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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911420/-role-of-immunological-factors-in-the-development-of-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#1
A G Shchuko, N V Zaitseva, T N Yur'eva, E R Chernykh, I M Mikhalevich, A V Grigor'eva
AIM: To study the concentration of cytokines in the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber in patients with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) and to compare the results to their ophthalmic status. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 19 patients (19 eyes) with mCNV treated with intravitreal ranibizumab were included in the study. The control group consisted of 15 patients (15 eyes) with myopia who had cataract surgery. Age, sex, and refractive error distribution were similar to that in the study group...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#2
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911384/analysis-of-scap-n-glycosylation-and-trafficking-in-human-cells
#3
Chunming Cheng, Jeffrey Yunhua Guo, Feng Geng, Xiaoning Wu, Xiang Cheng, Qiyue Li, Deliang Guo
Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911371/development-of-stem-cell-derived-antigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells-against-autoimmunity
#4
Mohammad Haque, Kristin Fino, Praneet Sandhu, Jianxun Song
Autoimmune diseases arise due to the loss of immunological self-tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important mediators of immunologic self-tolerance. Tregs represent about 5 - 10% of the mature CD4(+) T cell subpopulation in mice and humans, with about 1 - 2% of those Tregs circulating in the peripheral blood. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be differentiated into functional Tregs, which have a potential to be used for cell-based therapies of autoimmune diseases. Here, we present a method to develop antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from iPSCs (i...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911363/generation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-melanoma-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes
#5
Hidehito Saito, Kumiko Iwabuchi, Noemi Fusaki, Fumito Ito
Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate durable and complete responses in significant subsets of patients with metastatic melanoma. Major obstacles of this approach are the reduced viability of transferred T cells, caused by telomere shortening, and the limited number of TILs obtained from patients. Less-differentiated T cells with long telomeres would be an ideal T cell subset for adoptive T cell therapy;however, generating large numbers of these less-differentiated T cells is problematic...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911218/aberrant-t-cell-immunity-triggered-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-infection
#6
Andrea E González, Margarita K Lay, Evelyn L Jara, Janyra A Espinoza, Roberto S Gómez, Jorge Soto, Claudia A Rivera, Katia Abarca, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are the two major etiological viral agents of lower respiratory tract diseases, affecting mainly infants, young children and the elderly. Although the infection of both viruses trigger an antiviral immune response that mediate viral clearance and disease resolution in immunocompetent individuals, the promotion of long-term immunity appears to be deficient and reinfection are common throughout life. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that hRSV and hMPV, can induce aberrant T cell responses, which leads to exacerbated lung inflammation and poor T and B cell memory immunity...
December 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911079/trans-acting-epigenetic-effects-of-chromosomal-aneuploidies-lessons-from-down-syndrome-and-mouse-models
#7
Catherine Do, Zhuo Xing, Y Eugene Yu, Benjamin Tycko
An important line of postgenomic research seeks to understand how genetic factors can influence epigenetic patterning. Here we review epigenetic effects of chromosomal aneuploidies, focusing on findings in Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Recent work in human DS and mouse models has shown that the extra chromosome 21 acts in trans to produce epigenetic changes, including differential CpG methylation (DS-DM), in specific sets of downstream target genes, mostly on other chromosomes. Mechanistic hypotheses emerging from these data include roles of chromosome 21-linked methylation pathway genes (DNMT3L and others) and transcription factor genes (RUNX1, OLIG2, GABPA, ERG and ETS2) in shaping the patterns of DS-DM...
December 2, 2016: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911041/impact-of-rabies-vaccination-history-on-attainment-of-an-adequate-antibody-titre-among-dogs-tested-for-international-travel-certification-israel-2010-2014
#8
B Yakobson, N Taylor, N Dveres, S Rotblat, Ż Spero, E W Lankau, J Maki
Rabies is endemic in wildlife or domestic carnivore populations globally. Infection of domestic dogs is of particular concern in many areas. In regions where domestic animals are at risk of exposure to rabies virus, dogs should be routinely vaccinated against rabies to protect both pet and human populations. Many countries require demonstration of an adequate level of serum rabies neutralizing antibodies to permit entry of dogs during international travel. We analysed rabies titres of dogs seeking travel certification in Israel to assess demographic and vaccine history factors associated with antibody titres below the acceptable threshold for travel certification...
