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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727165/increased-fibre-and-reduced-trans-fatty-acid-intake-are-primary-predictors-of-metabolic-improvement-in-overweight-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-substudy-of-randomized-trial-between-diet-exercise-and-diet-plus-exercise-for-weight-control
#1
Åsa Nybacka, Per M Hellström, Angelica L Hirschberg
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly affected by obesity. PCOS phenotypes are prone to increased waist/hip ratio, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. This substudy was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lifestyle interventions on metabolic biomarkers in overweight/obese PCOS women, and the interventional effects of dietary components related to metabolic outcomes. DESIGN: Randomized three-arm parallel study. PATIENTS: Fifty-seven PCOS women (BMI >27kg/m(2) , age 18-40) were randomly assigned to diet (D, n=19), exercise (E, n=19) or diet plus exercise (DE, n=19) in three-arm fashion over 16 weeks...
July 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726323/characterization-of-a-cathepsin-d-protease-from-cho-cell-free-medium-and-mitigation-of-its-impact-on-the-stability-of-a-recombinant-therapeutic-protein
#2
Amareth Lim, Brandon L Doyle, Gerard M Kelly, Angelia M Reed-Bogan, Lawrence H Breen, Parviz A Shamlou, Peter K Lambooy
During purification process development of a recombinant therapeutic protein, an endoproteolytic activity endogenous to the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and leading to degradation at particular hydrophobic amino acid residues (e.g., Phe and Trp) was observed when processing at acidic pH. The presence of residual levels of protease activity in purified protein batches affected the inherent activity of the product when stored as a solution. In order to develop a robust purification strategy to minimize this undesirable impact, identification and characterization of this protease was essential to ultimately ensure that a solution formulation was stable for many years...
July 20, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722325/polymer-mediated-flocculation-of-transient-cho-cultures-as-a-simple-high-throughput-method-to-facilitate-antibody-discovery
#3
Matthew G Schmitt, Yashas Rajendra, Maria D Hougland, Jeffrey S Boyles, Gavin C Barnard
Most biopharmaceutical drugs, especially monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) and Fc-fusion proteins, are expressed using Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. CHO cells typically yield high product titers and high product quality. Unfortunately, CHO cell lines also generate high molecular weight (HMW) aggregates of the desired product during cell culture along with CHO host cell protein (HCP) and CHO DNA. These immunogenic species, co-purified during Protein A purification, must be removed in a multi-step purification process...
July 19, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721129/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-as-a-good-predictor-of-time-of-menopause
#4
REVIEW
Aleksandra Kruszyńska, Jadwiga Słowińska-Srzednicka
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in women is secreted by granulosa cells in late preantral and small antral follicles. AMH seems to be a very stable marker having some advantages over other biochemical and biophysical markers and is very useful in the assessment of ovarian reserve. AMH measurement may be used in cases of premature ovarian failure, including iatrogenic, due to treatment for cancer, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and lastly, in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It is also a very specific marker of ovarian tumors - folliculomas...
June 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715118/microrna159-targeted-slgamyb-transcription-factors-are-required-for-fruit-set-in-tomato
#5
Eder Marques da Silva, Geraldo Felipe Ferreira E Silva, Débora Brussolo Bidoia, Mariana da Silva Azevedo, Frederico Almeida de Jesus, Lilian Ellen Pino, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira Peres, Esther Carrera, Isabel López-Díaz, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira Nogueira
The transition from flowering to fruit production, namely fruit set, is crucial to ensure successful sexual plant reproduction. Although studies have described the importance of hormones (i.e., auxin and gibberelins) in controlling fruit set after pollination and fertilization, the role of microRNA-based regulation during ovary development and fruit set is still poorly understood. Here we show that microRNA159/GAMYB1 and -2 pathway (the miR159/GAMYB1/2 module) is crucial for tomato ovule development and fruit set...
July 17, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710856/quantitative-intracellular-flux-modeling-and-applications-in-biotherapeutic-development-and-production-using-cho-cell-cultures
#6
REVIEW
Zhuangrong Huang, Dong-Yup Lee, Seongkyu Yoon
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been widely used for producing many recombinant therapeutic proteins. Constraint-based modeling, such as flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), has been developing rapidly for the quantification of intracellular metabolic flux distribution at a systematic level. Such methods would produce detailed maps of flows through metabolic networks, which contribute significantly to better understanding of metabolism in cells. Although these approaches have been extensively established in microbial systems, their application to mammalian cells is sparse...
