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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799847/the-willingness-of-people-who-inject-drugs-in-boston-to-use-a-supervised-injection-facility
#1
Casey León, Lena Cardoso, Sarah Mackin, Barry Bock, Jessie M Gaeta
BACKGROUND: In Massachusetts, the number of opioid-related deaths has increased 350% since 2000. In the setting of increasing overdose deaths, one potential intervention is Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs). This study explores willingness of people who inject drugs in Boston to use a SIF and examines factors associated with willingness. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 237 people who inject drugs and utilize Boston's needle exchange program (NEP)...
August 11, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776253/adolescent-health-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#2
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: The 22 countries of the East Mediterranean Region (EMR) have large populations of adolescents aged 10-24 years. These adolescents are central to assuring the health, development, and peace of this region. We described their health needs. METHODS: Using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we report the leading causes of mortality and morbidity for adolescents in the EMR from 1990 to 2015. We also report the prevalence of key health risk behaviors and determinants...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776251/intentional-injuries-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#3
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: We used GBD 2015 findings to measure the burden of intentional injuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study defines intentional injuries as a combination of self-harm (including suicide), interpersonal violence, collective violence (war), and legal intervention. We estimated number of deaths, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for each type of intentional injuries...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763451/effectiveness-of-a-stepped-care-intervention-to-prevent-major-depression-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-or-coronary-heart-disease-and-subthreshold-depression-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Alide D Pols, Susan E van Dijk, Judith E Bosmans, Trynke Hoekstra, Harm W J van Marwijk, Maurits W van Tulder, Marcel C Adriaanse
PURPOSE: Given the public health significance of poorly treatable co-morbid major depressive disorders (MDD) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and coronary heart disease (CHD), we need to investigate whether strategies to prevent the development of major depression could reduce its burden of disease. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of a stepped-care program for subthreshold depression in comparison with usual care in patients with DM2 and/or CHD. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial, with 27 primary care centers serving as clusters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748484/assessing-for-suicidal-behavior-in-youth-using-the-achenbach-system-of-empirically-based-assessment
#5
Anna R Van Meter, Guillermo Perez Algorta, Eric A Youngstrom, Yana Lechtman, Jen K Youngstrom, Norah C Feeny, Robert L Findling
This study investigated the clinical utility of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) for identifying youth at risk for suicide. Specifically, we investigated how well the Total Problems scores and the sum of two suicide-related items (#18 "Deliberately harms self or attempts suicide" and #91 "Talks about killing self") were able to distinguish youth with a history of suicidal behavior. Youth (N = 1117) aged 5-18 were recruited for two studies of mental illness. History of suicidal behavior was assessed by semi-structured interviews (K-SADS) with youth and caregivers...
July 26, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675938/self-harm-hospitalised-morbidity-and-mortality-risk-using-a-matched-population-based-cohort-design
#6
Rebecca J Mitchell, Cate M Cameron
OBJECTIVE: Prior and repeated self-harm hospitalisations are common risk factors for suicide. However, few studies have accounted for pre-existing comorbidities and prior hospital use when quantifying the burden of self-harm. The aim is to quantify hospitalisation in the 12 months preceding and re-hospitalisation and mortality risk in the 12 months post a self-harm hospitalisation. METHOD: A population-based matched cohort using linked hospital and mortality data for individuals ⩾18 years from four Australian jurisdictions...