December 2, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911032/a-dermal-equivalent-engineered-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-expressing-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-and-amniotic-membrane-cosmetic-healing-of-full-thickness-skin-wounds-in-rats
#9
Ali Samadikuchaksaraei, Ahmad Mehdipour, Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Kamran As'adi, Fatemeh Amiri, Mozhgan Dehghan Harati, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Nushin Karkuki Osguei
Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3) has been shown to decrease scar formation after scheduled topical applications to the cutaneous wounds. This study aimed to continuously deliver TGF-β3, during the early phase of wound healing, by engineering a dermal equivalent (DE) using TGF-β3 expressing bone marrow stromal cells (BM-SCs) and human dehydrated amniotic membrane (hDAM). To engineer a DE, rat BM-SCs were seeded on the hDAM and TGF-β3 was transiently transfected into the BM-SCs using a plasmid vector...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911005/adsorption-as-a-contributor-for-inflammatory-mediators-removal-by-different-hemofiltration-membranes-a-pilot-study
#10
Benjamin Malard, Nans Florens, Corine Lambert, Laurent Juillard
Atherosclerosis is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with a wide inflammatory response. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro how different membranes can remove mediators associated with this pathology in a closed loop dialysis model. We performed experimental hemofiltration in vitro using three different membrane materials. Human plasma was preliminarily incubated with various inflammatory mediators and filtered in a closed loop circulation model for 240 min...
December 2, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910940/supportive-angiogenic-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-and-endothelial-cells-in-monolayer-and-co-cultures
#11
Florian Böhrnsen, Henning Schliephake
Sites of implantation with compromised biology may be unable to achieve the required level of angiogenic and osteogenic regeneration. The specific function and contribution of different cell types to the formation of prevascularized, osteogenic networks in co-culture remains unclear. To determine how bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) contribute to cellular proangiogenic differentiation, we analysed the differentiation of BMSCs and ECs in standardized monolayer, Transwell and co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910911/human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-program-macrophage-plasticity-by-altering-their-metabolic-status-via-a-pge2-dependent-mechanism
#12
Anoop Babu Vasandan, Sowmya Jahnavi, Chandanala Shashank, Priya Prasad, Anujith Kumar, S Jyothi Prasanna
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, enhanced respiratory burst and potentiated microbicidal responses in naïve macrophages (Mφ). Functional attenuation of inflammatory M1 macrophages was associated with a concomitant shift towards alternatively activated M2 state in MSC-M1 co-cultures...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910749/role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-hepatitis-c-virus-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#13
Usman Ali Ashfaq, Muhammad Sarfaraz Iqbal, Saba Khaliq
Viral infections are rising every day, and viruses appear to be the most dangerous pathogens in the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is accepted as one of the major destructive factors of promoting severe hepatic disorders by infecting more than 180 million individuals throughout the world. Chronic infection caused by HCV poses a serious global health emergency and appears to be a powerful threat to humanity. Almost 20 years have passed since the disclosure of HCV, but even now, treatment preferences remain limited...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910747/effect-of-dietary-fat-on-gene-expression-in-poultry-a-review
#14
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Traditionally, poultry farmers aimed to produce birds with high body weight and feed conversion ratio. However, in line with current developments, there are other traits that must be taken into account as well. These include producing poultry meat with lower body fat content and improving the nutritional quality of the poultry meat to appeal to consumer requirements. The interrelated importance of human diet and health status is an ancient subject. Human foods as a lifestyle factor is involved in the incidence of many types of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910184/clinical-significance-of-pre-transplant-circulating-cd3-cd4-cd161-cell-frequency-on-the-occurrence-of-neutropenic-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
Tae Woo Kim, Sung-Eun Lee, Ji-Young Lim, Da-Bin Ryu, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Hee-Je Kim, Seok Lee, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong Wook Lee, Woo-Sung Min, Chang-Ki Min
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been performed to identify factors that are associated with an increased risk of infections during the neutropenic period in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). The aim of this study was to identify the host immune cells responsible for infections before engraftment. METHODS: A total of 282 patients who underwent allo-SCT were enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were collected before conditioning therapy...
