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Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622424/migration-of-the-distal-catheter-of-the-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-in-hydrocephalus-a-comprehensive-analytical-review-from-an-anatomical-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Mohammed Z Allouh, Mohammed M Al Barbarawi, Hasan A Asfour, Raed S Said
There have been many reports on migration of the distal catheter of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) since this phenomenon was recognized 50 years ago. However, there have been no attempts to analyze its different patterns or to assess these patterns in terms of potential risk to patients. We comprehensively reviewed all reports of distal VPS catheter migration indexed in PubMed and identified three different anatomical patterns of migration based on catheter extension and organs involved: (1) internal, when the catheter invades any viscus inside the thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cavity; (2) external, when the catheter penetrates through the body wall either incompletely (subcutaneously) or completely (outside the body); and (3) compound, when the catheter penetrates a hollow viscus and protrudes through a pre-existing anatomical orifice...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616154/cutaneous-presentation-of-gastrointestinal-adenocarcinoma
#2
Aditi Halder, Artiene Tatian, A Cristina Vargas, Rooshdiya Karim, Mark Latt
Seeding of a central nervous system malignancy to the abdominal cavity is an uncommon but well documented complication of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. However, the metastasis of a primary gastrointestinal cancer to the skin via a VP shunt is extremely rare. We report the clinical case of an 85-year-old male who presented with a right upper quadrant nodule over his shunt, which on histopathology and tumour marker profile was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of likely upper gastrointestinal origin. This case illustrates the importance of proceeding to biopsy to inform prognosis and management, despite the risks of shunt infection...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584681/abdominal-pseudocyst-as-a-complication-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-placement-review-of-the-literature-and-a-proposed-algorithm-for-treatment-using-4-illustrative-cases
#3
Samir Kashyap, Hammad Ghanchi, Tanya Minasian, Fanglong Dong, Dan Miulli
BACKGROUND: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is one of the most commonly performed procedures in neurosurgery. One rare complication is the formation of an abdominal pseudocyst, which can cause shunt malfunction. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We present four unique cases of abdominal pseudocyst formation. Our first patient initially presented with a right upper quadrant pseudocyst. Shunt was externalized and the distal end was revised with placement of catheter on the opposite side...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553391/aspergillus-growth-within-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-tube
#4
Vikas Kumar, Poonam Sood Loomba, Daljit Singh, Ravindra Kumar Saran
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt failure is commonly associated with infection or mechanical obstruction of the shunt system. A 4-year-old male child who had undergone multiple shunt revisions at another hospital for congenital hydrocephalus and later for shunt obstruction, presented with exposed shunt at the supraclavicular region. Shunt revision was performed. The CSF culture showed no growth; however, the histopathological examination of shunt tube showed Aspergillus growth inside the lumen of silicone tube well away from the tip of ventriculoperitoneal shunt...
January 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489741/salmonella-enterica-serovar-panama-meningitis-in-exclusive-breastfeeding-infants-report-of-4-cases-clinical-features-and-therapeutic-challenges
#5
Narcisse Elenga, Emma Cuadro, Laurence Long, Falucar Njuieyon, Elise Martin, Rémi Kom-Tchameni, Antoine Defo, Sitraka H Razafindrakoto, Yajaira Mrsic, Fanny Henaff, Aba Mahamat
RATIONALE: The pathway of Nontyphoid Salmonella meningitis, especially in exclusive breastfeeding infants, has not been well characterized. PATIENT CONCERNS: We analyzed data related to nontyphoid Salmonella meningitis in 4 infants. DIAGNOSES: No diarrhea was observed and the coproculture was negative for all patients. INTERVENTIONS: Early diagnosis and treatment with combination of third-generation cephalosporins plus quinolones for a minimum of 3 weeks is necessary to avoid severe sequelae and death...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448725/endogenous-cryptococcal-endophthalmitis-in-immunocompetent-host-case-report-and-review-of-multimodal-imaging-findings-and-treatment
#6
Atchara Amphornphruet, Sukhum Silpa-Archa, Janine M Preble, C Stephen Foster
PURPOSE: To describe a case of bilateral endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent host and to review adjunctive ophthalmic imaging patterns and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective case report. RESULTS: A 45-year-old female patient with two distinct presentations of endogenous cryptococcal endophthalmitis in each eye presented initially with progressive blurred vision in the left eye, beginning more than 10 years after a craniotomy with ventriculoperitoneal shunt...
