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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629356/lifestyle-and-income-related-inequality-in-health-in-south-africa
#1
Alfred Kechia Mukong, Corne Van Walbeek, Hana Ross
BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries are experiencing an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. This has negative consequences for their human capital development, and imposes a growing economic burden on their societies. While the prevalence of such diseases varies with socioeconomic status, the inequalities can be exacerbated by adopted lifestyles of individuals. Evidence suggests that lifestyle factors may explain the income-related inequality in self-reported health...
June 19, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617263/vaccine-hesitancy-parental-professional-and-public-responsibility
#2
Maria Luisa Di Pietro, Andrea Poscia, Adele Anna Teleman, Davide Maged, Walter Ricciardi
The opposition to vaccinations is a well-known phenomenon that dates back to the Victorian age when it was self-limited by the awareness of the importance to be protected against fearsome infectious diseases. In the XX century, the mass use of vaccination has - instead - consented to eradicate or drastically reduce the burden of diseases such as smallpox and polio. These positive effects of the vaccination campaigns have blurred out, if not erased, the memory of the tragic consequences of the past's widespread diseases, leading people to underestimate the severity of the harm that vaccinations prevent...
April 2017: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615953/characteristics-of-pesticide-poisoning-in-rural-and-urban-settings-in-uganda
#3
REVIEW
Bastian Pedersen, Charles Ssemugabo, Victoria Nabankema, Erik Jørs
Pesticide poisoning is a significant burden on health care systems in many low-income countries. This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516826/fatalities-from-firearm-related-injuries-in-selected-governorates-of-iraq-2010-2013
#4
Maximilian P Nerlander, Eva Leidman, Ahmed Hassan, Abdul-Salam Saleh Sultan, Syed Jaffar Hussain, Lauren B Browne, Oleg O Bilukha
BACKGROUND: In Iraq, where Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other groups have contributed to escalating violence in recent years, understanding the epidemiology of intentional firearm-related fatalities is essential for public health action. METHODS: The Iraqi Ministry of Health (MoH; Baghdad, Iraq) compiles surveillance of fatal injuries in eight of Iraq's 18 governorates (Baghdad, Al-Anbar, Basrah, Erbil, Kerbala, Maysan, Ninevah, and Al-Sulaimaniya)...
May 18, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454831/rationale-and-design-of-the-medication-adherence-improvement-support-app-for-engagement-blood-pressure-medisafe-bp-trial
#5
Kyle Morawski, Roya Ghazinouri, Alexis Krumme, Julianne McDonough, Erin Durfee, Leslie Oley, Namita Mohta, Jessie Juusola, Niteesh K Choudhry
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major contributor to the health and economic burden imposed by stroke, heart disease, and renal insufficiency. Antihypertensives can prevent many of the harmful effects of elevated blood pressure, but medication nonadherence is a known barrier to the effectiveness of these treatments. Smartphone-based applications that remind patients to take their medications, provide education, and allow for social interactions between individuals with similar health concerns have been widely advocated as a strategy to improve adherence but have not been subject to rigorous testing...
April 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404528/alcohol-and-healthy-ageing-a-challenge-for-alcohol-policy
#6
D Nicholson, F McCormack, P Seaman, K Bell, T Duffy, M Gilhooly
OBJECTIVES: This paper presents findings of a qualitative study of older people's use of alcohol during retirement and identifies ways that an improved understanding of older people's drinking can inform policy approaches to alcohol and active and healthy ageing. STUDY DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with a self-selecting sample of retired people. METHODS: Participants were recruited from three geographical locations in the West of Scotland...
July 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404116/evidence-of-reducing-ethanol-content-in-beverages-to-reduce-harmful-use-of-alcohol
#7
Jürgen Rehm, Dirk W Lachenmeier, Eva Jané Llopis, Sameer Imtiaz, Peter Anderson
Alcohol use is a major contributor to the burden of gastrointestinal disease. WHO's global strategy to reduce harmful use of alcohol encourages the alcohol industry to contribute to this effort. However, evidence that alcohol producers have contributed to the reduction of harmful use of alcohol is scarce. Reduction of alcoholic strength of beer has been proposed and initiated as one potential way forward. We examine the evidence base for the success of such an initiative. Direct evidence from natural experiments or other controlled studies is scarce...