July 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666347/a-contemporary-picture-of-the-burden-of-death-and-disability-in-indian-adolescents-data-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study
#7
Rohina Joshi, Mohammed Alim, Pallab K Maulik, Robyn Norton
Background: Adolescents (10-19 years old) comprise a fifth of the Indian population (253.2 million), yet there is very little published information about the burden of disease and injury for this age group. This paper aims to provide a contemporary picture of the leading causes of death and disability for Indian adolescent girls and boys for 2013, and changes in deaths and disability between 1990 and 2013. Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study for India, for the years 1990 and 2013, were accessed...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658379/mortality-and-years-of-life-lost-by-interpersonal-violence-and-self-harm-in-brazil-and-brazilian-states-analysis-of-the-estimates-of-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-1990-and-2015
#8
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo, Adauto Martins Soares, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro, Roberto Marini Ladeira, Otaliba Libanio de Morais, Ana Paula Melo, Meghan Mooney, Mohsen Naghavi
Objective: To analyze mortality and years of life lost due to death or disability (disability-adjusted life years - DALYs) for interpersonal violence and self-harm, comparing 1990 and 2015, in Brazil and Federated Units, using estimates produced by the Global Burden of Disease 2015 (GBD 2015). Methods: Secondary data analysis of estimates from the GBD 2015, producing standardized death rates and years of life lost due to death or disability. The main source of death data was the Mortality Information System, submitted to correction of underreporting of deaths and redistribution of garbage codes...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652712/medication-related-issues-associated-with-adherence-to-long-term-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-for-controlling-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-a-qualitative-study
#9
Bee Kim Tan, Seng Beng Tan, Li-Chia Chen, Kian Meng Chang, Siew Siang Chua, Sharmini Balashanker, Habiba Nazeera Begum Kamarul Jaman, Syed Carlo Edmund, Ping Chong Bee
PURPOSE: Poor adherence to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) could compromise the control of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and contributes to poorer survival. Little is known about how medication-related issues affect CML patients' adherence to TKI therapy in Malaysia. This qualitative study aimed to explore these issues. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individual face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted at the hematology outpatient clinics of two medical centers in Malaysia from August 2015 to January 2016...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647744/effectiveness-of-supported-self-help-in-recurrent-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-primary-care
#10
Karolien E M Biesheuvel-Leliefeld, Sandra M A Dijkstra-Kersten, Digna J F van Schaik, Harm W J van Marwijk, Filip Smit, Henriette E van der Horst, Claudi L H Bockting
BACKGROUND: The burden and economic consequences of depression are high, mostly due to its recurrent nature. Due to current budget and time restraints, a preventive, low- cost, accessible minimal intervention is much needed. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a supported self-help preventive cognitive therapy (S-PCT) added to treatment as usual (TAU) in primary care, compared to TAU alone. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 248 patients with a history of depression, currently in full or partial remission or recovery...
2017: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636575/the-temperament-and-character-traits-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-bipolar-affective-disorder-with-and-without-suicide-attempt
#11
Anamarija Petek Erić, Ivan Erić, Mario Ćurković, Katarina Dodig-Ćurković, Kristina Kralik, Vlatka Kovač, Pavo Filaković
BACKGROUND: Suicide and mood disorders (especially major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BD)) represent a significant global health burden. Major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder have been associated with increased risk for suicide. Some specific suicide risk factors might be found in underlying individual personality traits. Specific personality features may predispose an individual to mood disorders (MDD or BD) hence increased suicide risk...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629356/lifestyle-and-income-related-inequality-in-health-in-south-africa
#12
Alfred Kechia Mukong, Corne Van Walbeek, Hana Ross
BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries are experiencing an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. This has negative consequences for their human capital development, and imposes a growing economic burden on their societies. While the prevalence of such diseases varies with socioeconomic status, the inequalities can be exacerbated by adopted lifestyles of individuals. Evidence suggests that lifestyle factors may explain the income-related inequality in self-reported health...
