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Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt infections

Cory K Hussain, Tom J B de Man, Nadege C Toney, Kamal Kamboj, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Shu-Hua Wang
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Alan H Weintraub, Donald J Gerber, Robert G Kowalski
OBJECTIVE: To describe incidence, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes in post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) for patients treated in an inpatient rehabilitation program. DESIGN: Cohort study with retrospective comparative analysis SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation hospital PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted for TBI from 2009 to 2013 diagnosed with PTH, defined as ventriculomegaly, delayed clinical recovery discordant with injury severity, hydrocephalus symptoms, or positive lumbar puncture results...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Timothy J Kovanda, Ecaterina Pestereva, Albert Lee
INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal baclofen pumps are valuable treatment options for those with cerebral palsy. Although subfascial baclofen pump placement is generally preferred over a subcutaneous pump placement due to lower infection rates, rare complications can occur with the subfascial approach such as pump migration. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors here describe a case of baclofen pump migration into the peritoneal cavity of a 26-year-old male patient with cerebral palsy, shunted hydrocephalus, and epilepsy...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Zohreh Habibi, Abolhasan Ertiaei, Mohammad Sadegh Nikdad, Atefeh Sadat Mirmohseni, Mohsen Afarideh, Vahid Heidari, Hooshang Saberi, Abdolreza Sheikh Rezaei, Farideh Nejat
OBJECTIVES: The relationships between shunt infection and predictive factors have not been previously investigated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. The aim of this study was to develop an ANN model to predict shunt infection in a group of children with shunted hydrocephalus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among more than 800 ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedures which had been performed between April 2000 and April 2011, 68 patients with shunt infection and 80 controls that fulfilled a set of meticulous inclusion/exclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled...
September 14, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Prashant Sadashiv Patil, Abhaya Gupta, Paras L Kothari, Geeta Kekre, Rahul Gupta, Vishesh Dikshit, Kedar Mudkhedkar, Krishna Kesan
OBJECTIVE: To analyze immediate and long-term results of lipomeningomyelocele (LMM) repair in asymptomatic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients of LMM presented to Department of Paediatric Surgery over a period from 2011 to 2015 were evaluated preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging of whole spine, and pre- and post-operative Ultrasound of kidney, ureter, bladder, and neurosonogram. Surgical procedure involved total excision of lipoma in 15 patients and near total excision in 2 patients...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Ümit Celik, Tamer Celik, Orkun Tolunay, Çiğdem Dönmezer, Yurdal Gezercan, Kurthan Mert, Ali İhsan Ökten
AIM: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection (VPSI) is a main mortality and morbidity cause in hydrocephalus. Platelet indices, mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) have been evaluated for some infectious diseases. In this study we aimed to investigate whether MPV and PDW values are decisive for the diagnosis of VPSI in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Charts of VPSI from 2012 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Twenty five ventriculoperitoneal shunt infected patients and 25 healthy children as the control group have been included in the study...
January 25, 2016: Turkish Neurosurgery
P Ym Woo, H T Wong, J Ks Pu, W K Wong, L Yw Wong, M Wy Lee, K Y Yam, W M Lui, W S Poon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of primary ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection among patients treated at neurosurgical centres of the Hospital Authority and to identify underlying risk factors. METHODS: This multicentre historical cohort study included consecutive patients who underwent primary ventriculoperitoneal shunting at a Hospital Authority neurosurgery centre from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011. The primary endpoint was shunt infection, defined as: (1) the presence of cerebrospinal fluid or shunt hardware culture that yielded the pathogenic micro-organism with associated compatible symptoms and signs of central nervous system infection or shunt malfunction; or (2) surgical incision site infection requiring shunt reinsertion (even in the absence of positive culture); or (3) intraperitoneal pseudocyst formation (even in the absence of positive culture)...
October 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Nihat Demir, Erdal Peker, İsmail Gülşen, Selami Kocaman, Oğuz Tuncer, Ercan Kırımi
BACKGROUND: The correct timing and technique of neural tube defect (NTD) repairs significantly decreases the morbidity and mortality of NTD cases. However, infections related to the surgery are still common. We investigated the effects of topical rifampicin (RIF) combined with routine prophylaxis in newborns with open NTD. METHODS: Eighty-six patients who had undergone NTD surgery were included in the retrospective study. Thirty patients who started on topical RIF before surgery made up the study group, and 56 cases that were not administered topical RIF made up the control group...
August 6, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Natrujee Wiwattanadittakul, Kamornwan Katanyuwong, Chumpon Jetjumnong, Rekwan Sittiwangkul, Krit Makonkawkeyoon
Insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a common neurosurgical procedure in both adult and paediatric patients. It is one of the most important treatments in cases of hydrocephalus; however, there is a wide range of complications: the most common complication being a shunt infection, and examples of rare complications are shunt migrations and cardiac tamponade. Several reports of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration in different sites, including chest, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, bowel and scrotum were published...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
A R Al-Schameri, J Hamed, G Baltsavias, P Winkler, L Machegger, B Richling, S Emich
BACKGROUND: In the last years the number of ventriculo-atrial shunt insertions has decreased worldwide, the major cause being the risk of shunt infection. Today, ventriculo-atrial shunts remain as an alternative option to ventriculoperitoneal shunts. We describe our 10 years experience with VA shunts by analyzing the incidence of shunt infections and predisposing co-factors. METHODS: During median follow-up time of 15.3 months a total of 259 shunt insertions, performed on 255 patients were analyzed...
