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Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087192/spontaneous-peritoneal-catheter-knot-formation-a-rare-cause-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-malfunction
#1
Idrees Sher, Shanu Gambhir, Sarah Pinto, Asim Mujic, Jens Peters-Willke, Andrew Hunn
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting remains invaluable in the management of hydrocephalus. It is a common procedure that can be complicated by shunt malfunction due to infection, blockage and disconnection. Spontaneous peritoneal catheter knot formation causing CSF flow obstruction is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of a 12years old boy with spontaneous knot formation in the peritoneal catheter causing VP shunt obstruction and hydrocephalus.
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050444/review-of-the-management-of-peroral-extrusion-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-catheter
#2
REVIEW
Rajendra Kumar Ghritlaharey
INTRODUCTION: Peroral extrusion of peritoneal part of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VPS) catheter is an extremely rare complication following VPS implantation. AIM: To review the options available for the management of peroral extrusion of VPS catheter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Medline, PMC (PubMed Central), Embase, Google scholar databases search was performed to retrieve the published/available data relating to the peroral extrusion of VPS catheter...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049033/cryptococcal-infection-of-the-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-in-an-hiv-infected-patient-with-an-excellent-immunovirological-status
#3
Miguel Genebat, María J Mayorga-Buiza, Esperanza Castillo-Ojeda, Mónica Rivero-Garvía, Francisco J Márquez-Rivas, Manuel E Jiménez-Mejías
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection, with a variable clinical presentation. Hence, diagnosis and therapeutic management of this entity is challenging. CASE DESCRIPTION: we herein describe the first reported case of cryptococcal ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infection in an HIV-infected subject with an excellent immunovirological status, with an abdominal mass as the only clinical sign at presentation. Microbiological diagnosis was confirmed when Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated in 4 cerebrospinal fluid samples on different days...
December 31, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018689/cryptococcus-gattii-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#4
John W Amburgy, Joseph H Miller, Benjamin J Ditty, Patrick Vande Lune, Shaaf Muhammad, Winfield S Fisher
Cryptococcal infections are seen throughout the United States in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The most common form is C. neoformans. In the Northwestern United States, C. gattii has received considerable attention secondary to increased virulence resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There are no cases in the extant literature describing a patient with C. gattii requiring neurosurgical intervention in Alabama. A middle-aged immunocompetent male with no recent travel or identifiable exposure presented with meningitis secondary to C...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018439/phelan-mcdermid-syndrome-presenting-with-developmental-delays-and-facial-dysmorphisms
#5
Yoon-Myung Kim, In-Hee Choi, Jun Suk Kim, Ja Hye Kim, Ja Hyang Cho, Beom Hee Lee, Gu-Hwan Kim, Jin-Ho Choi, Eul-Ju Seo, Han-Wook Yoo
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by the terminal or interstitial deletion of the chromosome 22q13.3. Patients with this syndrome usually have global developmental delay, hypotonia, and speech delays. Several putative genes such as the SHANK3, RAB, RABL2B, and IB2 are responsible for the neurological features. This study describes the clinical features and outcomes of Korean patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Two patients showing global developmental delay, hypotonia, and speech delay were diagnosed with Phelan-McDermid syndrome via chromosome analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994363/bilateral-abducens-and-facial-nerve-palsies-as-a-localizing-sign-due-to-reduction-in-intracranial-pressure-after-fourth-ventriculoperitoneal-shunting
#6
Boby Varkey Maramattom, Dilip Panikar
A trapped fourth ventricle often requires fourth ventriculoperitoneal shunting (4VP). Complications of this procedure include shunt blockage, infection, shunt migration, and overdrainage. Cranial nerve palsies are very rare after 4VP shunting and have been described with over drainage and brainstem distortion. We present an unusual case of bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies after 4VP shunting after normalization of 4(th) ventricular parameters. Measurement of various brainstem angles presented us with a plausible hypothesis to explain the cranial nerve dysfunction...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989969/does-the-simultaneous-use-of-a-neuroendoscope-influence-the-incidence-of-ventriculoperitoenal-shunt-infection