September 2016: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346379/the-economic-cost-of-suicide-and-non-fatal-suicide-behavior-in-the-australian-workforce-and-the-potential-impact-of-a-workplace-suicide-prevention-strategy
#8
Irina Kinchin, Christopher M Doran
Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154003/ethics-of-a-relaxed-antidoping-rule-accompanied-by-harm-reduction-measures
#9
Bengt Kayser, Jan Tolleneer
Harm-reduction approaches are used to reduce the burden of risky human behaviour without necessarily aiming to stop the behaviour. We discuss what an introduction of harm reduction for doping in sports would mean in parallel with a relaxation of the antidoping rule. We analyse what is ethically at stake in the following five levels: (1) What would it mean for the athlete (the self)? (2) How would it impact other athletes (the other)? (3) How would it affect the phenomenon of sport as a game and its fair play basis (the play)? (4) What would be the consequences for the spectator and the role of sports in society (the display)? and (5) What would it mean for what some consider as essential to being human (humanity)? For each level, we present arguments for and against doping and then discuss what a harm-reduction approach, within a dynamic regime of a partially relaxed antidoping rule, could imply...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998922/measuring-time-spent-caring-for-drinkers-and%C3%A2-their-dependents
#10
Heng Jiang, Sarah Callinan, Anne-Marie Laslett, Robin Room
AIMS: To quantify the extent of time spent by family and friends caring for drinkers and their dependents, to estimate the cost of this time and to measure which factors predict time spent caring. METHODS: Data are from a nationwide Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey of 2649 Australians, in which 778 respondents reported they were harmed by a known drinker. Time spent on four caring activities was self-reported by these respondents and tallied to estimate how many hours they spent caring for the drinker, the drinker's children or other dependents...
January 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968886/recreational-drug-use-among-chinese-msm-results-from-a-national-wide-cross-sectional-study
#11
Peizhen Zhao, Songyuan Tang, Cheng Wang, Ye Zhang, John Best, Shujie Huang, Bin Yang, Chongyi Wei, Weiming Tang, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, recreational drug use has considerably increased among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). This increase has a great potential to worsen the scenario of the heavy burden of HIV among Chinese MSM. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use, and to explore the association between poppers use and testing history for HIV or STIs, gay app use, and other sexual behaviours. METHODS: We recruited MSM who were born male and were aged 16 years or older through a nation-wide online survey in 2014...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959996/us-county-level-trends-in-mortality-rates-for-major-causes-of-death-1980-2014
#12
Laura Dwyer-Lindgren, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Rebecca W Stubbs, Chloe Morozoff, Michael J Kutz, Chantal Huynh, Ryan M Barber, Katya A Shackelford, Johan P Mackenbach, Frank J van Lenthe, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali H Mokdad, Christopher J L Murray
Importance: County-level patterns in mortality rates by cause have not been systematically described but are potentially useful for public health officials, clinicians, and researchers seeking to improve health and reduce geographic disparities. Objectives: To demonstrate the use of a novel method for county-level estimation and to estimate annual mortality rates by US county for 21 mutually exclusive causes of death from 1980 through 2014. Design, Setting, and Participants: Redistribution methods for garbage codes (implausible or insufficiently specific cause of death codes) and small area estimation methods (statistical methods for estimating rates in small subpopulations) were applied to death registration data from the National Vital Statistics System to estimate annual county-level mortality rates for 21 causes of death...
December 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927264/factors-influencing-the-intentions-of-nurses-and-respiratory-therapists-to-use-automated-external-defibrillators-during-in-hospital-cardiac-arrest-a-qualitative-interview-study
#13
Jessica Andrews, Christian Vaillancourt, Jan Jensen, Ann Kasaboski, Manya Charette, Catherine M Clement, Jamie C Brehaut, Martin H Osmond, George A Wells, Ian G Stiell, Jeremy Grimshaw
OBJECTIVES: Nurses and respiratory therapists are seldom allowed to use automated external defibrillators (AED) during in-hospital cardiac arrest. This can result in significant time delays before defibrillation occurs and lower survival for cardiac arrest victims. We sought to identify barriers and facilitators to AED use by nurses and respiratory therapists. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample of nurses and respiratory therapists...
