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ovary reserv

Magdalena Pertynska-Marczewska, Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis
OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse generator, the pituitary gonadotropes, the ovaries, and the uterus play a crucial role in female fertility. A decline in reproductive performance represents a complex interplay of actions at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Recently, in the field of female reproductive aging attention is drawn to the carbonyl stress theory. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute directly to protein damage, induce a chain of oxidative stress (OS) reactions, and increase inflammatory reactions...
October 3, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Maria Isabel Da Silva, Maria Inês Braga De Oliveira, Oscar Tadeu Ferreira Da Costa, Wallice Paxiúba Duncan
The reproductive biology of South American freshwater stingrays (family Potamotrygonidae) is still poorly studied compared to other marine species. In the present study, we examined the gross anatomy and histology of six species of potamotrygonids from the Amazon basin and described the structural asymmetry of the ovaries and their relationship between ovarian/uterine fecundities. Stereological techniques were used to quantify the volume of ovarian and epigonal organ tissue associated with the left and right sides of the Potamotrygon wallacei, a recently described species, locally known as the cururu ray...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Christine K Wagner, Princy Quadros-Mennella
Steroid hormones activate nuclear receptors which, as transcription factors, can regulate critical aspects of neural development. Many regions of the rat forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain express progestin receptors (PR) during perinatal life, suggesting that progesterone may play an important role in the development of the brain. An immunohistochemical approach using two antibodies with differential recognition of ligand-bound PR was used to examine whether fetuses are exposed to maternal progesterone during pregnancy and whether progesterone from maternal circulation can bind to PR within the fetal brain...
October 14, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Batool Hossein Rashidi, Mansoureh Gorginzadeh, Soroush Aalipour, Eric Scott Sills
Objective: To compare serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and other endocrine parameters between patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and age-matched ovulatory women. Materials and methods: AMH, DHEAS, FSH, LH, PRL, TSH and total testosterone (TT) were prospectively measured in oligo-ovulatory PCOS patients (n = 595) and in ovulatory non-PCOS women (n = 157) referred to a tertiary infertility center. Mean BMI was similar across the two study populations and there were no smokers in the sample...
October 10, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
M Grande, H Murua, I Zudaire, E J Arsenault-Pernet, F Pernet, N Bodin
The lipid composition of somatic and reproductive tissues was determined for female skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis caught in the western Indian Ocean between latitude 10° N and 20° S and longitude 40° and 70° E. The highest total lipid (TL) contents were in the liver and gonads, with white muscle levels approximately three-fold lower. Three lipid classes dominated: triacylglycerols (TAG), sterol esters and wax esters (SE-WE) and phospholipids (PL). Collectively, these accounted for between 70 and 80% of TLs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Sumita Chakrabarti, Andrew Chang, Nai-Jiang Liu, Alan R Gintzler
Caveolin-1 is the predominant structural protein of caveolae, a subset of (lipid) membrane rafts that compartmentalize cell signaling. Caveolin-1 binds most to G protein-coupled receptors and their signaling partners, thereby enhancing interactions among signaling cascade components and the relative activation of specific G protein-coupled pathways. This study reveals that chronic opioid exposure of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells (MOR-CHO) and chronic in vivo morphine exposure of rat spinal cord augmented recruitment of multiple components of MOR-adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulatory signaling by caveolin-1...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Marzena Rzeszowska, Agnieszka Leszcz, Lechosław Putowski, Magdalena Hałabiś, Joanna Tkaczuk-Włach, Jan Kotarski, Grzegorz Polak
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein produced by the granulosa cells of preantral and small antral follicles. AMH concentrations reflect ovarian physiology with high precision, thus serving as a more sensitive marker of the ovarian reserve than the chronological age. This hormone plays a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual disorders and fertility in obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome. The evaluation of AMH may also be useful in the diagnosis or the monitoring therapy of granulosa cells ovarian tumors...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Sherman Silber
After fresh or frozen ovary transplantation, FSH levels return to normal, and menstrual cycles resume by 150 days, coincident with anti-Müllerian hormone rising to higher than normal levels. AMH then returns to well below normal levels by 240 days, remaining as such for many years with nonetheless normal ovulation and fertility. To date, 20 babies have been born in our program from 11 fresh and 13 cryopreserved ovary transplant recipients with a live baby rate of over 70 % (11 babies from fresh and 9 from frozen)...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Meryam El Issaoui, Veronica Giorgione, Linn S Mamsen, Catherine Rechnitzer, Niels Birkebæk, Niels Clausen, Thomas W Kelsey, Claus Yding Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of first-line antineoplastic treatment on ovarian reserve in young girls returning for ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in connection with a relapse. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: University hospitals. PATIENT(S): Sixty-three girls under the age of 18 years who underwent OTC before (group 1: 31 patients) and after (group 2: 32 patients) their initial cancer treatment...
October 4, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
F Acıbucu, D O Acıbucu, Ö B Akkar, H S Dokmetas
Introduction: Radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation treatment is used for patients diagnosed with well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to reduce the risk of recurrence. RAI ablation treatment can adversely affect gonads in males and females. In this study, we aimed to determine ovary damage and infertility risk due to RAI, using serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level, in females who received RAI ablation treatment. Materials and Methods: 45 female patients who have not gone through the menopause and had received RAI ablation treatment for well-differentiated thyroid cancer in premenopausal period, and 40 healthy females as control groups were included in this study...