July 15, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699174/inherited-variation-in-circadian-rhythm-genes-and-risks-of-prostate-cancer-and-three-other-cancer-sites-in-combined-cancer-consortia
#7
Fangyi Gu, Han Zhang, Paula L Hyland, Sonja Berndt, Susan M Gapstur, William Wheeler, Christopher I Amos, Stephane Bezieau, Heike Bickeböller, Hermann Brenner, Paul Brennan, Jenny Chang-Claude, David V Conti, Jennifer Ann Doherty, Stephen B Gruber, Tabitha A Harrison, Richard B Hayes, Michael Hoffmeister, Richard S Houlston, Rayjean J Hung, Mark A Jenkins, Peter Kraft, Kate Lawrenson, James McKay, Sarah Markt, Lorelei Mucci, Catherine M Phelan, Conghui Qu, Angela Risch, Mary Anne Rossing, H-Erich Wichmann, Jianxin Shi, Eva Schernhammer, Kai Yu, Maria Teresa Landi, Neil E Caporaso
Circadian disruption has been linked to carcinogenesis in animal models, but the evidence in humans is inconclusive. Genetic variation in circadian rhythm genes provides a tool to investigate such associations. We examined associations of genetic variation in nine core circadian rhythm genes and six melatonin pathway genes with risk of colorectal, lung, ovarian and prostate cancers using data from the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) network. The major results for prostate cancer were replicated in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial, and for colorectal cancer in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO)...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688187/reexamining-opportunities-for-therapeutic-protein-production-in-eukaryotic-microorganisms
#8
REVIEW
M Catherine Bartlett, Chapman Wright, Angel Kuo, Noelle Colant, Matthew Westoby, J Christopher Love
Antibodies are an important class of therapeutics and are predominantly produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines. While this manufacturing platform is sufficiently productive to supply patient populations of currently approved therapies, it is unclear whether or not the current CHO platform can address two significant areas of need: affordable access to biologics for patients around the globe and production of unprecedented quantities needed for very large populations of patients. Novel approaches to recombinant protein production for therapeutic biologic products may be needed, and might be enabled by non-mammalian expression systems and recent advances in bioengineering...
July 8, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681975/exposure-effects-of-levonorgestrel-on-oogenesis-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#9
Tyler Frankel, Lance Yonkos, Jack Frankel
The synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) is commonly utilized as a component of human oral contraceptives. LNG enters the environment as a component of wastewater treatment plant effluent, and has been measured at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters. LNG has been shown to activate fish androgen receptors, causing the physical masculinization of females, changes in reproductive behavior, and decreases in fecundity. In this present study, the effects of LNG exposure on early stage oogenesis in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was examined...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681949/age-stratified-thresholds-of-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-improve-prediction-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-over-a-population-based-threshold
#10
Molly M Quinn, Chia-Ning Kao, Asima K Ahmad, Daniel J Haisenleder, Nanette Santoro, Esther Eisenberg, Richard S Legro, Marcelle I Cedars, Heather G Huddleston
OBJECTIVE: Due to its consistent elevation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and correlation with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has been proposed as a marker of the syndrome. However, prior studies reporting thresholds of AMH for a PCOS diagnosis have been limited by small sample size, inappropriate controls, and heterogeneous AMH assays. We sought to evaluate the suitability of a standardized AMH assay as a biomarker of PCOS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study at academic medical centers across the United States...
July 6, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661063/flourishing-follicles-overview-of-ovariolas
#11
Andrew M Kelleher, Kasra Khalaj, Jacinta H Martin, Maria Florencia Scaia, Rebecca L Wilson
Ovarian follicle development is essential for the propagation of species. In Drosophila melanogaster, follicle development occurs through a spectacularly coordinated sequence within the highly polarized ovariole (pictured). A single ovary contains more than a dozen ovarioles that cluster together to form bud-like structures. Gentle mechanical disruption of the ovary allows for the separation and visualization of individual ovarioles and, thus, the progression of follicle development. This article is protected by copyright...
June 29, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658519/synergistic-effect-of-melatonin-and-ghrelin-in-preventing-cisplatin-induced-ovarian-damage-via-regulation-of-foxo3a-phosphorylation-and-binding-to-the-p27-kip1-promoter-in-primordial-follicles
#12
Hoon Jang, Younghwa Na, Kwonho Hong, Sangho Lee, Sohyeon Moon, Minha Cho, Miseon Park, Ok-Hee Lee, Eun Mi Chang, Dong Ryul Lee, Jung Jae Ko, Woo Sik Lee, Youngsok Choi
Premature ovarian failure during chemotherapy is a serious problem for young women with cancer. To preserve the fertility of these patients, approaches to prevent chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure are needed. In a previous study, we reported that melatonin treatment prevents the depletion of the dormant follicle pool via repression of the simultaneous activation of dormant primordial follicles by cisplatin. However, melatonin's protective effect was only partial and thus insufficient. In this study, we found that the hormone ghrelin enhances the protective effect of melatonin against cisplatin-induced ovarian failure in mouse model...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656712/uterine-tumour-resembling-ovarian-sex-cord-tumour-utrosct-first-report-of-a-large-series-with-follow-up
#13
Michelle Moore, W Glenn McCluggage
AIMS: Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour (UTROSCT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis. While it is considered a neoplasm of uncertain but low malignant potential, there is limited evidence for this since there are no large studies with follow-up. We aimed to determine the clinical behaviour of this uncommon neoplasm and investigate clinicopathological parameters which predict behaviour. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a series of 34 cases of UTROSCT, mainly from consultation practice, we obtained follow-up information which was obtained by contacting referring pathologists and clinicians...