#7
Alexandre Varella Giannetti, Fabiana Guerra Pimenta, Wanessa Trindade Clemente
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the use of an endoscope during ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) procedures and infection is still poorly defined. The present work sought to analyze whether or not the simultaneous use of an endoscope could in fact increase the infection rate of VPS procedures. METHODS: In a study of 438 VPS procedures, an endoscope was used in 49 (11.2%) cases and was not used in 389 (88.8%). The infection rates in these two main groups were then calculated and compared...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974589/tigecycline-therapy-in-an-infant-for-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-meningitis
#8
Melike Emiroglu, Gulsum Alkan, Hatice Turk Dagi
Shunt infections are seen in 3% to 20% of patients who have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts. Although the staphylococcal species are the most common cause of shunt-related infections, Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly reported with higher mortality rates. Tigecycline, a glycylcycline, is not approved for children. But in the era of nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens, it can be the life-saving option. We report an infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related meningitis treated with a tigecycline combination regimen...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923222/pediatric-primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Jesna Mathew Sublett, Caitlin Davenport, Howard Eisenbrock, Shamsher Dalal, Syed A Jaffar Kazmi, Amir Kershenovich
BACKGROUND: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PDL PNET) is extremely rare, with only 19 cases reported in the literature to date. We present a case of a child with rapidly progressive PDL PNET and a literature review. A 10-year-old boy presented with mood lability, hallucinations, generalized pain, enuresis, and headaches. Initial investigation failed to produce a diagnosis. The symptoms progressed to seizure, back pain, and papilledema. Imaging showed acute hydrocephalus and mild diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement without an identifiable primary lesion...
7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911231/systematic-review-of-ventricular-peritoneal-shunt-and-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-a-safe-combination
#10
Leendert H Oterdoom, D L Marinus Oterdoom, Johannes C F Ket, J Marc C van Dijk, Pieter Scholten
OBJECTIVE Various international and national gastrointestinal guidelines take different positions on whether ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) insertion is a contraindication to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The objective of this meta-analysis was to try to answer the question of whether VPS insertion is a contraindication to PEG. METHODS A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Electronic databases PubMed and Embase were searched using variations of the terms "ventriculo-peritoneal shunt" and "percutaneous (endoscopic) gastrostomy...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#11
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895360/paediatric-external-ventricular-drains-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-a-developing-country
#12
Abbas Qalab, Rayaan Asad, Mahnaz Hakeem, Maria Ahmed, Haque Anwar, Aneela Darbar
The aim of the study was to describe indications and complications of external ventricular drain (EVD) placement in children aged between 1 month and 16 years. This retrospective chart review was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised all children who underwent EVD placement from January 2007 to December 2014. Of the 177 patients identified, 117(66%) were males 60(34%) were girls. The overall mean age was 5.4±5.2 years. The median Glasgow Coma Scale score on presentation and discharge was 13 (interquartile range [IQR]: 7) and 15 (IQR: 4), respectively...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826086/the-rate-of-complications-after-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-surgery
#13
Alexander E Merkler, Judy Ch'ang, Whitney E Parker, Santosh B Murthy, Hooman Kamel
BACKGROUND: Although ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) surgery is the most frequent surgical treatment for patients with hydrocephalus, modern rates of complications in adults are uncertain. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients hospitalized at the time of their first recorded procedure code for VPS surgery between 2005 and 2012 at nonfederal acute care hospitals in California, Florida, and New York. We excluded patients who during the index hospitalization for VPS surgery had concomitant codes for VPS revision, CNS infection, or died during the index hospitalization...
