Read by QxMD icon Read


In Young Yoo, Kyunghoon Lee, Ok Ja Ji, Hye In Woo, Soo Youn Lee
Measurement of thiopurine metabolites is helpful to monitor adverse effects and assess compliance in patients on thiopurine treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for measurement of thiopurine metabolites, thioguanine nucleotides (6-TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN), in RBCs. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 6-TGN and 6-MMPN and evaluated the stability of the thiopurine metabolites in RBC and whole blood states without any preprocessing at various storage conditions...
May 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Xindi Li, Shenghui Mei, Xiaoqing Gong, Heng Zhou, Li Yang, Anna Zhou, Yonghong Liu, Xingang Li, Zhigang Zhao, Xinghu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are demyelinating autoimmune diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) that are characterized by a high relapse rate and the presence of anti-aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) in the serum. Azathioprine (AZA) is a first-line immunomodulatory drug that is widely used for the treatment of patients with NMOSD. However, the efficacy and safety of AZA vary in different individuals. METHOD: Thirty-two patients with NMOSD who regularly took AZA were enrolled in the study at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University...
July 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
Nicole M Giamanco, Bethany S Cunningham, Laura S Klein, Dina S Parekh, Anne B Warwick, Kenneth Lieuw
6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is the mainstay of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. It is metabolized into the pharmacologically active, 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN), and 6-methyl mercaptopurine nucleotides (6-MMPN), which is associated with hepatotoxicity that jeopardizes antileukemic therapy. Allopurinol alters the metabolism of 6-MP to increase 6-TGN levels and decreases 6-methyl mercaptopurine nucleotides levels. We report 2 cases in which combination therapy of allopurinol with 6-MP was used successfully to avoid hepatotoxicity while delivering adequate 6-TGN levels...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Laurent Chouchana, Celine Narjoz, Denis Roche, Jean-Louis Golmard, Brigitte Pineau, Gilles Chatellier, Philippe Beaune, Marie-Anne Loriot
BACKGROUND & AIMS: TPMT activity and metabolite determination (6-thioguanine nucleotides [6-TGN] and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides [6-MMPN]) remain controversial during thiopurine management. This study assessed associations between patient characteristics and TPMT activity, and their impact on metabolite levels. PATIENTS & METHODS: A retrospective review of the laboratory database from a French university hospital identified 7360 patients referred for TPMT phenotype/genotype determination, and/or for 6-TGN/6-MMPN monitoring...
April 2014: Pharmacogenomics
Julienne Brackett, Eric S Schafer, Daniel H Leung, M Brooke Bernhardt
Mercaptopurine (6-MP), a critical component of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy, is metabolized to 6-thioguanine (6-TGN) which is responsible for its anti-leukemic effect, and to 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-MMPN/6-MMP) which can be hepatotoxic. Some patients preferentially metabolize 6-MP to 6-MMPN which may increase the risk of liver injury, reduce serum levels of 6-TGN and potentially increase the risk of relapse. The addition of allopurinol to oral 6-MP has been shown to optimize metabolism towards 6-TGN in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, this use has not been reported in patients undergoing treatment for ALL...
June 2014: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Tiphaine Adam de Beaumais, May Fakhoury, Yves Medard, Said Azougagh, Daolun Zhang, Karima Yakouben, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain
AIMS: 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Its red blood cell (RBC) metabolite concentrations (6-thioguanine [6-TGN] and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides [6-MMPN]) are related to drug response. We investigated the impact of non-genetic covariates and pharmacogenetic polymorphisms affecting thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPA) on 6-MP metabolism and response. METHODS: Sixty-six children with ALL treated according to EORTC 58951 protocol were included in this study...
April 2011: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Sharon J Gardiner, Richard B Gearry, Michael J Burt, Teresa Chalmers-Watson, Bruce A Chapman, Alison G Ross, Catherine A M Stedman, Alexander Huelsen, Murray L Barclay
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Allopurinol potentiates azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) by increasing 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) metabolite concentrations. The outcome might also be improved by adding allopurinol in individuals who preferentially produce 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-MMPN), rather than 6-TGN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of allopurinol on concentrations of 6-MMPN and 6-TGN in individuals with a high ratio of these metabolites (>20), which is indicative of a poor thiopurine response...
January 2011: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sharon J Gardiner, Richard B Gearry, Michael J Burt, Steven L Ding, Murray L Barclay
Azathioprine and its initial metabolite, 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), are associated with high rates of treatment cessation due to toxicity or inadequate response. Individualization of thiopurine dose based on concentrations of the active 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) metabolites can help improve outcomes with this class. Some individuals, however, preferentially metabolize thiopurine drugs to the potentially hepatotoxic 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN) metabolites rather than the 6-TGNs. For these patients, escalation in thiopurine dose is not likely to increase 6-TGN concentrations sufficiently but may lead to a disproportionate increase in exposure to the 6-MMPNs...
December 2008: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kevin A Hommel, Christine M Davis, Robert N Baldassano
BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the prevalence and frequency of oral medication nonadherence using a multimethod assessment approach consisting of objective, subjective, and biological data in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Medication adherence was assessed via pill counts, patient/parent interview, and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN)/6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN) metabolite bioassay in 42 adolescents with IBD...
April 2009: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
T N Witte, A L Ginsberg
BACKGROUND: At least one-third of patients with inflammatory bowel disease do not respond or are intolerant to therapy with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). A subgroup fails to attain optimal levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and instead shunts to 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotide (6-MMPN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted, and four patients are described who had been previously unable to achieve optimal 6-TGN metabolite levels until allopurinol was added to their treatment...
February 2008: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Journal Canadien de Gastroenterologie
Sharon J Gardiner, Richard B Gearry, Rebecca L Roberts, Mei Zhang, Murray L Barclay, Evan J Begg
AIMS: To determine infant exposure to 6-thioguanine and 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-TGN and 6-MMPN, respectively) during maternal use of azathioprine in breastfeeding. METHODS: Mother-infant pairs provided blood for determination of 6-TGN and 6-MMPN concentrations, and TPMT genotype. RESULTS: Four women taking azathioprine 1.2-2.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and their infants were studied. All had the wild-type TPMT genotype. Maternal 6-TGN and 6-MMPN concentrations ranged from 234 to 291 and 284 to 1178 pmol per 8 x 10(8) red blood cells, respectively, and were consistent with those associated with improved therapeutic outcomes...
October 2006: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"