October 6, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Chang-Woon Kim, Haeng Seon Shim, Hong Jang, Yun Gyu Song
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids on ovarian reserve based on AMH. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study conducted between March 2011 and October 2014. All women underwent UAE. At baseline and at the 3-month and 12-month follow-up visits, serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) levels were assessed, and ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) were evaluated in each patient...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Xiaowei Wu, Linyi You, Deliang Zhang, Mengna Gao, Zijing Li, Duo Xu, Pu Zhang, Lumei Huang, Rongqiang Zhuang, Hua Wu, Xianzhong Zhang
To develop a novel progesterone receptor (PR) targeting probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, ethisterone derivative [(18) F]EAEF was designed and prepared in high decay-corrected radiochemical yield (30 ~ 35%) with good radiochemical purity (> 98%). [(18) F]EAEF is a lipophilic tracer (logP = 0.53 ± 0.06) with very good stability in saline and serum. In the biodistribution study, high radioactivity accumulation of [(18) F]EAEF were found in uterus (5.73 ± 1.83% ID/g) and ovary (4.05 ±0...
October 3, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Qingxiang Zhou, Scott J Neal, Francesca Pignoni
A host of classical and molecular genetic tools make Drosophila a tremendous model for the dissection of gene activity. In particular, the FLP-FRT technique for mitotic recombination has greatly enhanced gene loss-of-function analysis. This technique efficiently induces formation of homozygous mutant clones in tissues of heterozygous organisms. However, the dependence of the FLP-FRT method on cell division, and other constraints, also impose limits on its effectiveness. We describe here the generation and testing of tools for Mutant Analysis by Rescue Gene Excision (MARGE), an approach whereby mutant cells are formed by loss of a rescue transgene in a homozygous mutant organism...
October 3, 2016: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Valerio Rossi, Monica Lispi, Salvatore Longobardi, Maurizio Mattei, Francesca Di Rella, Antonietta Salustri, Massimo De Felici, Francesca G Klinger
Premature ovarian failure and female infertility are frequent side effects of anticancer therapies, owing to the extreme sensitivity of the ovarian reserve oocytes to the damaging effects of irradiation and chemotherapy on DNA. We report here a robust protective effect of luteinizing hormone (LH) on the primordial follicle pool of prepubertal ovaries against the cisplatin (Cs)-induced apoptosis. In vitro LH treatment of prepubertal ovarian fragments generated anti-apoptotic signals by a subset of ovarian somatic cells expressing LH receptor (LHR) through cAMP/PKA and Akt pathways...
September 30, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Na Lyu, Wei Du, Xiao-Fan Wang
Pollen-pistil interactions are a fundamental process in the reproductive biology of angiosperms and play a particularly important role in maintaining incipient species that exist in sympatry. However, the majority of previous studies have focused on species with syncarpous gynoecia (fused carpels) and not those with apocarpous gynoecia (unfused carpels). In the present study, we investigated the growth of conspecific pollen tubes compared to heterospecific pollen tubes in Sagittaria species, which have apocarpous gynoecia...
September 30, 2016: Plant Biology
Michaela Czerneková, K Ingemar Jönsson, Lukasz Chajec, Sebastian Student, Izabela Poprawa
Tun formation is an essential morphological adaptation for entering the anhydrobiotic state in tardigrades, but its internal structure has rarely been investigated. We present the structure and ultrastructure of organs and cells in desiccated Richtersius coronifer by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and histochemical methods. A 3D reconstruction of the body organization of the tun stage is also presented. The tun formation during anhydrobiosis of tardigrades is a process of anterior-posterior body contraction, which relocates some organs such as the pharyngeal bulb...
September 27, 2016: Protoplasma
H R Harris, L J Titus, D W Cramer, K L Terry
Long and irregular menstrual cycles, a hallmark of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), have been associated with higher androgen and lower sex hormone binding globulin levels and this altered hormonal environment may increase the risk of specific histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer. We investigated whether menstrual cycle characteristics and self-reported PCOS were associated with ovarian cancer risk among 2,041 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 2,100 controls in the New England Case-Control Study (1992-2008)...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Salina Louie, Benjamin Haley, Brett Marshall, Amy Heidersbach, Mandy Yim, Martina Brozynski, Danming Tang, Cynthia Lam, Bronislawa Petryniak, David Shaw, Jeongsup Shim, Aaron Miller, John B Lowe, Brad Snedecor, Shahram Misaghi
During antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) the target cells are killed by monocytes and natural killer cells. ADCC is enhanced when the antibody heavy chain's core N-linked glycan lacks the fucose molecule(s). Several strategies have been utilized to generate fully afucosylated antibodies. A commonly used and efficient approach has been knocking out the FUT8 gene of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells, which results in expression of antibody molecules with fully afucosylated glycans. However, a major drawback of the FUT8-KO host is the requirement for undertaking two separate cell line development (CLD) efforts in order to obtain both primarily fucosylated and fully afucosylated antibody species for comparative studies in vitro and in vivo...
September 26, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Anita J Massé, Jorgelina R Muscatello, Natacha S Hogan, David M Janz
Selenium (Se) is a developmental toxicant that is also capable of altering the bioenergetic and endocrine status of adult fishes. To date, aquatic ecotoxicological research has predominantly focused on the toxic effects of Se in fishes with minimal information related to amphibians. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential toxicity associated with chronically elevated dietary Se consumption in adult female amphibians utilizing the model species Xenopus laevis. Adult X. laevis females were fed a diet augmented with L-selenomethionine at measured concentrations of 0...
September 26, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Zeeshan Javed, Eric S Kilpatrick, Anne-Marie Coady, Stephen L Atkin
CONTEXT: Animal studies suggest that cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) blockade reduces inflammation and neovascularization by decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels associated with a reduction in inflammatory markers, thereby potentially reducing cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of CB1 antagonism by rimonabant on VEGF and inflammatory markers in obese PCOS women. DESIGN: Randomized, open-labelled parallel study...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
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