June 19, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617263/vaccine-hesitancy-parental-professional-and-public-responsibility
#13
Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Andrea Poscia, Adele Anna Teleman, Davide Maged, Walter Ricciardi
The opposition to vaccinations is a well-known phenomenon that dates back to the Victorian age when it was self-limited by the awareness of the importance to be protected against fearsome infectious diseases. In the XX century, the mass use of vaccination has - instead - consented to eradicate or drastically reduce the burden of diseases such as smallpox and polio. These positive effects of the vaccination campaigns have blurred out, if not erased, the memory of the tragic consequences of the past's widespread diseases, leading people to underestimate the severity of the harm that vaccinations prevent...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615953/characteristics-of-pesticide-poisoning-in-rural-and-urban-settings-in-uganda
#14
REVIEW
Bastian Pedersen, Charles Ssemugabo, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516826/fatalities-from-firearm-related-injuries-in-selected-governorates-of-iraq-2010-2013
#15
Maximilian P Nerlander, Eva Leidman, Ahmed Hassan, Abdul-Salam Saleh Sultan, Syed Jaffar Hussain, Lauren B Browne, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: In Iraq, where Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other groups have contributed to escalating violence in recent years, understanding the epidemiology of intentional firearm-related fatalities is essential for public health action. METHODS: The Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH; Baghdad, Iraq) compiles surveillance of fatal injuries in eight of Iraq's 18 governorates (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya)...
May 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454831/rationale-and-design-of-the-medication-adherence-improvement-support-app-for-engagement-blood-pressure-medisafe-bp-trial
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kyle Morawski, Roya Ghazinouri, Alexis Krumme, Julianne McDonough, Erin Durfee, Leslie Oley, Namita Mohta, Jessie Juusola, Niteesh K Choudhry
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major contributor to the health and economic burden imposed by stroke, heart disease, and renal insufficiency. Antihypertensives can prevent many of the harmful effects of elevated blood pressure, but medication nonadherence is a known barrier to the effectiveness of these treatments. Smartphone-based applications that remind patients to take their medications, provide education, and allow for social interactions between individuals with similar health concerns have been widely advocated as a strategy to improve adherence but have not been subject to rigorous testing...
April 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404528/alcohol-and-healthy-ageing-a-challenge-for-alcohol-policy
#17
D Nicholson, F McCormack, P Seaman, K Bell, T Duffy, M Gilhooly
OBJECTIVES: This paper presents findings of a qualitative study of older people's use of alcohol during retirement and identifies ways that an improved understanding of older people's drinking can inform policy approaches to alcohol and active and healthy ageing. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with a self-selecting sample of retired people. METHODS: Participants were recruited from three geographical locations in the West of Scotland...
July 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404116/evidence-of-reducing-ethanol-content-in-beverages-to-reduce-harmful-use-of-alcohol
#18
Jürgen Rehm, Dirk W Lachenmeier, Eva Jané Llopis, Sameer Imtiaz, Peter Anderson
Alcohol use is a major contributor to the burden of gastrointestinal disease. WHO's global strategy to reduce harmful use of alcohol encourages the alcohol industry to contribute to this effort. However, evidence that alcohol producers have contributed to the reduction of harmful use of alcohol is scarce. Reduction of alcoholic strength of beer has been proposed and initiated as one potential way forward. We examine the evidence base for the success of such an initiative. Direct evidence from natural experiments or other controlled studies is scarce...
September 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346379/the-economic-cost-of-suicide-and-non-fatal-suicide-behavior-in-the-australian-workforce-and-the-potential-impact-of-a-workplace-suicide-prevention-strategy
#19
Irina Kinchin, Christopher M Doran
Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154003/ethics-of-a-relaxed-antidoping-rule-accompanied-by-harm-reduction-measures
#20
Bengt Kayser, Jan Tolleneer
Harm-reduction approaches are used to reduce the burden of risky human behaviour without necessarily aiming to stop the behaviour. We discuss what an introduction of harm reduction for doping in sports would mean in parallel with a relaxation of the antidoping rule. We analyse what is ethically at stake in the following five levels: (1) What would it mean for the athlete (the self)? (2) How would it impact other athletes (the other)? (3) How would it affect the phenomenon of sport as a game and its fair play basis (the play)? (4) What would be the consequences for the spectator and the role of sports in society (the display)? and (5) What would it mean for what some consider as essential to being human (humanity)? For each level, we present arguments for and against doping and then discuss what a harm-reduction approach, within a dynamic regime of a partially relaxed antidoping rule, could imply...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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