June 28, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653334/vector-competence-of-malaysian-aedes-albopictus-with-and-without-wolbachia-to-four-dengue-virus-serotypes
#14
Sylvia Joanne, Indra Vythilingam, Boon-Teong Teoh, Cherng-Shii Leong, Kim-Kee Tan, Meng-Li Wong, Nava Yugavathy, Sazaly AbuBakar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus with and without Wolbachia to the four dengue virus serotypes. METHODS: Two newly colonised colonies of Ae. albopictus from the wild were used for the study. One colony was naturally infected with Wolbachia while in the other Wolbachia was removed by tetracycline treatment. Both colonies were orally infected with dengue virus-infected fresh blood meal. Dengue virus load was measured using quantitative RT-PCR at four time intervals in the salivary glands, midguts and ovaries...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646699/insulin-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Dario Rahelić, Mirjana Doknić
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645781/immunomodulatory-mechanism-of-bushen-huoxue-recipe-alleviates-cyclophosphamide-induced-diminished-ovarian-reserve-in-mouse-model
#16
Cong Huang, Kunkun Song, Wenwen Ma, Jiahui Ding, Zhuo Chen, Mingmin Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bushen Huoxue recipe (BHR) is a Chinese herbal prescription composed of ten herbs and it is widely used for the treatment of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR). This study investigates the potentially beneficial effects and underlying mechanism of BHR on a cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced model of DOR in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Granules of BHR were first subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine the exact ingredients within the mixture...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643569/iron-overload-directly-affecting-the-ovaries-in-a-patient-with-diamond-blackfan-anaemia-a-case-report
#17
Mariano Mascarenhas, Victoria Rawnsley, Adam Balen
Iron is a 'one-way' element and the primary point of regulation of body iron stores is at the level of intestinal iron absorption. Repeated blood transfusions for congenital anaemias bypass this regulatory checkpoint and inevitably lead to iron overload in the long-term. Iron overload causes multi-organ dysfunction of the heart, liver, pancreas and joints. It also causes reproductive toxicity primarily through its damaging effect on the anterior pituitary leading to hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Another less understood mechanism of reproductive toxicity is direct gonadal damage of excess free iron...
June 23, 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640938/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review-of-clinical-interactions-and-underlying-pathophysiology
#18
REVIEW
Hassan Kahal, Ioannis Kyrou, Abd A Tahrani, Harpal S Randeva
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with multiple co-morbidities including, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, as well as mood disorders and impaired quality of life (QoL). Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is also a common medical condition that is often undiagnosed, particularly in women. OSA is associated with a similar spectrum of comorbidities to that observed in PCOS, including manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and impaired QoL, whilst obesity frequently constitutes a common denominator in the pathophysiology of both OSA and PCOS...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639397/ovarian-polarity-and-cell-shape-determination-by-btk29a-in-drosophila
#19
Noriko Hamada-Kawaguchi, Daisuke Yamamoto
Drosophila Btk29A is a Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, the ortholog of which causes X-linked agammagluburinemia in humans when mutant. In Btk29A(ficP) mutant ovaries, multiple defects are observed: extra polar cells form ectopically; osk mRNA fails to accumulate posteriorly in mature oocytes; the shape and alignment of follicle cells are grossly distorted. All these phenotypes are rescued by selectively overexpressing the type 2 isoform of wild-type Btk29A in follicle cells. Expression of certain proteins enriched in adherens junctions is markedly affected in Btk29A(ficP) mutants; the anterior-posterior gradient normally observed in the expression of DE-Cadherin and Armadillo are lost and Canoe is sequestered from adherens junctions...
June 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634792/impairments-of-cadmium-on-vitellogenin-accumulation-in-the-hepatopancreas-of-freshwater-crab-sinopotamon-henanense
#20
Jian Yang, Hui Sun, Yu Qian, Jie Yang
During ovary maturation of crabs, vitellogenin (Vg), a precursor molecule of vitellin (Vn) needed for embryogenesis, can be produced in large quantities in the hepatopancreas and then transported to the ovary by the hemolymph. In the present study, effects of Cd on Vg accumulation in the hepatopancreas and Vg transportation of the freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense were investigated. We also studied the impacts of Cd on the mRNA expression of genes involved in energy metabolism, protein metabolism, and metallothionein (MT) and glutathione (GSH) synthesis...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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