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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218427/two-vitellogenins-in-the-loliginid-squid-uroteuthis-edulis-identification-and-specific-expression-in-ovarian-follicles
#1
Hajime Kitano, Naoki Nagano, Keishi Sakaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
Vitellogenenesis is a physiological process common in oviparous animals. The molecular profile, modifications, and utilization of vitellogenin (VTG), a precursor of yolk protein, have been characterized in various taxa to understand oogenesis within different modes of reproduction. Hormonal regulation of VTGs has been investigated in invertebrates, such as insects and crustaceans; conversely, little is known for cephalopods. In this study, we isolated two VTG genes (ue-VTG1 and ue-VTG2) from the loliginid swordtip squid, Uroteuthis edulis, via a comprehensive survey of a transcriptome database and subsequent cDNA cloning...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218403/unveiling-gene-trait-relationship-by-cross-platform-meta-analysis-on-chinese-hamster-ovary-cell-transcriptome
#2
Liang Zhao, Hsu-Yuan Fu, Ravali Raju, Nandita Vishwanathan, Wei-Shou Hu
In the past few years, transcriptome analysis has been increasingly employed to better understand the physiology of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at a global level. As more transcriptome data accumulated, meta-analysis on data sets collected from various sources can potentially provide better insights on common properties of those cells. Here, we performed meta-analysis on transcriptome data of different CHO cell lines obtained using NimbleGen or Affymetrix microarray platforms. Hierarchical clustering, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA) accordantly showed the samples were clustered into two groups: one consists of adherent cells in serum-containing medium, and the other suspension cells in serum-free medium...
February 20, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218391/mapk3-1-participates-in-the-activation-of-primordial-follicles-through-mtorc1-kitl-signaling
#3
Yu Zhao, Yu Zhang, Jia Li, Nana Zheng, Xiaoting Xu, Jing Yang, Guoliang Xia, Meijia Zhang
The majority of ovarian primordial follicles are preserved in a dormant state to maintain the female reproductive lifespan, and only a few primordial follicles are activated to enter the growing follicle pool in each wave. Recent studies have shown that primordial follicular activation depends on mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-KIT ligand (KITL) signaling in pre-granulosa cells and its receptor (KIT)-phosphoinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling in oocytes. However, the upstream regulator of mTORC1 signaling is unclear...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207183/combining-the-auxin-inducible-degradation-system-with-crispr-cas9-based-genome-editing-for-the-conditional-depletion-of-endogenous-drosophila-melanogaster-proteins
#4
Melinda Bence, Ferenc Jankovics, Tamás Lukácsovich, Miklós Erdélyi
Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in non-plant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins...
February 16, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199736/impact-of-hormonal-contraception-and-weight-loss-on-hdl-c-efflux-and-lipoprotein-particles-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Anuja Dokras, Martin Playford, Penny M Kris-Etherton, Allen R Kunselman, Christy M Stetter, Nancy I Williams, Carol L Gnatuk, Stephanie J Estes, David B Sarwer, Kelly C Allison, Christos Coutifaris, Nehal Mehta, Richard S Legro
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of oral contraceptive pills (OCP), the first line treatment for PCOS, on HDL-C function (reverse cholesterol efflux capacity) and lipoprotein particles measured by NMR spectroscopy. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of OCP or Lifestyle (intensive lifestyle modification) or Combined (OCP+Lifestyle) treatment for 16 weeks. PATIENTS: 87 overweight/obese women with PCOS at two academic centers...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198566/fish-short-term-reproduction-assay-fstra-with-atrazine-and-the-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#6
Alan J Hosmer, Suzanne Z Schneider, Julie C Anderson, Loren D Knopper, Richard A Brain
Breeding groups of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to atrazine at measured concentrations of 0.6, 5.5, and 53 µg/L for 35 d. Evaluated endpoints included survival, fecundity, fertility, growth (weight and length), behavior, secondary sex characteristics (anal fin papillae), gonad histopathology, and hepatic vitellogenin. No statistically significant effects of atrazine exposure on survival and growth of medaka were noted during the test, and mean survival was ≥97.5% in all treatment groups on Day 35...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188692/bioreactor-scale-up-and-protein-product-quality-characterization-of-piggybac-transposon-derived-cho-pools
#7
Yashas Rajendra, Sowmya Balasubramanian, Robert B Peery, James R Swartling, Neil A McCracken, Dawn L Norris, Christopher C Frye, Gavin C Barnard
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells remain the most popular host for the production of biopharmaceutical drugs, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins. Creating and characterizing the stable CHO clonally-derived cell lines (CDCLs) needed to manufacture these therapeutic proteins is a lengthy and laborious process. Therefore, CHO pools have increasingly been used to rapidly produce protein to support and enable preclinical drug development. We recently described the generation of CHO pools yielding mAb titers as high as 7...