November 5, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813467/complications-of-ventricular-entry-during-craniotomy-for-brain-tumor-resection
#14
Jessin K John, Adam M Robin, Aqueel H Pabaney, Richard A Rammo, Lonni R Schultz, Neema S Sadry, Ian Y Lee
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have demonstrated that periventricular tumor location is associated with poorer survival and that tumor location near the ventricle limits the extent of resection. This finding may relate to the perception that ventricular entry leads to further complications and thus surgeons may choose to perform less aggressive resection in these areas. However, there is little support for this view in the literature. This study seeks to determine whether ventricular entry is associated with more complications during craniotomy for brain tumor resection...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765754/fever-in-a-child-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-access-device-or-shunt-a-pragmatic-approach-to-management
#15
REVIEW
Betsy Cleave, Maria Cartmill, Shiu Shing Soo, Harish Vyas
Children with shunts commonly present with fever, and often the focus of infection will be unrelated to their shunt. However, as shunt infections may present with few or even no specific symptoms, evaluation of a child with a shunt presenting with fever should be careful and comprehensive to ensure shunt infections are not missed. Treatment of an infected shunt involves removal of the shunt followed by a long course of antibiotics; missing or partially treating shunt infections can result in significant morbidity and potentially even mortality...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704004/a-novel-rapidly-growing-mycobacterium-species-causing-an-abdominal-cerebrospinal-fluid-pseudocyst-infection
#16
Cory K Hussain, Tom J B de Man, Nadege C Toney, Kamal Kamboj, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Shu-Hua Wang
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670926/posttraumatic-hydrocephalus-as-a-confounding-influence-on-brain-injury-rehabilitation-incidence-clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes
#17
Alan H Weintraub, Donald J Gerber, Robert G Kowalski
OBJECTIVE: To describe incidence, clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes in posttraumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) for patients treated in an inpatient rehabilitation program. DESIGN: Cohort study with retrospective comparative analysis. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS: All patients admitted for TBI from 2009 to 2013 diagnosed with PTH (N=59), defined as ventriculomegaly, delayed clinical recovery discordant with injury severity, hydrocephalus symptoms, or positive lumbar puncture results...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642571/intrathecal-baclofen-pump-migration-into-the-peritoneal-cavity-a-case-report
#18
Timothy J Kovanda, Ecaterina Pestereva, Albert Lee
INTRODUCTION: Intrathecal baclofen pumps are valuable treatment options for those with cerebral palsy. Although subfascial baclofen pump placement is generally preferred over a subcutaneous pump placement due to lower infection rates, rare complications can occur with the subfascial approach such as pump migration. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors here describe a case of baclofen pump migration into the peritoneal cavity of a 26-year-old male patient with cerebral palsy, shunted hydrocephalus, and epilepsy...
June 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638720/predicting-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infection-in-children-with-hydrocephalus-using-artificial-neural-network
#19
Zohreh Habibi, Abolhasan Ertiaei, Mohammad Sadegh Nikdad, Atefeh Sadat Mirmohseni, Mohsen Afarideh, Vahid Heidari, Hooshang Saberi, Abdolreza Sheikh Rezaei, Farideh Nejat
OBJECTIVES: The relationships between shunt infection and predictive factors have not been previously investigated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. The aim of this study was to develop an ANN model to predict shunt infection in a group of children with shunted hydrocephalus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among more than 800 ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedures which had been performed between April 2000 and April 2011, 68 patients with shunt infection and 80 controls that fulfilled a set of meticulous inclusion/exclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled...
November 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606014/immediate-and-long-term-outcome-analysis-of-lipomeningomyelocele-repair-in-asymptomatic-infants-in-a-tertiary-care-center
#20
Prashant Sadashiv Patil, Abhaya Gupta, Paras L Kothari, Geeta Kekre, Rahul Gupta, Vishesh Dikshit, Kedar Mudkhedkar, Krishna Kesan
OBJECTIVE: To analyze immediate and long-term results of lipomeningomyelocele (LMM) repair in asymptomatic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients of LMM presented to Department of Paediatric Surgery over a period from 2011 to 2015 were evaluated preoperatively by magnetic resonance imaging of whole spine, and pre- and post-operative Ultrasound of kidney, ureter, bladder, and neurosonogram. Surgical procedure involved total excision of lipoma in 15 patients and near total excision in 2 patients...
April 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
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