April 27, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434961/cranioplasty-infection-and-resorption-are-associated-with-presence-of-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Christian M Mustroph, James G Malcolm, Rima S Rindler, Jason K Chu, Jonathan A Grossberg, Gustavo Pradilla, Faiz U Ahmad
BACKGROUND: Following decompressive craniectomy, hydrocephalus is a common complication often requiring placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). Complications in the presence of a VPS have been reported but without clear association. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were used to perform a literature search using PubMed to identify articles that published the complication rates associated with staged or simultaneous cranioplasty and VPS. From event rates, odds ratios [OR, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)] of complications were calculated...
April 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433846/factors-associated-with-postoperative-complications-in-hydrocephalic-infants-diagnosed-at-bernard-mevs-hospital-in-port-au-prince-haiti-from-2011-to-2013
#8
Floreine-Jemima Joseph, Joseph Bernard, Sylvio Augustin
OBJECTIVE: Complications worsen the prognosis of hydrocephalic children who undergo surgery. The main objective of this study was to determine factors associated with postoperative complications in Haitian hydrocephalic infants. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on hydrocephalic infants diagnosed in a Haitian hospital from 2011 to 2013. Records were consulted to gather key variables that were evaluated in relation to the occurrence of postoperative complications...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387641/papilledema-in-children-with-hydrocephalus-incidence-and-associated-factors
#9
Haeng Jin Lee, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Seong-Joon Kim
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to report the incidence of and the factors associated with papilledema in children with hydrocephalus. METHODS Patients younger than 15 years of age who had been diagnosed with hydrocephalus and treated by extra-ventricular drainage or ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery between 2005 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Factors including patient age and sex, etiology of hydrocephalus, duration of signs or symptoms, intracranial pressure (ICP), and presence of papilledema were evaluated...
June 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384379/repeated-lumbar-or-ventricular-punctures-in-newborns-with-intraventricular-haemorrhage
#10
REVIEW
Andrew Whitelaw, Richard Lee-Kelland
BACKGROUND: Although in recent years the percentage of preterm infants who suffer intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) has reduced, posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) remains a serious problem with a high rate of cerebral palsy and no evidence-based treatment. Survivors often have to undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) surgery, which makes the child permanently dependent on a valve and catheter system. This carries a significant risk of infection and the need for surgical revision of the shunt...
April 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377285/reducing-length-of-stay-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-three-year-institutional-experience
#11
Ali Alaraj, Ahmed E Hussein, Darian R Esfahani, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Victor A Aletich, Fady T Charbel
Hospital length of stay is a common metric of excellence in health care. With limited data evaluating hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in this study we explore multiple prognostic factors and present our institutional experience in shortening LOS. 345 SAH patients were reviewed over a three year period. Patient demographics, hemorrhage grade, hospital course, hospital costs, and LOS were reviewed. Angiogram-negative SAH, Hunt and Hess (HH) Grade 5, and early mortalities were excluded...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347957/ventriculoatrial-versus-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-complications-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#12
Alice L Hung, Tito Vivas-Buitrago, Atif Adam, Jennifer Lu, Jamie Robison, Benjamin D Elder, C Rory Goodwin, Ignacio Jusué-Torres, Daniele Rigamonti
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a devastating condition that affects the elderly population. Although ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts can be used to manage iNPH, concerns for associated cardiopulmonary and renal complications have decreased their use. However, the rate of these complications is not well understood within this population of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with iNPH by the senior author between 1993 and 2015 was performed...
June 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344917/fatal-complications-after-pediatric-surgical-interventions-lessons-learned
#13
Willemijn M Klein, Mayke E Van der Putten, Benno Kusters, Bas H Verhoeven
Placement of catheters, drains, shunts, and tubes in children can lead to serious or even fatal complications at the moment of placement, such as hemorrhage at insertion, or in the longterm, such as infections and migration into adjacent organs. The clinician should always be aware of these potential complications, especially if the child is unwell. For postmortem diagnostic evaluation, either with a computed tomography scan or an invasive autopsy, all tubes, drains, shunts, and/or catheters should be left in situ...