December 2, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910042/direct-cardiac-reprogramming-as-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-treatment-of-myocardial-infarction
#16
Hong Ma, Li Wang, Jiandong Liu, Li Qian
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds great promise as a novel therapy for the treatment of heart failure, a common and morbid disease that is usually caused by irreversible loss of functional cardiomyocytes (CMs). Recently, we and others showed that in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction, delivery of three transcription factors, Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 converted endogenous cardiac fibroblasts into functional iCMs. These iCMs integrated electrically and mechanically with surrounding myocardium, resulting in a reduction in scar size and an improvement in heart function...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909986/toxicity-and-pharmacokinetic-profile-for-single-dose-injection-of-aby-029-a-fluorescent-anti-egfr-synthetic-affibody-molecule-for-human-use
#17
Kimberley S Samkoe, Jason R Gunn, Kayla Marra, Sally M Hull, Karen L Moodie, Joachim Feldwisch, Theresa V Strong, Daniel R Draney, P Jack Hoopes, David W Roberts, Keith Paulsen, Brian W Pogue
PURPOSE: ABY-029, a synthetic Affibody peptide, Z03115-Cys, labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye® 800CW, targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been produced under good manufacturing practices for a US Food and Drug Administration-approved first-in-use human study during surgical resection of glioma, as well as other tumors. Here, the pharmacology, phototoxicity, receptor activity, and biodistribution studies of ABY-029 were completed in rats, prior to the intended human use...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909983/4-4-%C3%A3-resolution-cryo-em-structure-of-human-mtor-complex-1
#18
Huirong Yang, Jia Wang, Mengjie Liu, Xizi Chen, Min Huang, Dan Tan, Meng-Qiu Dong, Catherine C L Wong, Jiawei Wang, Yanhui Xu, Hong-Wei Wang
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) integrates signals from growth factors, cellular energy levels, stress and amino acids to control cell growth and proliferation through regulating translation, autophagy and metabolism. Here we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of human mTORC1 at 4.4 Å resolution. The mTORC1 comprises a dimer of heterotrimer (mTOR-Raptor-mLST8) mediated by the mTOR protein. The complex adopts a hollow rhomboid shape with 2-fold symmetry. Notably, mTORC1 shows intrinsic conformational dynamics...
December 1, 2016: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909955/suppressive-effects-of-dabrafenib%C3%A2-on-endothelial-protein-c-receptor-shedding
#19
Sae-Kwang Ku, Jongdoo Kim, Sang Chan Kim, Jong-Sup Bae
Beyond its role in the activation of protein C, the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway. EPCR can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Dabrafenib (DAB) is a B-Raf inhibitor and initially used for the treatment of metastatic melanoma therapy. However, little is known about the effects of DAB on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of DAB on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-, interleukin (IL)-1β-induced EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding in mice and underlying mechanism...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909893/osteogain%C3%A2-loaded-onto-an-absorbable-collagen-sponge-induces-attachment-and-osteoblast-differentiation-of-st2-cells-in-vitro
#20
Richard J Miron, Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Yufeng Zhang, Anton Sculean, Benjamin Pippenger, Yoshinori Shirakata, Umadevi Kandalam, Maria Hernandez
OBJECTIVES: Dimensional changes of the alveolar bone following tooth extraction are a major challenge in daily dental practice. To limit bone loss, a variety of biomaterials including bone grafts, barrier membranes, and growth factors have been utilized either alone or in combination therapies to increase the speed and quality of new bone formation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the regenerative potential of Osteogain®, a new liquid carrier system of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) in combination with an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) specifically designed for extraction socket healing...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
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