July 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Dawid Szpecht, Dagmara Frydryszak, Norbert Miszczyk, Marta Szymankiewicz, Janusz Gadzinowski
INTRODUCTION: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is mostly documented in premature infants, and the younger the gestational age, the more often it occurs. IVH is very rarely reported in full-term neonates. CASE REPORT: Retrospective analysis was performed in 35939 full-term neonates, who were born in the Clinical Hospital of Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań. Clinical data were retrieved from their medical records. We report a case series of 2 term newborns, who developed severe IVH grade 3 and 4 with no evidence of asphyxia, neuroinfection, TORCH infections, coagulation disorders and trombocytopenia, metabolic disorders, arteriovenous malformations, and selected genetic abnormalities (factor V Leiden 1601G > A polymorphism and MTHFR 677C > T; 1298A > C polymorphisms)...
July 8, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Vikas Kumar, Ankit S Shah, Daljit Singh, Poonam S Loomba, Hukum Singh, Anita Jagetia
INTRODUCTION: Infection associated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a severe complication with a high morbidity and substantial mortality. There are no guidelines to choose antibiotics in case of shunt infection. Most surgeons use antibiotics of their choice whereas limited centres follow their own antibiotic policy. An alarming increase in antibiotic resistance has led to rising morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery between January 2010 and December 2015 at our institution...
July 2016: Neurology India
Yang Zhang, Xiaobo Zhu, Jinchuan Zhao, Kun Hou, Xianfeng Gao, Yang Sun, Wei Wang, Xiaona Zhang
Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a major therapy for hydrocephalus, but has a significant risk of device malfunctioning. In this study, we explored a novel distal shunt catheter placement method in VPS for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Five patients with different etiologies of hydrocephalus underwent VPS with open distant shunt catheter attached outside. We analyzed different variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique, postoperative complications) and occurrence of shunt failure and infection...
November 2015: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
David J Clark, Aabir Chakraborty, Derek J Roebuck, Dominic N P Thompson
PURPOSE: Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts are commonly used as a second-line treatment of hydrocephalus when the peritoneum is an unsuitable site for the distal catheter. Many centres now utilise ultrasound and interventional radiology techniques to aid placement of the distal catheter. The purpose of this study was to conduct a contemporary audit of VA shunting in children using interventional radiology techniques for placement of the distal catheter. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients who had VA shunts inserted between June 2000 and June 2010 was conducted using a prospectively updated surgical database and case notes review...
July 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
I Y Kaye, M Payan, V M Vemulakonda
INTRODUCTION: The primary goal of urologic management in children with spina bifida is to reduce the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) and associated renal injury. While clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) has been the mainstay of treatment, recent studies have suggested that this approach is not without risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association between alternative bladder management strategies and UTI in infants and toddlers with spina bifida. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on spina bifida patients, aged 0-3 years, seen in a multidisciplinary spinal defects clinic between 2008 and 2013...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Emilio Pintor, Maria Jose Gutierrez, Pedro Gargantilla, Benjamín Herreros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Infection
Vaner Köksal, Abdulkadir Özgür, Suat Terzi
Subtentorial empyema is a rare intracranial complication of chronic otitis media. Moreover, if not correctly treated, it is a life-threatening infection. Epidural and subdural empyemas on subtentorial space have different effects. This difference is not mentioned in literature. If the distinction can be made, surgical treatment method will be different, and the desired surgical treatment may be less minimal invasive. A 26-year-old male patient was found to have developed epidural empyema in the subtentorial space...
April 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Roberto A Brandao, Dane K Wukich
: Hindfoot and distal leg neuropathic fracture collapse secondary to normal pressure hydrocephalus is a very rare clinical pathology. The authors present a case of a 69-year-old woman who sustained a distal tibiofibular fracture that resulted in a recurvatum deformity with idiopathic neuropathy and gait instability on initial presentation. A subtalar and ankle joint arthrodesis was performed achieving rectus alignment of the lower extremity with no postoperative complications. Her neuropathic etiology was negative for common causative factors, including diabetes, infection, nutritional deficiencies, congenital neuropathy, and trauma...
March 30, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Mino Zucchelli, Mariella Lefosse, Luigi Corvaglia, Silvia Martini, Fabrizio Sandri, Silvia Soffritti, Gina Ancora, Palma Mammoliti, Giancarlo Gargano, Ercole Galassi
OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus treatment in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants still represents a challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon, particularly when the patient weighs far less than 1000 g. In such cases, the benefits in terms of neurological outcome following early treatment do not always outweigh the surgical risks, especially considering the great difference in the surgical risk before patient weight increases. To assess the efficacy and reliability of a percutaneous-tunneled, transfontanellar external ventricular drain (PTTEVD) in ELBW infants, the authors started a new protocol for the early surgical treatment of hydrocephalus...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Nadeem Akhtar, Adil Aziz Khan, Muhammad Yousaf
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt has been widely utilized in the treatment of hydrocephalus as a safe option but there is recent literature evidence that ventricularatrial (VA) shunt is not as notorious for its complications as proclaimed, to analyse and report our success with this procedure we conducted our study. METHODS: A total of 64 patients undergoing VA shunting were included in this case series study conducted at RMC and Allied hospital Rawalpindi...
October 2015: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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