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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092404/metformin-versus-myoinositol-which-is-better-in-obese-pcos-patients-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#1
Valeria Tagliaferri, Daniela Romualdi, Valentina Immediata, Simona De Cicco, Christian Di Florio, Antonio Lanzone, Maurizio Guido
CONTEXT: due to the central role of metabolic abnormalities in the pathophysiology of PCOS, insulin sensitising agents have been proposed as a feasible treatment option. OBJECTIVE: to investigate which is the more effective between metformin and myoinositol on hormonal, clinical and metabolic parameters in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). STUDY DESIGN: crossover randomized-controlled study. PATIENTS: Thirty-four PCOS obese women (age: 25...
January 16, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079292/germ-cell-tumors-insights-from-the-drosophila-ovary-and-the-mouse-testis
#2
REVIEW
Helen K Salz, Emily P Dawson, Jason D Heaney
Ovarian and testicular germ cell tumors of young adults are thought to arise from defects in germ cell development, but the molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation are poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the biology of germ cell tumor formation in the Drosophila ovary and the mouse testis, for which the evidence supports common underlying mechanisms such as blocking initiation into the differentiation pathway, impaired lineage progression, and sexual identity instability. We then discuss how these concepts inform our understanding of the disease in humans...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072454/non-neuronal-acetylcholine-involved-in-reproduction-in-mammals-and-honeybees
#3
REVIEW
Ignaz Wessler, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Bacteria and archaea synthesize acetylcholine (ACh). Thus it can be postulated that ACh was created by nature roughly 3 billion years ago. Therefore, the wide expression of ACh in nature (i.e. in bacteria, archaea, unicellular organisms, plants, fungi, non-vertebrates and vertebrates and the abundance of non-neuronal cells of mammals) is not surprising. The term non-neuronal ACh and non-neuronal cholinergic system have been introduced to describe the auto- and paracrine, i.e. local regulatory actions of cells not innervated by neuronal cholinergic fibers to communicate among themselves...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064442/tumor-derived-spheroids-relevance-to-cancer-stem-cells-and-clinical-applications
#4
REVIEW
Tatsuya Ishiguro, Hirokazu Ohata, Ai Sato, Kaoru Yamawaki, Takayuki Enomoto, Koji Okamoto
Recently, many types of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture systems have been developed to recapitulate the in vivo growth conditions of cancer. The cancer 3D culture methods aim to preserve the biological characteristics of original tumors better than conventional two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures, and include tumor-derived organoids, tumor-derived spheroids, organotypic multicellular spheroids, and multicellular tumor spheroids. The 3D culture methods differ in terms of cancer cell sources, protocols for cell handling, and the required time intervals...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039871/high-salivary-testosterone-to-androstenedione-t-a4-ratio-and-adverse-metabolic-phenotypes-in-women-with-pcos
#5
J Münzker, L Lindheim, J Adaway, C Trummer, E Lerchbaum, T R Pieber, B Keevil, B Obermayer-Pietsch
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by a combination of hormonal and metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, anovulation and hyperandrogenism. Clinical phenotypes of PCOS show different patterns of steroid hormones that have been investigated to some extent. This study aimed to establish a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of salivary testosterone and androstenedione, and to describe the salivary testosterone to androstenedione (T/A4) ratio as a new tool for the assessment of hyperandrogenism and metabolic health...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036005/bisphenol-a-and-ovarian-reserve-among-infertile-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#6
Wei Zhou, Fang Fang, Wenting Zhu, Zi-Jiang Chen, Yanzhi Du, Jun Zhang
To better understand possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on ovarian reserve in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we measured creatinine adjusted urinary BPA (BPA_Cre) concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association between urinary BPA level and antral follicle count (AFC), antimullerian hormone (AMH), day-3 follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH) and inhibin B (INHB) in 268 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS. BPA was detected in all women with a median concentration of 2...
December 27, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032932/androgen-induced-lncrna-potef-as1-regulates-apoptosis-related-pathway-to-facilitate-cell-survival-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#7
Aya Misawa, Ken-Ichi Takayama, Tetsuya Fujimura, Yukio Homma, Yutaka Suzuki, Satoshi Inoue
Although long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been associated with a variety of cancers, the interplay between lncRNAs and androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer is still unclear. Here, we identified an androgen-dependent lncRNA, prostate, ovary, testis expressed protein family member-F antisense transcript-1 (POTEF-AS1), whose expression was regulated by AR in two androgen-dependent cells by using directional RNA-seq analysis. POTEF-AS1 promoted cell growth, repressed genes related to the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and apoptosis pathways and inhibited apoptosis in docetaxel-treated LNCaP cells...