February 11, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188688/evaluation-of-heavy-chain-c-terminal-deletions-on-productivity-and-product-quality-of-monoclonal-antibodies-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cho-cells
#8
Zhilan Hu, Danming Tang, Shahram Misaghi, Guoying Jiang, Christopher Yu, Mandy Yim, David Shaw, Brad Snedecor, Michael Laird, Amy Shen
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been well established as potent therapeutic agents and are used to treat many different diseases. During cell culture production, antibody charge variants can be generated by cleavage of heavy chain (HC) C-terminal lysine and proline amidation. Differences in levels of charge variants during manufacturing process changes make it challenging to demonstrate process comparability. In order to reduce heterogeneity and achieve consistent product quality, we generated and expressed antibodies with deletion of either HC C-terminal lysine (-K) or lysine and glycine (-GK)...
February 11, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177124/acute-exercise-elicits-differential-expression-of-insulin-resistance-genes-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
Wagner Silva Dantas, Igor Hisashi Murai, Luiz Augusto Perandini, Hatylas Azevedo, Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara, Hamilton Roschel, Bruno Gualano
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the role of acute exercise on skeletal muscle gene expression related to insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. METHODS: Four obese women with PCOS and 4 body controls subjects (CTRL) participated in this study. After an overnight fast, the subjects underwent a single 40-minute bout of aerobic exercise. Muscle samples were obtained from vastus lateralis at baseline and 60 minutes after exercise...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176325/sterol-regulatory-element-binding-protein-1-srebp1-gene-expression-is-similarly-increased-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-endometrial-cancer
#10
Mohamad Nasir Shafiee, Nigel Mongan, Claire Seedhouse, Caroline Chapman, Suha Deen, Jafaru Abu, William Atiomo
INTRODUCTION: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a 3-fold higher risk of endometrial cancer (EC). Insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia may be pertinent factors in the pathogenesis of both conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate endometrial Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein-1 gene (SREBP1) expression in PCOS and EC endometrium, and to correlate endometrial SREBP1 expression with serum lipid profiles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed at Nottingham University Hospital, United Kingdom...
February 7, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165157/atf6%C3%AE-based-fine-tuning-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-enhances-therapeutic-antibody-productivity-of-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells
#11
Lisa A Pieper, Michaela Strotbek, Till Wenger, Monilola A Olayioye, Angelika Hausser
The dynamics of protein folding and secretion are key issues in improving the productivity and robustness of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) producer cells. High recombinant protein secretion in CHO producer clones triggers the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), an intracellular response to the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We previously reported that the human microRNA (miRNA) miR-1287 enhances productivity in IgG expressing CHO cells (CHO-IgG)...
February 6, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137855/amh-mis-as-a-contraceptive-that-protects-the-ovarian-reserve-during-chemotherapy
#12
Motohiro Kano, Amanda E Sosulski, LiHua Zhang, Hatice D Saatcioglu, Dan Wang, Nicholas Nagykery, Mary E Sabatini, Guangping Gao, Patricia K Donahoe, David Pépin
The ovarian reserve represents the stock of quiescent primordial follicles in the ovary which is gradually depleted during a woman's reproductive lifespan, resulting in menopause. Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) (or anti-Müllerian hormone/AMH), which is produced by granulosa cells of growing follicles, has been proposed as a negative regulator of primordial follicle activation. Here we show that long-term parenteral administration of superphysiological doses of MIS, using either an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) gene therapy vector or recombinant protein, resulted in a complete arrest of folliculogenesis in mice...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135773/epidemiological-study-of-paediatric-germ-cell-tumours-revealed-the-incidence-and-distribution-that-was-expected-but-a-low-mortality-rate
#13
Madeline Evers, Catherine Rechnitzer, Niels Graem, Peder Skov Wehner, Henrik Schroeder, Steen Rosthoej, Christiane Hammershaimb Mosbech, Christina Engel Hoei-Hansen, Astrid Sehested, Taryn D Treger, Jesper Brok
AIM: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous tumour group derived from primordial germ cells, which can be benign or malignant and occur in the gonads or extragonadally. This study mapped the paediatric GCTs in Denmark from 1984-2013 to study the incidence and outcome. METHODS: We identified paediatric GCTs from the Danish Childhood Cancer and National Pathology Registries and reviewed the case records for patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome...