December 8, 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835033/travel-distance-to-prenatal-care-and-high-blood-pressure-during-pregnancy
#14
Lu Shi, Kara E MacLeod, Donglan Zhang, Fan Wang, Margaret Shin Chao
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether poor geographic accessibility to prenatal care, as indicated by long distance trips to prenatal care, produced high blood pressure (HPB) during pregnancy. METHODS: Using the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Study for women without hypertension prior to pregnancy (n = 3405), we compared self-reported HBP by travel distance to prenatal care controlling for age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, household income, weight status, and physical activity...
November 11, 2016: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785734/development-and-validation-of-the-revised-patients-attitudes-towards-deprescribing-rpatd-questionnaire-versions-for-older-adults-and-caregivers
#15
Emily Reeve, Lee-Fay Low, Sepehr Shakib, Sarah N Hilmer
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of consumer (patient and caregiver) attitudes is essential for conducting medication optimization in practice. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to capture older adults' and caregivers' beliefs and attitudes towards deprescribing. METHODS: The previously validated Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing (PATD) questionnaire was expanded based on literature review, expert opinion and focus groups, and a caregivers' version was developed...
December 2016: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775258/disability-adjusted-life-years-dalys-for-injuries-using-death-certificates-and-hospital-discharge-survey-by-the-korean-burden-of-disease-study-2012
#16
Won Kyung Lee, Dohee Lim, Hyesook Park
A system for assessing the burdens imposed by disease and injury was developed to meet healthcare, priority setting, and policy planning needs. The first such system, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), was implemented in 1990. However, problems associated with limited data and assumed disability weightings remain to be resolved. The purpose of the present study was to estimate national burdens of injuries in Korea using more reliable data and disability weightings. The incidences of injuries were estimated using the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey and the mortality data from the Korean National Statistical Office in 2010...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775252/disability-adjusted-life-years-for-313-diseases-and-injuries-the-2012-korean-burden-of-disease-study
#17
Jihyun Yoon, In Hwan Oh, Hyeyoung Seo, Eun Jung Kim, Young Hoon Gong, Minsu Ock, Dohee Lim, Won Kyung Lee, Ye Rin Lee, Dongwoo Kim, Min Woo Jo, Hyesook Park, Seok Jun Yoon
This study is part of a 5-year research project on the national burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in Korea. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a metric introduced by the 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project, we performed a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the magnitude and distribution of both fatal and non-fatal health problems in the Korean population. The concept and general approach were consistent with the original GBD study, with some methodological modifications to make the study more suitable for Korea...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775249/application-of-a-modified-garbage-code-algorithm-to-estimate-cause-specific-mortality-and-years-of-life-lost-in-korea
#18
Ye Rin Lee, Young Ae Kim, So Youn Park, Chang Mo Oh, Young Eun Kim, In Hwan Oh
Years of life lost (YLLs) are estimated based on mortality and cause of death (CoD); therefore, it is necessary to accurately calculate CoD to estimate the burden of disease. The garbage code algorithm was developed by the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study to redistribute inaccurate CoD and enhance the validity of CoD estimation. This study aimed to estimate cause-specific mortality rates and YLLs in Korea by applying a modified garbage code algorithm. CoD data for 2010-2012 were used to calculate the number of deaths...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733061/temperament-and-character-profiles-of-group-based-suicide-cases
#19
Monique Séguin, Marie Robert, Guy Beauchamp
BACKGROUND: Personality and character traits may be a key predisposing factor to consider in the life course of people who are vulnerable to suicide. AIMS: The aim of this study is first to explore the possible presence of different subgroups of suicide decedents based on developmental profiles of adversity, and secondly to examine the association of personality and character dimensions (covariates) with the trajectory outcome. METHOD: A total of 90 cases of suicide decedents were analyzed using growth mixture modeling (GMM)...
October 12, 2016: Crisis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703104/-ethical-legal-and-social-issues-elsi-in-gambling-disorder-and-its-treatment
#20
Nariakira Moriyama
Recently, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare estimated the prevalence rate of gambling disorder to be 4.8 percent of the population. This rate is outstandingly higher than other countries with prevalence rates between 0.25 and 2.0 percent. It is also estimated that no fewer than 5 million Japanese suffer from the disease. In the last two years, 100 new patients visited the author's clinic. On an average, they started gambling at the age of 19.7 years, and incurring debt at the age of 25.8 years. They first visited the clinic at an average age of 38...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
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