December 29, 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032649/kras-mutation-coupled-with-p53-loss-is-sufficient-to-induce-ovarian-carcinosarcomas-in-mice
#8
Feng-Hsiang Tang, Tsung-Hua Hsieh, Chia-Yi Hsu, Hsiao-Yun Lin, Cheng-Yu Long, Kuang-Hung Cheng, Eing-Mei Tsai
Ovarian carcinosarcoma cancer is the most lethal form of gynecological malignancy, but the pathogenesis and biological function for this ovarian cancer remain unknown. We establishment the transgenic mouse model of K-ras(G12D) p53(loxP/loxP) and found that K-ras mutation and p53 deletion within the ovarian surface epithelium gave rise to ovarian lesions with a hyperproliferation and endometrioid glandular morphology. Furthermore, double mutant ovaries formed ovarian carcinosarcomas that were high grade and poorly differentiated...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025499/patterns-of-apoptosis-and-proliferation-throughout-the-biennial-reproductive-cycle-of-viviparous-female-typhlonectes-compressicauda-amphibia-gymnophiona
#9
Michel Raquet, Claire Brun, Jean-Marie Exbrayat
Typhlonectes compressicauda is an aquatic gymnophionan amphibian living in South America. Its breeding cycle is linked to seasons, characterized by a regular alternation of rainy and dry seasons. During a complex biennial cycle, the female genital tract undergoes a series of alternations of increasing and decreasing, governed by equilibrium of proliferation and apoptotic phenomena. Immunohistochemical methods were used to visualize cell proliferation with the detection of Ki67 antibody, a protein present in proliferative cells; terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and Apostain were performed to detect apoptotic cells on sections of ovaries and oviducts...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004452/inhibitory-mechanism-of-l-glutamic-acid-on-spawning-of-the-starfish-patiria-asterina-pectinifera
#10
Masatoshi Mita
L-Glutamic acid was previously identified as an inhibitor of spawning in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera; this study examined how L-glutamic acid works. Oocyte release from ovaries of P. pectinifera occurred after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and follicular envelope breakdown (FEBD) when gonads were incubated ex vivo with either relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) or 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). L-Glutamic acid blocked this spawning phenotype, causing the mature oocytes to remain within the ovaries...
December 22, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997765/intracellular-cho-cell-metabolite-profiling-reveals-steady-state-dependent-metabolic-fingerprints-in-perfusion-culture
#11
Daniel J Karst, Robert Steinhoff, Marie R G Kopp, Elisa Serra, Miroslav Soos, Renato Zenobi, Massimo Morbidelli
Perfusion cell culture processes allow the steady-state culture of mammalian cells at high viable cell density, which is beneficial for overall product yields and homogeneity of product quality in the manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In this study, the extent of metabolic steady state and the change of the metabolite profile between different steady states of an industrial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was investigated in stirred tank perfusion bioreactors...
December 20, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989630/-specificities-of-carcinomas-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#12
REVIEW
Brice Fresneau, Marie-Emilie Dourthe, Anaïs Jouin, Valérie Laurence, Guénolée de Lambert, Christelle Colas, Mathilde Coret, Anne Laprie, Céleste Rebours, Daniel Orbach, Charlotte Demoor-Goldschmidt
Carcinomas are rare tumors of the adolescent-young adult (AYA) with a different spectrum from those of adults. The most common sites outside of the thyroid is the nasopharynx, salivary gland, colon-rectum and ovaries. If nasopharyngeal carcinoma or salivary gland tumors are good prognosis, others are more reserved prognosis, such as digestive carcinomas, gynecological or midline. The revelation modes are non-specific and depend on the location: mass, tumor syndrome, pain, impaired general condition. The unusual of pediatric carcinomas led to propose a systematic oncogenetic exploration...
December 15, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977910/bioreactor-productivity-and-media-cost-comparison-for-different-intensified-cell-culture-processes
#13
Sen Xu, John Gavin, Rubin Jiang, Hao Chen
Process intensification in biomanufacturing has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. Manufacturing platform improvements leading to higher cell density and bioreactor productivity have been pursued. Here we evaluated a variety of intensified mammalian cell culture processes for producing monoclonal antibodies. Cell culture operational modes including fed-batch (normal seeding density or high seeding density with N-1 perfusion), perfusion, and concentrated fed-batch (CFB) were assessed using the same media set with the same Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line...