January 30, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130795/clinical-morphological-and-immunohistochemical-evidence-that-small-cell-carcinoma-of-the-ovary-of-hypercalcaemic-type-sccoht-may-be-a-primitive-germ-cell-neoplasm
#14
W Glenn McCluggage, Leora Witkowski, Blaise A Clarke, William D Foulkes
AIMS: The histogenesis and cell lineage of small cell carcinoma of the ovary of hypercalcaemic type (SCCOHT) is unknown. We aim to provide evidence that this may be a primitive germ cell neoplasm arising from a teratoma. METHODS/ RESULTS: Following the identification of two cases of SCCOHT associated with germ cell tumours (one dermoid cyst, one immature teratoma with a focus of yolk sac tumour), we undertook a literature review to look for any prior reports of SCCOHT in association with other neoplasms or elements...
January 28, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130407/a-putative-role-for-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-in-optimising-ovarian-reserve-expenditure
#15
Michael W Pankhurst
The mammalian ovary has a finite supply of oocytes which are contained within primordial follicles where they are arrested in a dormant state. The number of primordial follicles in the ovary at puberty is highly variable between females of the same species. Females that enter puberty with a small ovarian reserve are at risk of a shorter reproductive lifespan, as their ovarian reserve is expected to be depleted faster. One of the roles of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is to inhibit primordial follicle activation which slows the rate at which the ovarian reserve is depleted...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128436/cell-controlled-hybrid-perfusion-fed-batch-cho-cell-process-provides-significant-productivity-improvement-over-conventional-fed-batch-cultures
#16
Gregory W Hiller, Ana Maria Ovalle, Matthew P Gagnon, Meredith L Curran, Wenge Wang
A simple method originally designed to control lactate accumulation in fed-batch cultures of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells has been modified and extended to allow cells in culture to control their own rate of perfusion to precisely deliver nutritional requirements. The method allows for very fast expansion of cells to high density while using a minimal volume of concentrated perfusion medium. When the short-duration cell-controlled perfusion is performed in the production bioreactor and is immediately followed by a conventional fed-batch culture using highly concentrated feeds, the overall productivity of the culture is approximately doubled when compared with a highly optimized state-of-the-art fed-batch process...
January 27, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127892/taming-hyperactive-hdnase-i-stable-inducible-expression-of-a-hyperactive-salt-and-actin-resistant-variant-of-human-deoxyribonuclease-i-in-cho-cells
#17
Cynthia Lam, Lydia Santell, Blair Wilson, Mandy Yim, Salina Louie, Danming Tang, David Shaw, Pamela Chan, Robert A Lazarus, Brad Snedecor, Shahram Misaghi
While the most common causes of clonal instability are DNA copy number loss and silencing, toxicity of the expressed protein(s) may also induce clonal instability. Human DNase I (hDNase I) is used therapeutically for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) and may have potential benefit for use in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). hDNase I is an endonuclease that catalyzes degradation of extracellular DNA and is inhibited by both salt and G-actin. Engineered versions of hDNase I, bearing multiple point mutations, which renders them Hyperactive, Salt- and Actin-Resistant (HSAR-hDNase I) have been developed previously...
January 27, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122315/intrauterine-insemination-no-more-mr-n-i-c-e-guy
#18
Minna E Geisler, Mark Ledwidge, Margaret Bermingham, Mary McAuliffe, Moya B McMenamin, John J Waterstone
OBJECTIVE: To determine the per cycle chance of a live birth and to identify factors that may support a more individualised application of IUI in view of National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) updated guideline on fertility 2013. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective, cohort study of 851 couples (1688 cycles) with unexplained, mild endometriosis, one patent Fallopian tube (with ovulation occurring in the corresponding ovary), mild male factor or ovulatory dysfunction, who initiated their first cycle of IUI/COH during the study period 2009-2013 and completed up to 3 cycles...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112396/a-novel-approach-to-characterize-host-cell-proteins-associated-with-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibodies
#19
Andrew S Thomson, Shing Mai, Michael P Byrne
Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) products are widely produced in the pharmaceutical industry using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Host cell proteins (HCPs) are one of many process-related impurities generated during the production of mAb products. The multi-analyte HCP enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the industry standard accepted assay to measure clearance of HCPs from recombinant protein therapeutics. While similar platform processes are used for expression and purification, varying amounts of HCPs are found in final drug substances for different mAb products...
January 23, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#20
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
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