January 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329191/management-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infections-in-adults-analysis-of-risk-factors-associated-with-treatment-failure
#14
Iván Pelegrín, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Nuria Sabé, Dolors García-Somoza, Andreu Gabarrós, Javier Ariza, Pedro Fernández Viladrich, Carmen Cabellos
Background.: Little is known regarding the optimal treatment of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in adults. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies and to identify factors that predict failure. Methods.: Retrospective, observational study of patients aged ≥12 years with VP shunt infections (1980 -2014). Therapeutic approaches were classified under 4 headings: only antibiotics (OA), one-stage shunt replacement (OSSR), two-stage shunt replacement (TSSR), and shunt removal without replacement (SR)...
April 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320186/neurological-complications-after-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-multi-state-cohort-in-the-united-states
#15
Alexander E Merkler, Alexandra S Reynolds, Gino Gialdini, Nicholas A Morris, Santosh B Murthy, Kiran Thakur, Hooman Kamel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the rate of neurological complications and mortality after tuberculous meningitis in the United States. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients 18years or older hospitalized for tuberculous meningitis in California between 2005 and 2010, New York between 2006 and 2012, and Florida between 2005 and 2012. Outcomes of interest were mortality and the following neurological complications: stroke, seizure, hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, vision impairment, and hearing impairment...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291426/case-report-of-a-6-year-old-girl-with-mycoplasma-hominis-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infection
#16
Masanori Sato, Noriko Kubota, Yoshihiko Katsuyama, Yota Suzuki, Yosuke Miyairi, Kisei Minami, Masashi Kasai
Mycoplasma hominis is a rare causative pathogen for surgical site infections after neurosurgical procedures. This organism lacks a cell wall, rendering it undetectable by Gram staining and making it resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. In addition, some special techniques are required to identify this organism. Thus, it is very difficult to diagnose infections caused by this pathogen. Here, the authors report a pediatric case of M. hominis ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection with central nervous system involvement for which beta-lactam antibiotics were not effective and Gram staining revealed no pathogens...
May 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277297/prevention-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-complications-after-intraperitoneal-urological-surgeries
#17
Takashi Ikeda, Sayaka Akiyama, Woo Jin Kim, Susumu Ito, Yuichiro Yamazaki
PURPOSE: To evaluate perioperative management for the prevention of postoperative shunt infection and malfunction after intraperitoneal urological surgery in patients with myelodysplasia and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. METHODS: From 2005 to 2015, 20 consecutive patients with myelodysplasia and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt who underwent intraperitoneal urological surgeries were managed with the same perioperative regimen. Intraperitoneal surgeries involved opening gastrointestinal tracts, including bladder augmentation by enterocystoplasty, creating continent catheterizable channels and Malone antegrade continent enema...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249297/cerebrospinal-fluid-shunting-complications-in-children
#18
Brian W Hanak, Robert H Bonow, Carolyn A Harris, Samuel R Browd
Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is the most common procedure performed by pediatric neurosurgeons, shunts remain among the most failure-prone life-sustaining medical devices implanted in modern medical practice. This article provides an overview of the mechanisms of CSF shunt failure for the 3 most commonly employed definitive CSF shunts in the practice of pediatric neurosurgery: ventriculoperitoneal, ventriculopleural, and ventriculoatrial. The text has been partitioned into the broad modes of shunt failure: obstruction, infection, mechanical shunt failure, overdrainage, and distal catheter site-specific failures...
March 2, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239499/a-dual-case-of-peritonitis-and-central-nervous-system-infection-caused-by-nutritionally-variant-streptococcal-species
#19
Sussi Vivar, Jennifer E Girotto, Thomas S Murray
Nutritional variant streptococci (NVS) are difficult to identify bacteria that can cause invasive infections such as endocarditis and meningitis. NVS as a cause of peritonitis has not been routinely described. This case of NVS as the etiology of peritonitis associated with previous neurosurgery and ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt revision demonstrates its potential role as a significant pathogen in patients with peritonitis and VP shunts. Therapy consists of vancomycin plus a second agent but since there are no standards for susceptibility testing, clinical response remains the standard for determining the efficacy of treatment...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203330/risk-factors-for-health-care-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#20
Sabahattin Ertugrul, Fesih Aktar, Ilyas Yolbas, Ahmet Yilmaz, Bilal Elbey, Ahmet Yildirim, Kamil Yilmaz, Recep Tekin
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the causative organisms and risk factors of HCA-BSIs in NICUs. METHODS: This study was performed between January 2011 and December 2014 in the neonatal intensive care unit of Dicle university, Turkey. The study consisted of 126 patients (infected group) with positive blood culture and 126 randomly selected patients (uninfected control group) with negative blood culture after four days of hospitalization...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
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