane Crotty, Alessandro Sette, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn
Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. Herein we defined the human CD4+ T cell epitope repertoire by reevaluation of previously described epitopes and evaluation of those derived from prediction of HLA Class II binding. Forty-seven epitopes were identified following in vitro TT stimulation, with 28 epitopes accounting for 90% of the total response. Despite this diverse range of epitopes, individual responses were associated with only a few immunodominant epitopes, with each donor responding on average to 3 epitopes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077020/relationship-between-18-f-flutemetamol-uptake-and-rbans-performance-in-non-demented-community-dwelling-older-adults
#18
Dustin B Hammers, Taylor J Atkinson, Bonnie C A Dalley, Kayla R Suhrie, Britney E Beardmore, Lance D Burrell, Kevin P Horn, Kelli M Rasmussen, Norman L Foster, Kevin Duff, John M Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has been used extensively for clinical care and in research for patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, relatively few studies have evaluated the relationship between RBANS performance and AD imaging biomarkers. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the association between a relatively new amyloid positron emission tomography imaging biomarker and performance on the RBANS...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074855/mir-218-targets-mecp2-and-inhibits-heroin-seeking-behavior
#19
Biao Yan, Zhaoyang Hu, Wenqing Yao, Qiumin Le, Bo Xu, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved, 18-25 nucleotide non-coding sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Recent studies implicated their roles in the regulation of neuronal functions, such as learning, cognition and memory formation. Here we report that miR-218 inhibits heroin-induced behavioral plasticity. First, network propagation-based method was used to predict candidate miRNAs that played potential key roles in regulating drug addiction-related genes. Microarray screening was also carried out to identify miRNAs responding to chronic heroin administration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065713/goldfish-hippocampal-pallium-is-essential-to-associate-temporally-discontiguous-events
#20
B Rodríguez-Expósito, A Gómez, I Martín-Monzón, M Reiriz, F Rodríguez, C Salas
There is general agreement that the hippocampus of vertebrates, from fish to mammals, is involved in map-like spatial memory. However, in mammals the role of the hippocampus goes beyond the spatial domain as it is also involved in binding the temporally separate events that compose episodic memories. In this regard, the hippocampus of mammals is essential for trace classical conditioning, in which a stimulus-free time gap separates the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US), but not for delay conditioning, in which both stimuli coincide in time...
January 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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