December 15, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943242/knockout-of-a-difficult-to-remove-cho-host-cell-protein-lipoprotein-lipase-for-improved-polysorbate-stability-in-monoclonal-antibody-formulations
#14
Josephine Chiu, Kristin N Valente, Nicholas E Levy, Lie Min, Abraham M Lenhoff, Kelvin H Lee
While the majority of host cell protein (HCP) impurities are effectively removed in typical downstream purification processes, a small population of HCPs are particularly challenging. Previous studies have identified HCPs that are challenging for a variety of reasons. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) HCP that functions to hydrolyze esters in triglycerides-was one of ten HCPs identified in previous studies as being susceptible to retention in downstream processing. LPL may degrade polysorbate 80 (PS-80) and polysorbate 20 (PS-20) in final product formulations due to the structural similarity between polysorbates and triglycerides...
December 12, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928855/impact-of-laparoscopic-ovarian-detorsion-on-ovarian-reserve
#15
Cenk Yasa, Ozlem Dural, Ercan Bastu, Masallah Zorlu, Omer Demir, Funda Gungor Ugurlucan
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian reserve after laparoscopic ovarian detorsion in patients with ovarian torsion. METHODS: From February 2014 to September 2015, a total of 11 patients with ovarian torsion underwent laparoscopic detorsion. These 11 patients were eligible for study, and ovarian reserve was assessed on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and by antral follicle count preoperatively, and in postoperative months 1 and 3. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 25...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927849/the-effect-of-serum-vitamin-d-levels-on-ovarian-reserve-markers-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#16
Panagiotis Drakopoulos, Arne van de Vijver, Valerie Schutyser, Stevan Milatovic, Ellen Anckaert, Johan Schiettecatte, Christophe Blockeel, Michel Camus, Herman Tournaye, Nikolaos P Polyzos
STUDY QUESTION: Is there any association between serum 25-OH vitamin D levels and ovarian reserve markers in infertile women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Vitamin D is not associated with the ovarian reserve markers, anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC), in infertile women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The mechanism underlying the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and reproduction is still unclear; however, evidence indicates a potential direct negative impact on ovarian function...
January 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922175/a-framework-to-quantify-karyotype-variation-associated-with-cho-production-instability
#17
Jong Youn Baik, Kelvin H Lee
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, major mammalian host cells for biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins, have been extensively investigated to enhance productivity and product quality. However, cell line instability resulting in unexpected changes in productivity or product quality is challenging for biomanufacturing. Based on previous reports about causes and characteristics of production instability, we hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements due to genomic instability are associated with production instability...
December 6, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913641/translation-repression-by-maternal-rna-binding-protein-zar1-is-essential-for-early-oogenesis-in-zebrafish
#18
Liyun Miao, Yue Yuan, Feng Cheng, Junshun Fang, Fang Zhou, Weirui Ma, Yan Jiang, Xiahe Huang, Yingchun Wang, Lingjuan Shan, Dahua Chen, Jian Zhang
Large numbers of maternal RNAs are deposited in oocytes and are reserved for later development. Control of maternal RNA translation during oocyte maturation has been extensively investigated and its regulatory mechanisms are well documented. However, translational regulation of maternal RNAs in early oogenesis is largely unexplored. In this study, we generated zebrafish zar1 mutants which result in early oocyte apoptosis and fully penetrant male development. Loss of p53 suppresses the apoptosis in zar1 mutants and restores oocyte development...
December 2, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911471/the-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-supplementation-on-glucose-metabolism-and-lipid-profiles-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Mansooreh Samimi, Maryam Zarezade Mehrizi, Fatemeh Foroozanfard, Hossein Akbari, Mehri Jamilian, Shahnaz Ahmadi, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: Data on the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) supplementation on metabolic profiles among subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in subjects with PCOS. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 women diagnosed with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909567/ovarian-reserve-may-be-compromised-after-adnexal-surgery-are-we-sufficiently-fertility-focused-in-our-surgical-training
#20
G S Kalra, S Campbell, G Nargund
There is a general trend towards delay in childbearing age amongst women. The ovarian reserve clearly falls with increasing age and the impact is greater with advancing age, particularly from late 30s. Presence of other risk factors can increase the risk of subfertility. A large number of women are exposed to pelvic surgery for various reasons, both elective and emergency. There is evidence that some of the pelvic surgery performed around ovaries and tubes has a negative impact on the ovarian reserve and in turn may cause a decline in woman's ability to conceive...
June 27, 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
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